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SYNOPSIS.

AGRICULTURE.

LA Nil OP CANAAN,

Divided by lot according to the number of fiunilies, as commanded by Moses, and performed by Joshua at Shiloh.

TENURE OF LAND,

Held from God in perpetual entail on condition of mihtary service,—returning.if alienated, to its oruinal owner at the year of jubilee, or redeemable on certain conditions, instances in Naomi, Nabotb, etc.

TRANSFER OF LAND,

Bought in patriarchal times, and made over by charter also in Jewish times.

SOU. OF CANAAN,

Ech, fertile, and well watered,—with hills, and valleys, and minerals underneath.

SPECIAL AGRARIAN ENACTMENTS,

Wilful fire-raising punished by restitution, as also devastations of animals,—landmarks not to be removed,—growing crops might be plucked by the traveller, but not cut with a sickle. |

CULTIVATION OF SOIL,

Aas'gned to Adam and to man, as the means of sustenance.

METHODS OF CULTIVATION,

Houghing, performed by oxen, and in winter, —breaking np the clods and fallow around; the symbol of reformation, of spiritual industry, and of ruin.

SOWING,

P>trt seeds not to be used,—often trodden into the soil by feet of animals;—a work of hope; and the emblem of increase and spiritual instruction.

PLENTY,

Often experienced to an hundred fold: the gift ofGod,

REAPING,

Corn cut with a sickle by shearers or harvest■•», and gathered into sheaves, tares into bunda season of joy and of industry: the symbol of retribution generally in mercy and judgment

GLEANING,

of fields not to be reaped;—forgotten Aeafc not to be fetched, but left for poor,

THRASHING,

Done on floor, thrashing-floor, barn-floor, cornfloor, by a rod, or hoofs of unmuzzled cattle, cart-wheels or teethed instruments: straw and grain separated by removing with a fan or fanners;—chaff driven by the wind: symbol of judgment, etc.

GRASS,

For cattle, green and abundant, refreshed by rain, on house-tops short-lived, soon withered and used as fuel—cast into the oven : emblem of life, of prosperity, of the wicked, etc

OTHER PRODUCTS OF FIELDS,

Beans, bulrushes, flags, flax, gourds, heath, lentiles, mandrakes, mallows, millet, reeds, rushes, rye, tares.

FAILURE OF CROPS,

Of grass,—a terrible visitation, as in days of Ahab;—of grain,—caused by inclement seaBon,—by drought and wet,—by locusts,—by predatory enemies,—often very severe;—hunger or cleanness of teeth, urging to various repulsive elements of food, even during a siege to cannibalism, and producing blackness of skin, emanation, fainting, and death: the symbol of spiritual destitution,—instances in the days of Abraham, Isaac, Joseph, of the Judges, of David, Ahab, Elisha, siege of Samaria, of seven years, foretold by Elisha, during siege of Jerusalem, after the captivity, in reign of Claudius Caesar.

God's Care Of His People

During famine, as in case of Elijah, often promised.

MEANS AOAIN8T FAMINE,

Granaries of Egypt filled by Joseph, and corn imported from other countries.

UNRECLAIMED LAND,

Dry, desolate, waste, and howling, not sown, marshes —often wood or forest, filled with wild beasts, and haunted by robbers;—noxious vegetation in it, thorns, thistles, nettles, briars, brambles, these also on scenes of ruin: symbols of spiritual sterility and desolation. For names of deserts and forests in Scripture, see under CREATION OF THEM BT GOD,

ANIMALS.

Oat of the dust of the ground, and named by Adam.

Cod's Providence Over Them,

In the necessary food and preservation of every one of them—exemplified at the flood, in Nineveh, etc., represented as teaching and telling of God, honouring Him, crying unto Him, and seeking their meat from Him.

WILD BEASTS,

God's scourge, while on behalf of his people,
He makes with them a covenant and peace,

SUBJECTION' OF THE INFERIOR ANIMALS TO
MAN.

Appointed by God, effectod by taming them, and exemplified in the killing of the lion by Samson, etc

WILD ANIMALS.

Each noted for its own characteristic peculiarity. Bear for fierceness—Behemoth or Hippopotamus for great strength—Boar for wasting,—Coney for its inaccessible abode,—Deer for agility and beauty,—Dog for its filthy and predatory habits,—Fox for its smallness and cunning,—Leopard for its spotted hide, and 6wift and sudden spring,—Lion for its boldness, power, and temfic voice; an emblem of a mighty ruler, a powerful people, and Satan the adversary; an instrument of judgment in God's hand, as in the case of the disobedient prophet and the emigrants sent to Samaria;—Leviathan, or Crocodile, for its bulk, terrible appearance, and impenetrable scales,—Unicorn lor its strength,—Wo//* for its ferocity, etc.

PROPHETIC SYMBOLS FROM ANIMALS,

Lion denoting Assyria,—the Bear Persia,—the Leopard Greece,—the beait diverse from all, Rome.

HPNTDiO.

Prosecuted by means of the bow, and the net; illustrative of persecution.

Birds marking the approach of summer by their tinging;—cage of unclean birds,—nest built on the branches of trees, in rocks and in places inaccessible, an emblem of a place of peace; —Bat, Bittern, and Cormorant, alluded to as inhabitants off solitary and forsaken places,— xtt

the Dove, an emblem of the Spirit of God:— the Eagle, distinguished for its powerful pinions, rapid flight, lofty ne6t, penetrating eye, and rapacity, illustrative of persecutors,—the Hawk as a bird of passage and prey,—the Ostrich, as timid and easily driven from its nest,—the Owl as the symbol of desolation,— the Partridge illustrative of the persecuted, —the Peacock as admired for its beautiful plumage,—Poultry noted for affection to their young,—Quails as birds of passage, which cross the Arabian desert,—the Haven as a bird of prey,—the Sparrow as common and little esteemed, two sold for a farthing,—the Swallow, and Crane as birds of passage,—their instinctive knowledge of the time of their migration employed as a reproof to Israel; and the Vulture, as filthy and rapacious, etc.

FOWLING,

Pursued by means of snares, gins, and nets.

FISHES,

Often employed for food; Fishing a common employment, prosecuted by means of hooks, nets and drags; illustrative of the work of Gospel ministers, and an emblem of the Assyrians carrying Israel away captive,—the fish-gate, a gate of Jerusalem.

REPTILES,

The Dragon, probably including several animals under it, represented as being of terrible and poisonous aspect, and frequenting ruined cities, rivers, and marshes; illustrating the malignity of the wicked one, —the Frog an object of disgust,—the Horseleech as craving for blood,—the Worm as bred in putrifying matter, as also in certain diseases; often alluded to in connection with the grave and illustrative of the punishment oi the place of woe,—the Serpent described as subtil, fiery, crooked, deadly poisonous, and susceptible of being charmed, illustrative of the cunning of Satan,—the Snail found in damp ana shady places,—the Viper in many respects similar, and often associated with the serpent

INSECTS,

The Ant noted for diligence; Beet for their number and sting; illustrative of enemies numerous and formidable; valuable also for their honey,which is characteristic of Canaan, and often used for food,—the Caterpillar and Locust for their devastations and as a means of divine chastisement,—the Canker-worm and Palmer-worm also a divine scourge,—the

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Plea on account of its insignificance.—Flies for their swarms,—the Gnat for its proverbial smallness,—Grasshoppers, for their vast numbers, and individual smallness,—the Hornet for the severity of its sting, and as an instrument of Divine judgment,—Lice one of the plagues of Egypt,—the Moth for its silent destructiveness—the Spider for its frail web; illustrative of the hope of wicked men, etc

ANIMALS USED FOB LABOUR,

The ait for riding and work, persons of rank riding on white aires, wild asses regarded as untameable—the camel used on long desert journeys, the swift dromedary,—the horse which Israel was forbidden to multiply, used especially by warriors in early times, and in drawing the chariots of the great,—Phe war steed, characterized by strength, fleetness, and courage,—Mule* employed in riding, horses of various, colours, with their riders and chariots, u-ed as prophetic symbols in Zechariah.

DISTINCTION OF ANIMALS INTO CLEAN AND
UNCLEAN, FOB. SACRIFICE AND FOOD,

Animal food given to Noah, etc, blood forbidden, and fat, animals unclean which had been killed by beasts, or died a natural death; christian law, and conscience, require abstinence from what may be doubtful to ourselves, or cffcceivc to weak brethren.

ANIMALS CLEAN AND UNCLEAN IN THEMSELVES,

Quadrupeds clean which parted the hoof, and chewed the cud, unclean which did not part the hoof or chew the cud:—Fishes clean which had scales and fins, unclean which had not

scales and fins;—Clean fowls not formally described, but the unclean excepted by name; creeping things, clean in part, described and named, as the locust, beetle, grasshopper, etc, unclean in part described and named, as the luard, etc

THE HERD,

Cattle an important description of wealth in ancient times, the calf often fatted and killed as a luxury; —Bulls, fierce, bulls of Bashan,— the Ox used for agricultural labour, unaccustomed to the yoke, an image of impenitent men under divine chastisement; statutes appointed enforcing equity and mercy, pasture ground very extensive,—dairy produce. Milk, Butter, and Cheese, killing cattle for food frequently exemplified, and very often referred to in Scripture—the Born frequently employed as an emblem of power, pride, protection, and as a prophetic symbol.

WIE FLOCK.

Sheep—a common element of ancient wealth, kept for their wool and flesh, prone to wander, are illustrative of mankind going astray from God; symbols of innocence and helplessness, of a scattered people, and of Christ's followers under persecution—Tending the flock performed by the sheepmasler and household, similitude of the rulers and teachers of a nation and of Christ the Shepherd of souls;—Multiplication of the flock, a token of the Divine blessing— Wild goats, inhabitants of inaccessible rocks and mountains,—the domesticated led in flocks by a he-goat—the milk and flesh valuable for food, and the hair employed in manufactures; —emblem of the wicked; symbol of Macedon.

ARCHITECTURE.

ORIGINAL DWELLINGS,

Tents, used in part at least by the Antediluvians, by the Patriarchs, and by Israel in the wilderness,—Materials composing them, cords, evUaru and stakes; figuratively applied to the earth, with the curtains of heaven above, and also to the body of man.

OCCASIONAL DWELLINGS,

Cans resorted to, for shelter, and in seasons of danger; caves mentioned in Scripture,— Hakkedah, Adullam, Kngcdi, etc

: DWELLINGS,

Houses of various forms, palaces, castles and tMagts; Foundation metaphorically applied to the mountains, and to the world at large, fflnstrative of strength; a name given to Christ and his Apostles;—Materials usually

employed, bricks, stones, timber,—Erection was executed by carpenters, masons, etc.; used as a symbol of the increase of families, and of spiritual edification.

ORDINARY FORM OF HOUSES,

Walls so built as very much to seclude the building,—Courts uncovered, open spaces;— Roof required by t he Mosaic law to be flat, and fenced with battlements, usually communicated with the bouse, and was often resorted to for the purpose of observation, for making public proclamation, and for retirement and prayer,—Peter on housetop,Pillars employed for strength and ornament, symbolically applied to eminent men,—Door, porch, ante, the passage for entering and departing,— Windows for light,—the Dial for determining the hour, —the various apartments constructed so as to suit the various objects for which they are designed.

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