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fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after the ground any more for man's sake; 'for the mimatheir kinds, went forth out of the ark.
gination of man's heart is evil from his youth: 20 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; neither will I again "smite any more every thing and took of every clean beast, and of every clean living, as I have done. fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar. 22 While sthe earth remaineth, "seedtime and
21 And the Lord smelled a sweet savour : *and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winthe Lord said in his heart, I will not again 'curse ter, and day and night, shall not cease.
families. 2 Cor. 2. 13.
i Lev. 11. ta savour of reat. k Lev. 1. 9. La. 65. 5. Ez. 20. 41.
m c. 6.5. Job 15. 14. Jer. 17. 9. Rom. 1. 21. n c.9. 11, 15. as yet all the days of the earth. o Is. 51. 9. Jer. 33. 20, 25.
direction, and submit to his government. Those that steadily smelled a sweet savour, or a savour of rest, from it; as it is in adhere to God's word as their rule, and are guided by his the Hebrew. As when he had made the world at first on the grace as their principle, and take hints from his providence seventh day, he rested and was refreshed, so now that he had io assist them in their application of general directions to new-made it, in the sacrifice of the seventh he rested. He was particular cases, may in faith see him guiding their motions in pleased with Noah's pious zeal, and these hopeful beginnings their march through this wilderness. 2. Though God detained of the new world, as men are with fragrant and agreeable bim long, yet at last he gave him his discharge ; for the vision smells: though his offering was small, it was according to his is for an appointed time, and at the end it shall speuk, it shall ability, and God accepted it. Having caused his anger to rest speak the truth, (Hab. 2. 3,) it shall not lie. 3. God had said, upon the world of sinners, he here caused his love to rest upon Come into the ark, which intimated that God went in with him; this little remnant of believers. now he says, not, Corne forth, but Go forth, which intimates 2. Hereupon he took up a resolution never to drown the that God, who went in with him, stood with him all the while, world again. Herein he had an eye, not so much to Noah's till he sent him out safe ; for he has said, I will not leave thee. sacrifice, as to Christ's sacrifice of himself, which was typifed 4. Some observe, that when they were ordered into the ark, and represented by it, and which was indeed an offering of a the men and the women were mentioned separately, ch. 6. 18. sweet-smelling savour, Eph. 5.2. Good security is here given, Thou aand thy sons, and thy wife and thy sons' wives; whence and that which may be relied upon. they infer that, during the time of mourning, they were apart, .(1.) That this judgment should never be repeated. Noah and their wives apart, Zech. 12. 12. But now God did as it might think," To what purpose should the world be repaired, were new marry thom, sending out Noah and his wife together, when, in all probability, for the wickedness of it, it will quickly and his sons and their wives together, that they might be fruit- be in like manner ruined again?" "No," says God," it never ful and multiply. 5. Noah is ordered to bring ihe creatures out shall.” It was sajd, ch. 6, 6, It repented the Lord that he had with him ; thai having taken the care of feeding them so long, made man ; now here it speaks as if it repented him that he and been at so much pains about them, he might have the ho- had destroyed man ; neither means a change of his mind, but nour of leading them forth by their armies, and receiving their both a change of his way. It repented him concerning his serhomage.
vants, Deut. 32. 36. Two ways this resolve is expressed : II. Noah's departure when he had his dismission. As he | [1.] I will not again curse the ground, Hebrew, I will not add would not go out without leave, so he would not, out of fear or to curse the ground any more. God had cursed ihe ground upon humour, stay in when he had leave, but was in all points obser- the first entrance of sin, (ch. 3. 17 ;) when he had drowned it, Fant of the heavenly vision. Though he had been now a full he added to that curse ; but now he determines not to add to year and ten days a prisoner in the ark, yet when he found him- it any more. [2.] Neither will I again smite any more every self preserved there, not only for a new life, but for a new world, living thing, that is, it was determined that whatever ruin God he saw no reason to complain of his long confinement. Now might bring upon particular persons, or families, or countries, observe, 1. Noah and his family came out alive, though one of he would never again destroy the whole world, till the day them was a wicked Ham, whom, though he escaped the food, shall come when time shall be no more. But the reason of Gol's justice could have taken away by some other stroke. this resolve is very surprising, for it seems the same in effect But they are all alive. Note, When families have been long with the reason given for the destruction of this world, ch. 6.5. continued together, and no breaches made upon them, it must Because the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth. be looked upon as a distinguishing favour, and attributed to the But there is this difference ; there it is said, The imagination Lord's mercies. 2. Noah brought out all the creatures that of man's heart is evil continually, that is, “His actual transwent in with him, except the raven and the dove, who, probably, gressions continually cry against him;" here it is said, It is were ready to meet their mates at their coming out. Noah evil from his youth or childhood. It is bred in the bone, he was able to give a very good account of his charge ; for of all brought it into the world with him, he was shapen and conthat were given him he had lost none, but was faithful to himceived in it. Now, one would think, it should follow, " Therethat appointed him, pro hac vice-on this occasion, high steward fore that guilty race shall be wholly extinguished, and I will of his household.
make a full end." No: “ Therefore I will no more take this V. 20—22. Here is,
severe method ; for, First, He is rather to be pitjed, for it is all 1. Noah's thankful acknowledgment of God's favour to him, the effect of sin dwelling in him ; and it is but what might be in completing the mercy of his deliverance, v. 20. 1. He expected from such a degenerate race: he is called a transbuildled an allar. Hitherto he had done nothing without gressor from the womb, and therefore it is not strange that he particular instructions and commands from God. He had deals so very treacherously,”. Is. 48. 8.
Thus God remembers a particular call into the ark, and another out of it; but that he is flesh, corrupt and sinful, P5. 78. 39. Secondly, “ He altars and sacrifices being already of divine institution for reli- will be utterly ruined; for if he be dealt with according to his gious worship, he did not stay for a particular command thus deserts, one flood must succeed another till all be destroyed." to express his thankfulness. Those that have received mercy See here, 1. That outward judgments, though they may terrify from God, should be forward in returning thanks; and do it, not and restrain men, yet cannot, of themselves, sanctify and reof constraint, but willingly. God is pleased with freewill new them; the grace of God must work with those judgments, offerings, and praises that wait for him. "Noah was now turned Man's nature was as sinful after the deluge as it had been out into a cold and desolate world, where one would have thought before. That God's goodness takes occasion from man's badhis first care would have been to build a house for himself; but, ness to magnify itself the more ; his reasons of mercy are all behold, he begins with an altar for God: God, that is the first, drawn from himself, not from any thing in us. must be first served ; and he begins well that begins with God. (2.) That the course of nature should never be discontinued, 2. He offered a sacrifice upon his altar, of every clean beast, and v. 22, While the earth remaineth, and man upon it, there shall of every clean forrl, one, the odd seventh that we read of, ch. be summer and winter, not all winter as had been this last 7. 2, 3.
year : " day and nighi," not all night, as probably it was Here observe, (1.) He offered only those that were clean ; while the rain was descending. Here, (1.) It plainly intimated for it is not enough that we sacrifice, but we must sacrifice that that this earth is not to remain always ; it, and all the works which God appoints, according to the law of sacrifice, and not in it, must shortly be burnt up ; and we look for new heavens a corrupt thing. (2.) Though his stock of cattle was so small, and a new earth, when all these things must be dissolved. But, and that rescued from ruin at so great an expense of care and (2.) As long as it does remain, God's providence will carefully pains, yet he did not grudge to give God his dues out of it. He preserve the regular succession of times and seasons, and cause Dight have said, “ Have I but seven sheep to begin the world each to know its place. To this we owe it, that the world with, and must one of those seven be killed and burnt for sacri- stands, and the wheel of nature keeps its track. See here fice? Were it not better to defer it, till we have more plenty?" how changeable the times are, and yet how unchangeable. No, to prose the sincerity of his love and gratitude, he cheer- First, The course of nature always changing. As it is with fully gives the seventh to his God, as an acknowledgment that the times, so it is with the events of time, they are subject al was his, and owing to him. Serving God with our little, is to vicissitudes, day and night, summer and winter, counterthe way to make it more; and we must never think that wasted, changed. In heaven and hell it is not so, but on earth God with which God is honoured. (3.) See here the antiquity of hath set the one over against the other. Secondly, Yet never religion: the first thing we find done in the new world, was an changed ; it is constant in this inconstancy ; these seasons art of worship, Jer. 6. 16. We are now to express our thank- have never ceased, nor shall cease, while the sun continues fulness, not by burnt-offerings, but by the sacrifices of praise, such a steady measurer of time, and the moon such a faithful and the sacrifices of righteousness, by pious devotions, and witness in heaven. This is God's covenant of the day and of a pions conversation.
the night, the stability of which is mentioned for the confirming II. God's gracious acceptance of Noah's thankfulness. It of our faith in the covenant of grace, which is no less inviolable, was a seuled rule in the patriarchal age, If thou doest well, Jer. 33. 20. We see God's promises to the creatures made shalt thou not be accepter? Noah was so. For,
good, and thence may infer that his promises to all beheers 1. God was well pleased with the performance. v. 21. He shall be so. VOL. I.-8
( 57 )
A ND Godblessed.
Norahtrand ahis souls, and said
c ver. 7, 19. c. 10. 32.
e Rom. 14. 3.
Lev. 17. 10-14. 19. 26. Deut. 12. 2. 1 Sam. 14. 31.
NOTES TO CHAPTER IX.
every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon Both the world and the church were now again reduced to a family, the family of the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea : into more concerned to take cognizance of, Tecause from this family
hot water een your hand are they delivered. scendants. Here is, I. The covenant of providence settled with Noah and his 3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat sonx, v. 1–11. In ihis covenant, 1. God promises them to take care of the for you ; even as the dgreen herb have I given you male from the insults of the rule creaturts, which should stand in awe of them, all things. v. 2. (3.) They should be allowed to eat flesh for the support of their lives; only they must not eat blood, v. 3, 4. (4.) The world should never be drowned again,
4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is the V.6-11. 2. Gigd requires of them to take care of one another's lives, and of the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. III. A particular passage of a story concerning Noah and his sons, which occa. 5 And surely your blood of your lives will I reand Japheth, v. 23. 1. Tłw curve of Cuaan, and the blessing of them and sand at the hand of man; at the hand of every 20, 21, 2.11an's impudence and impiety, v. 22. 3. The pious maesty or Shem quire; at the hand of every beast will I require it, Japheth, v. 24–27. IV. The age and death of Noah, v. 28, 29.
man's brother will I require the life of man.
6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall unto them, «Be fruitful, and multiply, and his blood be shed: for in the image of God made replenish the earth.
he man. 2 And the fear of you, band the dread of you, 7. And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply ; bring shall be upon every bcast of the earth, and upon forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein.
6 Ps. 8.6. Hos, 2. 18. Jam. 3. 7. c Deut. 12. 15. 14. 4, &c. Acts 10. 12, 14, 1 Tim. 1.3, 4.
& Ex. 21. 12, 28. Lev, 21. 17. 1 Kings 2. 5, 6, 32. ic. 1. 27.
enlarged the grant, and allowed man to eat flesh, which perhaps V.1–7. We read, in the close of the foregoing chapter, man himself never thought of, till now that God directed him the very kind things which the Lord said in his heart, con to it, nor had any more desire to, than a sheep has to suck cerning the remnant of mankind which was now left to blood like a wolf. But now man is allowed to feed upon flesh, be the seed of a new world. Now here we have those kind as freely and safely as upon the green herb. Now here see, things spoken to them ; in general, God blessed Noah and his (1.) That God is a good Master, and provides, not only thai sons, v. 1, that is, he assured them of his good will to them, we may live, but that we may live comfortably, in his service; and his gracious intentions concerning them. This follows not for necessity only, but for delight. (2.) That every creature from what he said in his heart. Note, All God's promises of of God is good, and nothing to be refused, 1 Tim. 4. 4. Aliergood flow from his purposes of love, and the counsels of his ward, some meats that were proper enough for food, were own will. See Eph. 1.11.-3. 11, and compare Jer. 29. 11, prohibited by the ceremonial law; but from the beginning, it I know the thoughts that I think towards you. We read, ch. 8. seems, it was not so, and therefore it is not so under the 20, how Noah blessed God, by his altar and sacrifice. Now Gospel. here we find God blessing Noah. Note, 1. God will graciously II. The precepts and provisos of this charter are no less bless (that is, do well for) them who sincerely bless (that is, kind and gracious, and instances of God's good-will to man. speak well of) him. 2. Those that are truly thankful for the The Jewish doctors speak so often of the seven precepts of mercies they have received, take the readiest way to have Noah, or of the sons of Noah, which, they say, were to be them confirmed and continued to them.
observed by all nations, that it may not be amiss to set them Now here we have the Magna Charta—the Great Charter down. The first against the worship of idols. The second of this new kingdom of nature which was now to be erected, against blasphemy, and requiring to bless the name of God. and incorporated, the former charter having been forfeited and The third against murder. The fourth against incest and all seized.
uncleanness. The fifth against theft and rapine. The sixth I. The grants of this charter are kind and gracious to men. requiring the administration of justice. The seventh against Here is,
cating of lesh with the life. These the Jews required the 1. A grant of lands of vast extent, and a promise of a great observation of from the proselytes of the gate. But the precepts increase of men to occupy and enjoy them. The first blessing here given all concern the life of man. is here renewed, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the 1. Man must not prejudice his own life by eating that food earth, v. 1, and repeated, v. 7, for the race of mankind was, as which is unwholesome and prejudicial to his health, v. 4, Fiesh it were, to begin again. Now, (1.). God sets the whole earth with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, that is, before them, tells them it is all their own, while it remains, to flesh, shall ye not cat, as the beasts of prey do." It was them and their heirs. Note, The earth God has given to the necessary to add this limitation to the grant of liberty to eat children of men, for a possession and habitation, Ps. 115. 16. flesh, lesi, instead of nourishing their bodies by it, they should Though it is not a paradise, but a wilderness rather, yet it is destroy them. God would hereby show, (1.) That though better than we deserve. Blessed be God, it is not hell. (2.) they were lords of the creatures, yet they were subjects to the He gives them a blessing, by the force and virtue of which, Creator, and under the restraint of his law. (2.) That they mankind should be both multiplied and perpetuated upon earth; must not be greedy and hasty in taking their food, but stay tho so that, in a little time, all the habitable parts of the earth preparing of it; not like Saul's soldiers, 1 Sam. 14. 32, nor should be more or less inhabited ; and though one generation riotous caters of flesh, Prov. 23. 20. (3.) That they must not should pass away, yet another generation should come, while be barbarous and cruel to the inferior creatures ; they must be the world stands, so that the stream of the human race should Lords, but not Tyrants ; they might kill them for their profit, be supplied with a constant succession, and run parallel with but not torment them for their pleasure ; nor tear away the the current of time, till both be delivered up together into the member of a creature while it was yet alive, and cat that. ocean of eternity. Though death should still reign, and the (4.) That during the continuance of the law of sacrifices, in Lord would still be known by his judgments, yet the earth which the blood male atonement for the soul, Lev. 17. 11, (sig. should never again be dispeopled as now it was, but still reple- nifying that the life of the sacrifice was accepted for the life of nished, Acts 17. 21–26.
the sinner,) blood must not be looked upon as a common thing, 2. A grant of power over the inferior creatures, v. 2. He but must be poured out before the Loril, 2 Sam. 23. 16, either grants, (1.) A title to them. Into your hands they are delivered, upon his aliar, or upon his earth. But now that the groat and for your use and benefit. (2.) A dominion over them, without true sacrifice is offered, the obligation of the law ceases with which the title would avail little. The fear of you and the the reason of it. dread of you shall be upon every beast. This revives a former 2. Man must not take away his own life, v. 5, Your blood of grant, ch. 1. 28, only with this difference, that man in inno- your lives will I require. Our lives are not so our own as that cence ruled by love, fallen man rules by fear. Now this grant we may quit them at our own pleasure, but they are God's, and remains in force, and thus far we have still the benefit of it. we must resign them at his pleasure ; if we any way hasten our [1.] That those creatures which are any way useful to us, are own deaths, we are accountable to God for it. reclaimed, and we use them either for service, or food, or both, 3. The beasts must not be suffered to hurt the life of man; as they are capable. The horse and ox patiently submit to the at the hand of every beurt will I require it. To show how tender bridle and yoke, and the sheep is dumb both before the shearer, God was of the life of man, though he had lately made such and before the butcher; for the fear and dread of man are upon destruction of lives, he will have the beast put to death, that them. [2.] Those creatures that are any way hurtful to us are kills a man. This was confirmed by the law of Moses, Ex. restrained, so that though now and then man may be hurt by 21. 28, and I think it would not be unsafe to observe it still. some of them, yet they do not combine together to rise up in Thus God showed his hatred of the sin of murder, that men rebellion against man, císe God could by these destroy the world might hate it the more, and not only punishı, but prevent il. as effectually as he did by a deluge; it is one of God's sore And see Job 5. 23. judgments, Ez. 14.21. What is it that keeps wolves out of our 4. Wilsul murderers must be put to death. This is the sin towns, and lions out of our streets, and confines them to the which is here designed to be restrained by the terror of punishwilderness, but this fear and dread? Nay, some have been ment., (1.) God will punish murderers. At the hand of evity lamer, Jam. 3. 7.
man's brother will I require the life of man; that is, "I will 3. A grant of maintenance and subsistence, v. 3, Every avenge the blood of the murdered upon the murderer,” 2 Chr. moving thing that liveth, shall be ment for you. Hitherto, most 24. 22. When God requires the life of a man at the hand of think, man had been confined to feed only upon the products of him that took it away unjustly, the murderer cannot render that, the earth, fruits, herbs, and roots, and all sorts of corn and and therefore must render his own in lieu of it, which is thó milk; so was the first grant, ch. 1. 29. But the flood having only way left of making restitution. Note, The righteous God perhaps washed away much of the virtue of the earth, and so will certainly make inquisition for blood, though men cannot, or rendered its fruits less pleasing, and loss nourishing; God now I do not. Ono time or other, in this world or in the next, he will
6 And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons 13 I do set "my bow in the cloud, and it shall be with him, saying,
for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. 9 And I, behold, I establish ímy covenant with 14 And it shall come to pass, when I bring a you, and with your seed atier you ;
cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in 10 And with every living creature that is with the cloud : you, of the towl, of the cattle, and of every beast of 15 And I will remember my covenant, which is the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, between me and you and every living creature of to every beast of the earth:
all Hesh; and the waters shall no more become a 11 And I will establish my covenant with you; flood to destroy all flesh. neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the 16 And the bow shall be in the cloud ; and I will waters of a food; neither shall there any more be look upon it, that I may remember Pthe everlasting a tlood to destroy the earth.
covenant between God and every living creature of 12 And God said, This is the token mof the all Hesh that is upon the earth. covenant which I make between me and you and 17 And God said unto Noah, This is the token every living creature that is with you, for perpetual of the covenant, which I have established between generations :
me and all tiesh that is upon the earth. per 11, 17. c. 6. 18. ke.B. I. Ps. 145.9. 1 2 Pet. 3. 7.
Po, 106. 45. Ez. 16.60. Luke 1. 72. pc. 17. 13, 19, 2 Sam. 23.5. Is. 55. 3. Jer.
me. 17.11. n Ex.1. 1 Kinga 8. 23. Neh. 9. 32.
9. Rev. 4. 3. 10.1.
e Lev, 25, 42, 45. Deut. 7.9.
32. 40. Heb. 13. 2.
boch discover concealed murders, which are hidden from man's that God may bring other wasting judgments upon mankind; eye, and punish avowed and justified murders, which are too for though he has here bound himself not to use ihis arrow any great for man's hand. (2.) The magistrate must punish mur-more, yet he has other arrows in his quiver. 2. Not but that derers, v. 6, Whow sheddeth man's blood, whether upon a sud- he may destroy particular places and countries by the inundaden provocation, or having premeditated it, (for rash anger is tions of the sea or rivers. 3. Nor will the destruction of the heart-nunder as well as malice prepense, Matt. 5. 21, 22,) by world at the last day by fire, be any breach of his promise. man shall his blond he shed, that is, by the magistrate, or who- Sin that drowned the old world, will burn this. ever is appointed or allowed to be the avenger of blood. There V. 12–17. Articles of agreement among men are sealed, that are those who are ministers of God for this purpose, to be a the covenants may be the more solemn, and the performanees protection is the innocent, by being a terror to the malicious of the covenants the more sure, to mutual satisfaction ; God and evildoers, and they must not bear the sword in vain, Rom. therefore, being willing more abundantly to show to the heirs of 13. 4. Before the flood, as it should seem by the story of pronuise the immutability of his councils, has confirmed his Cain, God took the punishment of murder into his own hands; covenant by a seal, (Heb. 6. 17,) which makes the foundations but now he committed this judgment to men, to masters of we build on stand sure, 2 Tim. 2. 19. The seal of this covefamilies at first, and afterwards to the heads of countries, who nant of nature was natural enough; it was the rainbow), which, ought to be faithful to the trust reposed in them. Note, Wilful it is likely, was seen in the clouds before, when second causes m'ırder ought always to be punished with death. It is a sin concurred, but was never a seal of the covenant, till now that which the Lord would not pardon in a Prince, 2 Kings, 24. 3, 4, it was made so by a divine institution. Now concerning this and which therefore a Prince should not pardon in a Subject. seal of the covenant, Observe,
To this law there is a reason annexed; for in the image of God 1. This seal is affixed with repeated assurances of the truth made he man at first: man is a creature dear to his Creator, of that promise which it was designed to be the ratification of. and therefore ought to be so to us ; God put honour upon him, I lo sct my bow in the cloud, (v. 13,) it shall be seen in the cloud, let us not then put contempt upon him. Such remains of God's (v. 14,) that the eye may affect the heart, and confirm the image are still even upon fallen man, as that he who unjustly faith; and it shall be the token of the covenant, (v. 12, 13;) and kills a man, defaces the image of God, and does dishonour to I will remember my covenant, that the waters shall no more become him. When God allowed inen to kill their beasts, yet he for- a flood, v. 15. Nay, as if the Eternal Mind needed a memobate them to kill their slaves ; for these are of a much more randum, I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting noble and excellent nature, not only God's creatures, but his covenant, v. 16. Thus here is line upon line, that we might image, Jam. 3. 9. All men have something of the image of have sure and strong consolation, who have laid hold on this Goki upon them; but maxistrates have, besides, the image of his hope. 2. The rainbow appears then when the clouds are most power, and the saints the image of his holiness, and therefore disposed to wet, and returus after the rain; then when we havo ibose who shed the blood of princes or saints, incur a double guilt. most reason to fear the rain prevailing, God shows this seal of V. 8-11. Here is,
the promise that it shall not prevail. Thus God obviates our 1. The general establishment of God's covenant with fears with such encouragements as are both suitable and seathis new world, and the extent of that covenant, v. 9, 10. sonable. 3. The thicker the cloud, the brighter the bow in the Where observe, 1. That God is graciously pleased to deal cloud, Thus as threatening afflictions abcund, encouraging with man in the way of a covenant; wherein God greatly consolations much more abound, 2 Cor. 1. 5. 4. The rainbow magnifies his contescending favour, and greatly encourages appears when one part of the sky is clear, which intimates man's duty and obedience, as a reasonable and gainful ser mercy remembered in the midst of wrath; and the clouds are vice. 2. That all God's covenants with man are of his own hemmed as it were with the rainbow, that it may not overspread making, I, behold, I. It is thus expressed, both to raise our the heavens ; for the bow is coloured rain, or the edges of a admiration, (" Behold, and wonder, that though God be high, cloud gilded. 5. The rainbow is the reflection of the beams of Yet he has this respect to man,”) and to confirm our assurances the sun, which intimates that all the glory and significancy of of the validity of the covenant. “Behold, and see, I make it; the seals of the covenant are derived from Christ the Sun of I that am faithful, and able to make it good.” 3. That God's righteousness, who is also described with a rainbow about his covenants are established firmer than the pillars of heaven, or throne, (Rev. 4. 3,) and a rainbow upon his head, (Rev. 10.1 ;) the foundations of the earth, and cannot be disannulled." 4. which bespeaks not only his majesiy, but his mediatorship. That God's covenants are made with the covenanters and with 6. The rainbow has fiery colours in it, to signify, that though their secd; the promise is to them and their children. 5. That God will not again drown the world, yet when the mystery of those may be taken into covenant with God, and receive the God shall be finished, the world shall be consumed by fire. 7. benefits of it, who yet are not capable of restipulating, or giving A bow bespeaks terror, but it has neither string nor arrow, as their own consent. For this covenant is made with every living the bow ordained against the persecutors has, (Ps. 7. 12, 13;) creature, every boast of the earth.
and a bow alone will do little execution; it is a bow, but it is II. The pariicular intention of this covenant; it was designed directed upward, not toward the earth ; for the seals of the coto secure the world from another deluge, v. 11, There shall not venant were intended for comfort, not to terrify. Lastly, As any more be a fler. God had drowned the world once, and, God looks upon the bow, that he may remember the covenant,
till it is as hilthy and provoking as ever, and God foresaw the so should we, that we also may be ever mindful of the covenant, wickedness of it, and yet promised he would never drown it with faith and thankfulness. any more ; for he deals not with us according to our sins. It V, 18—23. Here is, is ning to God's goodness and faithfulness, not to any reforma 1. Noah's family and employment. The names of his tion of the world, that it has not often been deluged, and that it sons are again mentioned, (v. 18, 19,) as those from whom is not druged now. As the old world was ruined, to be a mo- the whole earth was overspread. By which it appears that nument justice, so this world remains to this day a monu- Noah, after the food, had no more children: all the world ment of mercy, according to the oath of God, that the waters of came from these three. Note,, God, when he pleases, can Noah should no more return to cover the earth, Is. 51.9. This make a little one to become a thousand, and greatly increase promise of God keeps the sea and clouds in their decreed place, the latter end of those whose beginning was small. Such are and sets them gotes and bars ; hitherto they shall come, Job 38 the power and efficacy of a divine blessing. The business 10, 11.
If the sea should now but for a few days, as it does Noah applied himself io, was that of a husbandman, Hebr. a twice every day for a few hours, what desolation would it make! man of the earth, that is, a man dealing in the earth, that kept And how destructive would the clouds be, if such showers as ground in his hand, and occupied it. We are all naturally men we have sometimes seen, were continued long! But God, by of the earth, made of it, living on it, and hastening to it: many flowing seas, and sweeping rainy, shows what he could do in are sinfully so, addicted to earthly things. Noah was led by wraih; ant yet, by preserving the earth from being deluged be- his calling to trade in the fruits of the earth. He began to he tween both, shows what he can do in mercy, and will do in a husbandman; that is, some time after his departure out of the frith. Let us give him the glory of his mercy in promising, ark, he returned to his old employment, from which he had been and truth in performing. This promise does not hinder, 1. But diverted by the building of the ark first, and, probably, mlier
• Chenaan. re. 10. 32. 1 Chr. 1. 4. & Deut. 20. 6. 23.30. Prov. 21. 30. Cant. 1.6. I Cor. 9. 7. [ Prov. 20. 1. Luke 21. 34. 1 Cor. 10. 12. Tit. 2. 2. u Hab. 2. 15. Rev. 3. 18.
18 And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and ward, wand covered the nakedness of their father; Ham is the father of Canaan.
and their faces were backward, and they saw not 19 These are the three sons of Noah :' and of their father's nakedness. them was the whole earth overspread.
24 And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew 20 And Noah began to be an husbandman, and what his younger son had done unto him: he planted a 'vineyard:
25 And he said, “Cursed be Canaan; a servant 21 And he drank of the wine, 'and was drunken; of servants shall he be unto his brethren. and he was uncovered within his tent.
26 And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of 22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw uthe Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. nakedness of his father, "and told his two brethren 27 God shall enlarget Japheth, yand he shall without.
dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be 23 And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and his servant.
Ps. 35. 20. 40. 15. 70. 3. Ob. 12. 13. to Ex. 20. 12. Gal. 6.1, 1 Pet. 4.8. * Deut. 27. 16. Josh. 9.23, 27. Judg. 1. 28, 30. 2 Chr. 8. 7, 8. tor, servant to
them. 1 or, persuade. y Eph. 2. 13. ward, by the building of a house on dry land for himself and he who was himself a father, should have been more respectful family. For this good while he had been a carpenter, but now to him that was his father. he began again to be a husbandman. Observe, Though Noah IV. The pious care of Shem and Japheth to cover their poor was a great man, and a good man, an old man, and a rich man, father's shame, v. 23. They not only would not see it thema man greatly favoured by Heaven, and honoured on earth, yet selves, but provided that no one else might see it; herein sethe would not live an idle life, nor think the husbandınan's calling us an example of charity with reference to other men's ing below him. Note, Though God by his providence may sin and shame; we must not only not say, A confederacy, with take us off from our callings for a time, yet when the occasion those that proclaim it, but we must be careful to conceal' it, or is over, we ought with humility and industry to apply ourselves however to make the best of it, so doing as we would be done to them again ; and in the calling wherein we are called, therein by. 1. There is a mantle of love to be thrown over the faults faithfully to abide with God, 1 Cor. 7. 24.
of all, 1 Pet. 4.8. 2. Beside that, there is a robe of reverence II. Noah's sin and shame. He planted a vineyard ; and to be thrown over the faults of parents and other superiors. when he had gathered his vintage, probably, he appointed a day V. 24-27. Here, of mirth and feasting in his family, and had his sons and their chil I. Noah comes to himself. He awoke from his wine : sleep dren with him, to rejoice with him in the increase of his house, cured him, and, we may suppose, so cured him, that he never as well as in the increase of his vineyard; and we may suppose relapsed into that sin afterward. Those that sleep as Noah he prefaced his feast with a sacrifice to the honour of God. I did, should awake as he did, and not as that drunkard, Prov. that was omitted, it was just with God to leave him to himself, 23. 35, who says when he awakes, I will seek it yet again, that he who did not begin with God, might end with the beasts; II. The spirit of prophecy comes upon him, and, like dying but we charitably hope the case was different. And perhaps Jacob, he tells his sons what should befall them, ch. 49. 1. v.25. he appointed this feast, with a design, at the close of it, to bless 1. He pronounces a curse on Canaan the son of Ham, in his sons, as Isaac, ch. 27. 3, 4, That I may eat, and that my soul whom Ham is himself cursed; either, because this son of his may bless thee. At this feast, he drank of the wine; for who was now more guilty than the rest, or, because the posterity planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit of it?' But he of this son was afterward to be rooted out of their land, to make drank too liberally, more than his head at this age would bear; room for Israel. And Moses here records it for the animating for he was drunken. We have reason to think he was never of Israel in the wars of Canaan; though the Canaanites were drunken before or after; observe how he came now to be over- a formidable people, yet they were of old an accursed people, taken in this fault. It was his sin, and a great sin, so much the and doomed to ruin. The particular curse is, a servant of serworse for its being so soon after a great deliverance; but God vants, that is, the meanest and most despicable servant shall left him to himself, as he did Hezekiah, (2 Chr. 32. 31,) and he be, even to his brethren. Those who by birth were his has left this miscarriage of his upon record, to teach us, 1. That equals, shall by conquest be his lords. This certainly points the fairest copy that ever mere man wrote since the fall, had at the victories obtained by Israel over the Canaanites, by its blots and false strokes. It was said of Noah, that he was which they were all either put to the sword, or put under triperfect in his generations, (ch. 6. 9 ;) but this shows that it is bute, (Josh. 9.23. Judg. 1. 28, 30, 33, 35,) which happened not meant of sincerity, not a sinless perfection. 2. That some till about 800 years after this. Note, (1.) God often visits the times those, who, with watchfulness and resolution, have by the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, especially when the grace of God, kept their integrity in the midst of temptation, children inherit their father's wicked dispositions, and imitate have, through security and carelessness, and neglect of the the father's wicked practices, and do nothing to cut off the grace of God, been surprised into sin, when the hour of tempta- entail of a curse. (2.) Disgrace is justly put upon those that tion has been over. Noah, who had kept sober in drunken put disgrace upon others, especially that dishonour and grieve company, is now drunken in sober company. Let him that thinks iheir own parents. An undutiful child that mocks at his he stands take heed. 3. That we have need to be very careful parents, is no more worthy to be called a son, but deserves to be when we use God's good creatures plentifully, lest we use them made as a hired servant, nay as a servant of servants among his
Christ's disciples must take heed, lest at any time brethren. (3.) Though divine curses operate slowly, yet, first their hearts be overcharged, Luke 21. 34.
or lası, they will take effect. The Canaanites were under a Now the consequence of Noah's sin was shame. He was
curse of slavery, and yet, for a great while, had the dominion ; uncovered within his tent, made naked to his shame, as Adam for a family, a people, a person may lie under the curse of when he had eaten forbidden fruit. - Yet Adam sought con-| God, and yet may long prosper in the world, till the measure cealment; Noah is so destitute of thought and reason, that he of their iniquity, like that of the Canaanites, be full. Many seeks no covering. This was a fruit of the vine, that Noah did are marked for ruin, that are not yet ripe for ruin. Therefore, not think of. Observe here the great evil of the sin of drunken- Let not thine heart envy sinners.
(1.) It discovers men; what infirmities they have, they 2. He entails a blessing upon Shem and Japheth. betray when they are drunken, and what secrets they are (1.) He blesses Shem, or, rather blesses God for him, yet intrusted with, are then easily got out of them. Drunken so that it entitles him to the greatest honour and happiness porters keep open gates. . (2.) It disgraces men, and exposes imaginable, v. 26. Observe,  He calls the Lord, the God them to contempt. As it shows them, so it shames them. of Shem; and happy, thrice happy is that people whose God is Men say and do that when drunken, which, when they are the LORD, Ps. 144. 15. All blessings are included in this. sober, they would blush at the thoughts of, Hab. 2. 15, 16. This was the blessing conferred on Abraham and his seed;
I. Ham's impudence and impiety : (v. 22,) he saw the The God of Heaven was not ashamed to be called their God, nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren. To see it Heb. 11. 16. Shem is sufficiently recompensed for his respect accidentally and involuntarily, would not have been a crime; to his father by this, that the Lord himself puts this honour but, 1. He pleased himself with the sight, as the Edomites upon him, to be his God, which is a sufficient recompense for looked upon the day of their brother, (Ob. 12,) pleased and all our services and all our sufferings for his name. (2.) He insulting. Perhaps Ham had sometimes been himself drunken, gives to God the glory of that good work which Shem had and reproved for it by his good father, whom he was therefore done, and, instead of blessing and praising him that was the pleased to see thus overcome. Note, It is common for those instrument, he blesses and praises God that was the Author. who walk in false ways themselves, to rejoice at the false steps Note, The glory of all that is at any time well done by ourwhich they sometimes see others make. But charity rejoices selves or others, must be humbly and thankfully transmitted to not in iniquity, nor can true penitents, that are sorry for their God, who works all our good works in us and for us. When own sins, rejoice in the sins of others. 2. He told his two we see men's good works, we should glorify, not them, but our brethren without, (in the street, as the word is,) in a scornful Father, Matt. 5. 16. Thus David, in effect, blessed Abigail, deriding manner, that his father might seem vile unto them. when he blessed God that sent her, 1 Sam. 25. 32, 33, for it is It is very wrong, (1.) To make a jest of sin, (Prov. 11. 9,) and an honour and favour to be employed for God, and used by to be puffed up with that for which we should rather mourn, him in doing good. (3.) He foresees and foretels, that God's 1 Cor. 5.2. And, (2.) To publish the faults of any, especially gracious dealings with Shem and his family, would be such as of parents, whom it is our duty to honour. Noah was not only would evidence to all the world that he was the God of Shem, a good man, but had been a good father to him ; and this was on which behalf thanksgivings would by many be rendered to a most base disingenuous requital to him for his tenderness. him. Blessed be the Lord God of Shem. (4.) It is intimated Ham is here called the father of Canaan, which intimates that lihat the church should be built up and continued in the posie
e I Chr. 1. 12.
NOTES TO CHAPTER X.
28 And Noah lived after the flood three hundred 5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided and fifty years,
in their lands; every one after his tongue, after 29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred their families, in their nations. and fifty years : and he died.
6 And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim,
and Phut, and Canaan. CHAPTER X.
7 And the sons of Cush; Seba, band Havilah,
and Sabtah, and Raamalı, and Sabtecha : and the This chepler shows more particularly what was said in general, ch. 9. 19, concernang ehe three of Ninh, that of them teus the schole earth operapread; and sons of Raamah; Sheba and Dedan. the fruit of that blessing, ch.9. 1, 7, replenish the enrih. It is the only certain
8 And Cush begat Nimrod ;' he began to be a account extant of the original of nations; and yet perhaps there is no nalion but thiet at the Jewe, that can be confident from a tich of these 70 fountains (for 40 mighty one in the earth : many there were it derives its streams. Through the want of carly records, the inlatures of people, the revolutious of nations, and distance of time-the 9 He was a mighty hunter "before the Lord : kasvlede of
the descent of the present inhabitants of the earlier Morten wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty cuiy in this chapter, we have a trid account, 1. Of the posterity of Japheth, v. 2 hunter before the Lord. II. Terity of Ham, v. 6-2), and in that particular notice taken of
10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Nimrod, 1.5-10. 11. The posterity of Shera, v. 21–31.
and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of these are the generations of the sons of Shinar. Noah; Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto 11 Out of that land went forth Asshur, and them were sons born after the flood.
builded Nineveh, and “the city Rehoboth, and 2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, Calah, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, 12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the and Tiras.
same is a great city. 3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Ri 13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, phath, and Togarmah.
and Leabim, and Naphtuhim, 4. And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, 14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom Kittim, and Dodanim.*
came Philistim,) and Caphtorim. • ar, as some read it, Rodarim. a Jer. 2. 10. Zeph. 2. u. 6 Ps. 72.10.
† Gr. Babylon. 1 or, he went out into Aeryria. ş or, the streets of the city. 5.6. M.7. 2. rity of Shem; for of him came the Jews, who were, for a great Noah; he lived 950 years; 20 more than Adam, and but 19 while, the only professing people God had in the world. [5.) less than Methuselah; this long life was a further reward of Some think reference is here had to Christ, who was the Lord his signal piety, and a great blessing to the world, to which, no God that in his human nature should descend from the loins doubt, he continued a preacher of righteousness, with this of Shem; for of laim, as concerning the flesh, Christ, came. advantage, that now all he preached to were his own children, [6.) Canaan is particularly enslaved to him; He shall be his 2. How God put a period to his life at last ; though he lived servant. Note, Those that have the Lord for their God, shall long, yet he died, having, probably, first scen many that dehave as much of the honour and power of this world as he sees scended from him, dead before him. Noah lived to see two good for them.
worlds, but being an heir of the righteousness which is by faith, (2.) He blesses Japheth, and, in him, the isles of the Gen- when he died he went to see a better than either. tiles, which were peopled by his seed, v. 27, God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem. Now,
(1.) Some make this to belong wholly to Japheth, and to V. 1-5. Moses begins with Japheth's family ; either bebespeak either, First, His outward prosperity, that his seed cause he was the eldest, or, because his family lay remotest should be so numerous, and so victorious, that they should be from Israel, and had least concern with them, at the time masters of the tents of Shem; which was fulfilled, when the when Moses wrote ; and therefore he mentions that race people of the Jews, the most eminent of Shem's race, were very briefly ; hastening to give account of the posterity of tributaries to the Grecians first, and afterward to the Romans, Ham, who were Israel's enemies, and of Shem, who were both of Japheth's seed. Note, Outward prosperity is no infal- Israel's ancestors : for it is the church that the scripture is lible mark of the true church; the tents of Shem are not designed to be the history of, and of the nations of the world, always the tents of the conqueror. Or, Secondly, It bespeaks only as they were some way or other related to Israel, and the conversion of the Gentiles, and the bringing of them into interested in the affairs of Israel. Observe, 1. Notice is the church; and then we would read it, God shall persuade taken that the sons of Noah had sons born to them afier the Japheth, (sor so the word signifies,) and then, being so pero food, to repair and rebuild the world of mankind which the suaded, he shall dwell in the tents of Shem, that is, Jews and flood had ruined. He that had killed, now makes alive. 2. Gentiles shall be united together in the Gospel-fold; after The posterily of Japheth were allotted to the isles of the many of the Gentiles shall have been proselyted to the Jewish Gentiles, (v. 5,) which were, solemnly, by lot, after a survey, religion, both shall be one in Christ, Eph. 2. 14, 15. And the divided among them, and, probably, this island of our's among Christian church, mostly made up of the Gentiles, shall suc- the rest; all places beyond the sea from Judea, are called ceed the Jews in the privileges of church-membership; the isles, Jer. 25. 22, and this directs us to understand that promise, latter having first cast themselves out by their unbelief, the Is. 42. 4, the isles shall wait for his law, of the conversion of Gentiles shall dwell in their tents, Rom. 11.11, &c. Note, the Gentiles to the faith of Christ. It is God only that can bring those again into the church, who V.6–14. That which is observable and improvable in these have separated themselves from it. It is the power of God verses, is, the account 'here given of Nimrod, v. 8-11. He is that makes the Gospel of Christ effectual to salvation, Rom. here represented as a great man in his day. He began to be a 1. 16. And again, Souls are brought into the church, not by mighty one in the earth, that is, whereas those that went before force, but by persuasion, Ps. 110.3. They are drawn by the him, were content to stand upon the same level with their cords of a man, and persuaded by reason to be religious. neighbours, and though every man bare rule in his own house,
(2.) Others divide this between Japheth and Shem, Shem yet no man pretended any further; Nimrod's aspiring mind having not been directly blessed, v. 26. First, Japheth has the could not rest here; he was resolved to tower above his neighblessing of earth beneath; God shall enlarge Japheth, enlarge bours, and not only so, but to lord it over them.
The same his seed, enlarge his border; Japheth's posterity peopled all spirit that actuated the giants before the flood, (who became Europe, a great part of Asia, and perhaps America. Note, mighty men, and men of renown, ch. 6. 4,) now revived in him; God is to be acknowledged in all our enlargements. It is so soon was that tremendous judgment which the pride and he that enlarges the coast, and enlarges the heart. And tyranny of those mighty men brought upon the world, forgotten. again, Many dwell in large tents, that do not dwell in God's Note, "There are some, in whom ambition and affectation of unts, as Japheth did. Secondly, Shem has the blessing of dominion seem to be bred in the bone; such there have been, Heaven above: He shall, that is, God shall, dwell in the tents of and will be, notwithstanding the wrath of God often revealed Shem, that is, " From his loins Christ shall come, and in his from heaven against them. Nothing on this side hell, will seed ihe church shall be continued." The birthright was now humble and break the proud spirits of some men, in this, like to be divided between Shem and Japheth, Ham being utterly Lucifer, Iy. 14. 14, 15. Now, discarded; in the principality they equally share, Canaan shall I. Nimrod was a great hunter ; this he began with, and for be servant to both; the double portion is given to Japheth, this became famous to a proverb. Every great hunter is, in whom Gorl shall enlarge ; but the priesthood was given to Shem, remembrance of him, called a Nimrod. i. Some think he did for God shall duell in the tents of Shem: and certainly we are good with his hunting, served his country by ridding it of the more happy, if we have God dwelling in our tents, than if we wild beasts which infested it, and so insinuated himself into had there all the silver and gold in the world. It is better to the affections of his neighbours, and got to be their prince: dwell in tenis with God than in palaces without him; in Salem, those that exercise authority, either are, or at least would be where is God's tabernacle, there is more satisfaction than in all called, benefactors, Luke 22. 25. 2. Others think that under the isles of the Gentiles. Thirilly, They both have dominion pretence of hunting, he gathered men under his command, in purover Canaan; Canoun shall be servant to them ; so some read suit of another game he had to play, which was to make himself it. When Japheth joins with Shem, Canaan falls before them master of the country, and to bring them into subjection. He both. When strangers become friends, enemies become ser was a mighty hunter, that is, he was a violent invader of his vants.
neighbour's rights and properties, and a persecutor of innocent V. 28, 29. Here soe, 1. How God prolonged the life of men, carrying all before him, and endeavouring to make all his