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tion ; Herder's Select Religious Writings; Life of Jean Paul Richter; Jouffroy's Moral Philosophy ; Lyric Poems from Körner, No valis, Uhland, etc.; Schelling on the Philosophy of Art; Selections from Lessing, etc. The series of volumes, if it should be continued, will be composed of the contributions of different translators, entirely independent of each other. It will be devoted to the advocacy of no exclusive opinions, and is designed to include works and authors of the most opposite character, without favor or prejudice. We notice among the writers from whom it is proposed to make translations, the names of Neander, Schleiermacher, Olshausen, and Twesten.

The first two volumes of these Miscellanies contain translations from the miscellaneous, philosophical works of Victor Cousin, Theodore Jouffroy and Benjamin Constant. Introductory and explanatory notes are supplied by the translator. The extracts from Cousin are upon the destiny of modern philosophy, eclecticism, the moral law and liberty, the idea of cause and of the infinite, religion, mys. ticism, stoicism, classification of philosophical questions and schools. M. Cousin was born at Paris, Nov. 28, 1792." In 1810 he entered the Normal school, of which he became the principal after the revolution of 1830. In 1815, he succeeded M. Royer-Collard as professor of philosophy in the faculty of literature in the university of Paris. At the same time, he taught philosophy at the Normal school. In 1817 and 1818 he visited Germany, and, in 1820, the north of Italy. In 1822, the Normal school was suppressed. In 1824, M. Consin, while travelling in Germany, was seized through the influence of the Jesuits and imprisoned for several months. The affair

, however, terminated to his honor and to the shame of his enemies. In 1827, he was reinstated in his office in the university of Paris

. From 1830 to 1835 he published four new volumes of the translation of Plato, a new edition of his own Philosophical Fragments, an edition of the posthumous works of M. Maine de Biran, and a work on the Metaphysics of Aristotle. His Reports on the state of Public Instruction in Prussia are well known in this country. His latest work, 1836, is on Public Instruction in Holland. In 1832, he was made a peer of France.

M. Jouffroy is a pupil and friend of M. Cousin. The extracts from his writings are on common sense, skepticism, history of philosophy, faculties of the human soul, method of philosophical study, eclecticism in morals, good and evil, how dogmas come to an end, the Sorbonne and the philosophers, reflections on the philosophy of history, the influence of Greece in the development of humanity, and the present state of humanity.

The passages from Benjamin Constant's writings are, on the progressive development of religious ideas, the human causes which have contributed to the establishment of Christianity, and the perfectibility of the human race.. M. Constant was born of French parents at Lausanne in Switzerland, in 1767. He expired shortly after the revolution of July, 1830. He is not regarded as ranking in philosophy with Cousin and Jouffroy. All three were, however, united in opposition to the old French school of infidel philosophy, and as ardent friends to freedom of thought and of expression.

ARTICLE VIII.

LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.

United States.

Professor Morse's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph. As this invention is attracting some interest in this country, and as other countries are bestowing much attention upon Electric Telegraphs construct. ed on somewhat similar principles, we have thought it proper, in noticing this invention, to give a few facts and dates to determine who, among all the rival claimants, is entitled to the honor of a discovery which, to use the words of a distinguished statesman, " is to make a new era in the progress of human improvements."

The suggestion of the possibility of conveying intelligence by means of electricity must have occurred many years since, to scientific and ingenious men, both in this and in foreign countries, but no practical method has been devised, until very recently, of putting this possibility to the trial of experiment. We might suppose that Franklin himself would naturally have suggested the idea, but it does not appear that he or any of the philosophers of his day thought of it. It is stated on good autủority that, as early as the year 1800, the idea was suggested by an individual in this country; and Dr. Cox of Philadelphia, in 1816, in a published document, not only avowed his belief in the possibility of conveying intelligence by electricity, but hinted at some means of doing it, and predicted that new discoveries in science would probably accomplish it; yet no invention was made. In Europe, Prof. Oersted of Copenhagen, only a few years since, (we have not before us the precise date), suggested the possibility of an electric Telegraph. Ampére of Paris, and Prof. Barlow of London, about the year 1830, both proclaimed its possibility, but devised no practicable mode. In 1832, Prof. Morse of the University of the city of New York, while returning from France, unconscious, as we are told, that even the thought of sending intelligence by electricity had ever occurred to another, conceived the idea, and devised a mode of carrying it into effect. He invented a system of Vol. XI. No. 30

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signs or characters by which to read, and a mode of permanently recording by electricity. On his arrival he immediately proceeded to have parts of the apparatus made, as it is at present in operation; and but for hindrances, not connected with the invention, would have produced the apparatus complete in 1832. The distinguished Prof. Gauss of Göttingen, about two years since, (1836), invented a mode of communicating intelligence by means of an electric wire, deflecting a magnetic needle, which mode, we learn, he has now in use at Göttingen for about three miles. Prof. Wheatstone of the London University also invented a mode in 1835 or -6, using fire wires or circuits, and has constructed a system of signs by the deflection of magnetic needles.

The general plan of Prof. Morse's Telegraph was first published in April 1837. The first intelligence of Prof, Wheatstone's operations reached this country in May 1837, one month after Prof. Morse's had been before the American public. Prof. Morse's plan embraced, from the beginning in 1832, but one wire or circuit. It is now successfully accomplished by him, and by it he causes a pen permanently to write the characters of his intelligence. He showed the efficiency of his machinery in July and August 1837, and in September following made trial of it for a distance of half a mile. Since that time his new inachinery with ten miles of wire has been constructed and is perfectly satisfactory in its operation. Eminent scientific men in New York, Philadelphia, and Washington have witnessed its performance, approve the plan, and perceive no insurmountable obstacles to its universal application. Whatever therefore may have been previously hinted in regard to the practicability of an Electric Telegraph, it appears that Prof. Morse is the first who has devised an original Telegraph accomplishing its object perfectly. His plan was devised prior to his knowledge of the European inventions of the same name, and accomplishes its object in a totally different mode, more simple, less expensive, and more complete and perinanent. It has been introduced to the consideration of Congress, and we learn, with satisfaction, that, in all probability, the means for an extensive trial of this Telegraph will be furnished. Should its success equal the ex. pectations of most who have examined it, the results of this discovery upon society will be greater than the inagination of the most sanguine can now distinctly conceive.

Mr. O, A. Taylor's Catalogue of the Library of the Andover Theological Seminary, which we have before alluded to, Vol. IX. p. 251, is now completed. It makes a very portable and substantial octavo of 531 pages. It was commenced by Mr. Robinson, late librarian. Mr. Taylor has labored upon it for two years. It is in the alphabetical form. The name of the author is first given, and than all his productions are arranged under it, except that whole works are placed first. A short biographical notice of the author is prefixed. A foundation is laid by the use of certain characters for a systematic Index at some future time. Mr. Taylor has given not only all the

titles of books, pamphlets, etc., but all the important articles in the largest and most valuable works and periodical publications. The number of volumes described is not far from 12,000. Many of them are of great value. A very considerable proportion are in the Latin and German languages connected with biblical and theological studies. The library is deficient in English literature. Mr. Taylor will have the thanks of all the friends of the Seminary and of religion for his labor. It is what few persons will fully appreciate. Industry, perseverance, accurate and extensive bibliographical learning have been lavishly expended. We hope to notice the volume more fully hereafter.

The cause of science has lately met with a very severe loss in the death of Nathaniel Bowditch, LL. D., F. R. S., president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He died in Boston March 16, in the 65th year of his age. His translation of the great work of La Place on Celestial Mechanics, to which he added a commentary and many original notes of his own, has given celebrity to his name throughout the world. His practical works on navigation are of the highest value.

Mr. Marsh's Icelandic Grammar is in the press at Burlington, Vt.-The New York Review is to be hereafter united with the American Quarterly.

Great Britain. Mr. Wilberforce's Life is in the press of Mr. Murray. It will be comprised in four Vols. 8vo., with portraits. It is edited by his sons Rev. Robert I., and Rev. Samuel Wilberforce, The Memoirs are drawn from a journal, in which, during a period of fifty years, Mr. Wilberforce was accustomed to record his private sentiments and his remarks on the incidents of the day. The work will be enriched from his correspondence with his distinguished contemporaries.

Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire with notes by Milman and Guizot is publishing in London in monthly volumes. The original, unmutilated text of Gibbon is given, along with a candid and dispassionate examination of his misstatements on the subject of religion.

Lieutenant Wellsted's Travels in Oman, the Peninsula of Mt. Sinai and along the Shores of the Red Sea are in press in two Vols. 8vo.

A Catalogue of the Irregular Greek Verbs, with all their tenses extant, their formation, meaning and usages, has been translated from Buttmann's Ausfabrliche Sprachlehre, by Mr. Fishlake.

Leonard Horner, F. R. S. has translated M. Cousin's “Present State of Education in Holland, with special reference to the schools for the working classes."

The second and third volumes of Mr. Hallam's " Introduction to the History of Literature in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries,” the first volume of which was noticed in our last No., are now in press.

Dr. Carr has been consecrated bishop of Bombay, and Dr. Spencer bishop of Madras ; the last as the successor of the holy and venerated bishop Corrie. The distribution, printing, or translation of the Scriptures, in whole or in part, has been promoted by the British and Foreign Bible Society, directly in 66 languages or dialects, indirectly in 69; total 135. The number of versions, omitting those which are printed in different characters only, is 157. Of these, 105 are translations never before printed. Issues of Bibles, since the commencement of the society, 3,990,678; Testaments, 6,302,987; total, 10,293,645. Expenditure from the commencement, £ 2,291,884.

Belgium. By recent investigations it was ascertained that the scarcity of Bibles is very great. In one village, a Bible was found, which ten or twelve persons subscribed for together, and sent one of their number into Holland to buy; and there it cost them 42 francs. During the last year, 8420 copies of the Bible were distributed in this country.

Germany. Strauss's Life of Jesus continues to attract great attention. Its publication seems to have been the signal for an avowal of infidelity on the part of multitudes in Germany. The book has been ably examined, and its positions overthrown particularly by Neander and Tholuck.-Gesenius is now prosecuting his labors on his Thesaurus.-Hengstenberg is regarded with increasing fear by the enemies of evangelical religion. His views on church government, church and State, etc, are not of the most tolerant order.Some of the posthumous works of William von Humboldt are looked for with much anxiety. The concluding Nos. of Freytag's Arabic Lexicon do not yet come to hand.—The Leipsic Gazette announces that the new number of Schumacker's Astronomical Notes contains a discovery, made by Dr. Encke, professor of astronomy at Berlin, that the planet Saturn has three rings instead of two, as hitherto believed,

Polynesia, The people of Polynesia have no names for many of the animals mentioned in the Scriptures. They had never seen horses till the missionaries introduced them. At some of the islands the people had pigs in great abundance, and they called the horse “the pig that carries the man.” In the Polynesian dialects, a vowel intervenes between every two consonants. This made it impossible to Tahitianize the word horse, for not only the two consonants must have been divided, but the letter s, not known in the language, must have been changed or omitted. In this case, the missionaries resorted to the Greek, hippos, and rejecting the s and one p, made hipo. In reference to baptism, there was a native word, which signified the application of water, without determining the precise manner in which that water is applied. Lest, however, dispute should arise, they resorted, like the English translators, to the Greek, and chose a term which any native can pronounce and comprehend.

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