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his likeness; but, the picture of the king can mean only the likeness of the king."
With respect to the general force and relationship of the Greek and Latin genitive, it may be affirmed, that all individual parts of speech have general relations and significations; therefore, magistri, independently of any other part of speech, carries with it a general signification; but it is to be added, that magistri, and every other genitive (including under the term the Greek appellation, Iitūcis yevixò) is always used in discourse in connexion with another noun, either expressed or understood; consequently, the genitive in Latin, as in English, is capable of specific application. The opinion that the Greek and Latin genitive is exactly equivalent to a noun in English, preceded by of, appears to be incorrect. Unless of be immediately preceded by another substantive of different meaning, expressed or understood, it has not the force of a Latin genitive. A single sentence will prove it. I spoke of a master ; that is, the ablative de, of or concerning a master: de magistro. In this instance, therefore, of a master is not equivalent to the Greek and Latin genitive.
Independently of this inaccurate application of the preposition of, grammarians, in general, seem to have entertained but a very erroneous notion of the English genitive. They have found it difficult to trace always the common relation of belonging between one noun and another, and have hence concluded that the Latin genitive-relation of belonging does not actually exist in our language. The difficulty, I conceive, would, in a great measure, be removed, were we to attend more closely to the procedure of language, and to observe its changes as corresponding with the progress and modification of
thought. Let us conceive two nouns of different significations, not separated by the sign of; as the cottage door : the former has assumed the nature of an adjective; but if these words were turned into Latin, the English adjective noun would be expressed by a noun in the genitive case: ostium casa. In Latin, there is no adjective to correspond with the English word which has assumed the nature of an adjective. The procedure proves, that an English noun, followed immediately by another noun of different signification, is exactly equivalent to a Latin genitive. The cottage door means, therefore, the cottage's door, or the door of the cottage. A spring morning signifies a morning of spring, or a spring's. morning : an qutumn morning signifies a morning of autumn, or autumn's morning. Autumn's morning, and spring's morning, sound harshly; whereas the same words, s and the apostrophe being omitted, do not have the same effect; an autumn morning, a spring morning. Winter's morning and summer's morning are familiar to the ear; which prove the procedure of language, in this particular, to be what has been here stated. The former of two nouns not separated by the sign of, as the cottage door, was, without doubt, originally of the genitive or possessive case, with an apostrophe and s prefixed.* Which or whose door is this ? the cottage's, i. e. the cottage's door, or cottage door. According to etymologists, if the preposition of is derived from the AngloSaxon substantive afora, signifying offspring, &c. it is easy to conceive, that of, in all phrases like the following, implies the meaning of having, possessing, exemplifying, exhibiting, &c. Thus: “ A man of honourable con
* It might, perhaps, be more correct to say, the ancient Saxon geni. tive termination es, i. e. without an apostrophe.
duct.” This phrase signifies “A man exemplifying or exhibiting honourable conduct.” Here honourable is derived from the noun honour, and exemplifying or exhibiting is a translated form of having or possessing, and is of
a more active signification than the primitive afora or offspring 66 The man exhibits honourable actions :" i. e. the man, having, or possessing honour (honourable feeling) exhibits the actions of honour, or honourable actions. The truth is, the process of language is exceedingly simple; and may be resolved upon very easy principles : if, therefore, we wish to overcome difficulties, we must proceed upon first principles, and be content to reason like children.
Now let us transcribe what the authors of the Eton Grammar have said of Latin nouns, in reference to those in English. “ The nominative case cometh before the verb, and answereth to the question who? or what ? as who teaches ? Magister docet, the master teaches.” Here we perceive, that a direct application of the English grammar, upon the Latin plan, is made; and it must appear to every one, that the reference is just. Hence the propriety of the juvenile student's studying the English grammar as preparatory to that of the Latin. “ The genitive case is known by the sign of, and answereth to the question whose ? or whereof? as whose learning? doctrina magistri, the learning of the master, or the master's learning.” The definition of the genitive is not so accurate as its exemplification. It ought to have been expressed thus: The genitive case is known by the sign of placed between two substantives, in English, of different significations, the latter of which when it answers to the question whose, &c. The definition would then correspond with, Quum duo substantiva diverse significationis, &c. “ The dative case," says the Eton Grammar, " is known by the signs to or for, and answereth to the question to whom? or to or for what ? as to whom do I give the book ? Do librum magistro, I give the book to the master.” Here again it is presumed, that the student knows something of the English grammar: and the resemblance between the two languages is signified: nor can the resemblance be disputed: “The accusative followeth the verb, and answereth to the question whom? or what? whom do you love ? Amo magistrum, I love the master.” Here the authors of the Eton Grammar have endeavoured to shew the analogy which subsists between the English part of speech master, in point of meaning or power, and magistrum. In English, the construction of the sentence is the only guide to distinguish the accusative from the nominative noun: and this same remark applies to all neuter Latin nouns, singular and plural, and the plurals of the third and fourth declensions, &c. If case, therefore, should be said to mean “the falling off from the nominative,” certainly these Latin accusatives are not cases.
66 The vocative case is known by calling or speaking to; as O magister, O master.”
Here the two languages are completely analogous. • The ablative is known by prepositions, expressed or understood, serving to the ablative case; as de magistro, of the master; coram magistro, before the master.” 66 Also the prepositions in, with, from, by; and the word than, after the comparative degree, are signs of the ablative case."*
* By availing each of their native tongue as a vehicle to the Latin, Priscian taught Latin to the Greeks, and Alvarus to the Italians. And though we have never proceeded systematically upon this plan with our children, yet that we should do so, may appear, not only from the ex
It must appear exceedingly evident, I conceive, to those who will take the trouble of examining thoroughly the plan of the Eton Grammar, that the authors have proceeded upon the supposition, that the Latin language can be taught in connexion with the English: and upon this principle the author of every Latin grammar has proceeded. The question, therefore, is-whether it is more philosophical, and more convenient for the classical student, that certain verbs should be said to govern nouns by the force of prepositions, or whether those nouns should be said to be governed entirely by prepositions. With regard to the prepositions, which the Eton Grammar affirms to be the signs of the respective cases, not one of them has an accent; and, though each of them on paper stands detached, every one of these prepositions is joined to the noun, and is actually pronounced with the article and the noun as one word. This will be best understood by a paradigm. Magister, Amàster. Magistri, Masters. Magistri, Ofamàster. Magistrorum, Ofmasters, &c. Magistro, Toamàster. N.B. In the plural, nouns are Magistrum, Amàster.
not declined with the indefinite
article: but those which are deMagister,
clined with the definite article, reMagistro,
Byamaster. tain it in the plural. In pronouncing the declensions, both men and boys are accustomed (whether correctly or not, it is not requisite here to determine) to accentuate those syllables
traordinary aptitude of our particles to the Latin governments, but more especially from this consideration, that whether we will deign professedly to teach them through the medium of our particles or no, it is actually through that medium we do teach them; for during the early years of their tuition they can learn in no other way: With Lilly's three hundred Rules and Exceptions upon their tongue, it is to and by our particles alone they make mental application.- Rev. Richard Lyne's Latin Grammar; Preface.