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cause the red or reddish-brown spots of the flower form regular squares, much like those of a chessboard. It was first called meleagris by Dodonæus, because the feathers of that fowl are variegated almost in the same manner.*

The roots of the magnificent crown imperial, fritillaria imperialis, were about the middle of the sixteenth century brought from Persia to Constantinople, and were carried thence to the Emperor's garden at Vienna, from which they were dispersed all over Europe. This flower was first known by the Persian name tusac, until the Italians gave it that of corona imperiale,† or crown imperial. I have somewhere read, that it has been imagined that the figure of it is to be found represented on coins of Herod, and that, on this account, it has been considered as the lily so much celebrated in the Scripture.

The Persian lily, fritillaria Persica, which is nearly related to it, was made known almost about the same time. The bulbs or roots were brought from Susa to Constantinople, and for that reason it was formerly called lilium Susianum.‡

African and French marygolds, tagetes erecta and patula, were, according to the account of Dodonæus and others, brought from Africa to

Clusii Hist. plant. ii. p. 154.

+ Clusii Hist. plant. i. p. 128. Dodonai Pempt. p. 202.
Clusii Hist. plant. i. p. 130.

A

HISTORY

OF

INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES.

BY JOHN BECKMANN,

PUBLIC PROFESSOR OF ECONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF
GOTTIN EN.

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN,

BY WILLIAM JOHNSTON.

SECOND EDITION,

CAREFULLY CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED BY A FOURTH VOLUME.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL. III.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR J. WALKER AND CO.; J. FAULDER; J. BOOKER;

B. AND R. CROSBY AND CO.; R. PRIESTLEY; R. SCHOLEY; J. RICHARDSON; W. OTRIDGE; J. HARDING; T. HAMILTON;

AND J. Bell.

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