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with the hiftory upon this head, and fearched the Acts of the Apoftles for the purpofe, I conceive he would have fent us at once to Philippi and Theffalonica, where Paul fuffered perfecution, and where from what is ftated, it may eafily be gathered that Timothy accompanied him, rather than have appealed to perfecutions as known to Timothy, in the account of which perfecutions Timothy's prefence is not mentioned; it not being till after one entire chapter, and in the hiftory of a journey three years future to this, that Timothy's name occurs in the A&s of the Apoftles for the firft time.
THE EPISTLE TO TITUS.
No. I. «
A VERY characteriftic circumftance in this epiftle, is the quotation from Epimenides, chap. i. ver. 12: "One of ** themfelves, even a prophet of their own, "faid, the Cretans are always liars, evil "heafts, flow bellies."
KpijTEf an i[/eu<rra», Kkko. Gyoiot, ycurrepe; upycu.
1 call this quotation characteriftic, becaufe no writer in the New Teftament, except St. Paul, appealed to heathen teftimony; and becaufe St. Paul repeatedly did fo. In his celebrated fpeech at Athens, preferved in the feventeenth chapter of the Acts, he tells his audience, that " in God "we live, and move, and have our being; "as certain alfo of your own poets have ** faid, for we are alfo his offspring." —rv "yxp x.a.\ ysvog e<rpev.
• A a 3 The
The reader will perceive much fimilarity of manner in thefe two paflages. The re-i ference in the fpeech is to a heathen poet; it. is the fame in the epiftle. In the fpeech thfe apoftle urges his hearers with the authority of a poet of their own; in the epiftle he avails himfelf of the fame advantage. Yet there is. a variation, which fhows that tb; hint of inferting a'quotation in the epirtle was not, as, it may befu'jjected, borrovved from feeing the like practice attributed to St. Paul in the hiftoryj and it is this, that in the epiftle the author cited is called a prophet* "one of <* themfeives, even a prophet of their own."' Whatever might be the reafon for calling Epimenides a prophet; whether the names of poet and prophet were occafionally con.; vertib.le.; whether Epimenides in particular had obtained that title, as Grotius ieems ta have1 proved; or whether the appellation was given to him, in this inftatice, as having delivered a defcription of the Cretan character, which the future ftate of morals, among them verified; whatever was the reafon (and any of thefe reafons will account for the variation, fuppofing St. Paul to have been the author), one point is plain, namely, if the epiftle had been forged, and the author had inferted a quotation in it merely from having feen an example of the fame kind in a fpeech afcribed to St. Paul, he would fo far have imitated his original, as to have introduced his quotation in the fame manner, that is, he would have given to Epimenides the tide which he faw there given to Aratus. The other fide of the alternative is, that the hiftory took the hint from the epiftle. But that the author of the Acts of the Apoftles had not the epiftle to Titus before him, at leaft that he did not ufe it as one of the documents or materials of his narrative, is rendered nearly certain by the obfervation that the name of Titus does not once occur in his book.
It is well known, and was remarked by St. Jerome, that the apothegm in the fifteenth chapter of the Corinthians, " evil communU ." cations corrupt good manners," is an Iambic of Menander's:
, OS'ei/JKOM' i}0ij %pij<r3'' opinion Komv.,
Here we have another unafFected inftance
of the fame turn and habit of compofitioi).
A a 4 Probably Probably there are, fome hitherto unnoticed; and more, which the lofs of the original authors render impoffible to be now afcer
There exifts a vifible affinity between the epiftle to Titus and the firft epiftle to Timothy. Both letters were addrefled to perfons left by the writer to prefide in their re? ipective churches during his abfence. Both letters are principally occupied in defcribing the qualifications to be fought for, in thofe whom they mould appoint to offices in the church ; and the ingredients of this defcription are in both letters nearly the fame. Timothy and Titus are likewife cautioned againftthe fame prevailing corruptions, and, in particular, againft the fame mifdirection of their cares aud ftudies. This affinity obtains, not only in the fubject of the letters, which, from the fimilarityof fituation ia the perfons to whom they were addrefled, might be expected to be fomewhat alike, but extends, in a great variety of inftances, to thephrafesandexpreffions. The Svriter accofts his two friends with the fame