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evidence on this point, which Mr. Bancroft has sought to bring out in the present volume. Few persons are probably aware what repeated and strenuous efforts were made to avert the war, and to bring about some reasonable accommodation with the mother country. No previous historian has made the obstinacy, the injustice, the ignorance, and the folly of George III and his ministers, so apparent.
THE GOVERNMENTAL HISTORY OF the United States.* _ We had occasion in our issue of February, 1859, to speak in terms of commendation of the very ingenious and able argument on “Slavery in the United States,” by Henry Sherman, Esq. It indicated a thorough acquaintance with the constitutional history of the country, and a high degree of logical acumen. Mr. Sherman now appears as the author of a history of the progress of government in the United States. In the first part he traces the governmental history of the Colony of Virginia from its settlement to the English revolution of 1688 ; from its existence as the chartered company, until it became permanently established under an organized colonial government, subject to the kingdom of Great Britain. In the second part, he traces in like manner the history of government in New England, from the first expedition of the first Plymouth Colony, to the same period. This history leads the author to discuss the right of Christian nations to seize on heathen countries; also to consider the nature and origin of Protestantism, and its title to be recognized as an element in government. He believes fully that this was intended by its founders for a Christian nation, and that our govern. ment is a natural development of Protestantism. This he strives to show not so much by direct argument, as by the original constitutions and charters, petitions and statements of the people and officers of government. As a collection of original documents, the work is particularly valuable. He is not always correct in his statements, as when he says that the first settlers of the Colony of New Haven had a community of goods. In the third part, the author brings down the history of the government of the several colonies to the period of the Declaration of Independence. He here discusses the revenue and the commercial systems of taxation, and the origin and causes of the revoletion, and the early steps towards the union of the Colonies which was
* The Governmental History of the United States of America, from the earliest settlement to the adoption of the present Federal Constitution. In Four Parts. By HENRY SHERMAN. Hartford : 1860.
afterwards effected. The Declaration of Independence the author regards as the legitimate result of the Protestantism of the reformation, and as inaugurating a new era in our governmental history. In the fourth part, the author discusses the union of the states in the revolution, their union in the confederation, and their union under the Constitution. His aim is, throughout, to show that our government is founded on the Bible, and that it is and must be a Christian government, in which alone is true conservatism.
THE AMERICAN STATESMAN.*--Mr. Andrew W. Young has been known for many years past as a writer on the political history of our country. His Science of Government has been extensively used in schools. He now presents a larger work, and one adapted to maturer minds. The title page expresses fully the character of the work. The author has executed his design faithfully, not seeking to enforce his own views, but as a historian to present the views of the leading statesmen of the country from the first, with their own arguments in a condensed form. We commend the work as a faithful compendium of this kind of information.
HISTORY AND ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTITUTION. - This is a book which every American citizen should own. No student of the Consti. tution of his country, who has once learned its value as a book of reference, will ever consent to be without a copy. The object of the author has been to give such a history of each of the clauses of the Constitution “as will make the objects and intentions of its framers clear and intelligible.” This he has done by "giving, in connection with each clause, an account of its origin, and the modifications it
The American Statesman: a political history, exhibiting the origin and practical operation of Constitutional Government in the United States; the rise and progress of parties; and the views of distinguished statesmen on questions of foreign and domestic policy; brought down to the present time; with an appendix containing explanatory notes, political essays, statistical information and other useful matter. By Andrew W. Young. New York: Derby & Jackson, 119 Nassau street. 1860.
† A History and Analysis of the Constitution of the United States. With a full account of the confederations which preceded it; of the debates and acts of the Convention which framed it; of the judicial decisions which have construed it; with papers and tables illustrative of the action of the government and the people under it. By NATHANIEL C. TowLE, Counselor at Law, Washington, D. C. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1860. 12mo. pp. 444.
underwent, or which were proposed to be given to it, and a brief statement of the debate upon it, during its progress in the Convention. To this is added the judicial construction, if any, that it has received." The convenience and value of a well prepared work of this kind will be obvious at once to all. The author says, in the preface, “ The framers of the Constitution were certainly the most competent persons to explain its intended import. If the original form of a proposition was changed, the change itself, or the reason assigned for it, would indicate the object aimed at. If the clause had been contained in the Articles of Confederation, its retention in the Constitution was an evidence that it had already received a satisfactory practical construction."
An extract from the book will serve at once to show how the author's plan is carried out. We select one of the clauses about which there has lately been considerable inquiry. It is of less importance than many others, but it is short and will answer the purpose :
“ SECTION 1.
" Clause 6.—In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death,
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as Presi. dent, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, er a President shall be elected."
“MR. PINCKNEY'S Plan.—'In case of his removal, death, resignation, or disability, the president of the Senate shall exercise the duties of his office until another President be chosen, and in case of the death of the president of the Senate, the speaker of the House of Delegates shall do so.'
“The committee on detuil reported the following:
"In case of his removal, [by impeachment,] death, resignation, or disability to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the president of the Senate shall exercise those powers and duties, until another President of the United States be chosen, or until the disability of the President be removed.'
“Mr. Morris and Mr. Madison objected to the provision making the president of the Senate provisional President of the United States,--the former suggesting the chief justice.
"Mr. Williamson thonght this subject should be left with Congress.
"Mr. Dickinson asked — What is the extent of the term disability and who is to judge of it?'
“In this condition the subject was sent to the committee on the unfinished reports, &c., who reported the following:
" In case of his removal, as aforesaid, death, absence, resignation, or inability to among the English exiles in 1554, 1555.
discharge the powers or duties of his office, the Vice-President shall exercise those powers and duties, until another President be chosen, or until the inability of the President be removed.'
“This was amended, on motion of Mr. RANDOLPH, (and Mr. Madison,) by adding
“ “The legislature may declare by law what officer of the United States shall act as President, in case of the death, resignation, or disability of the President and Vice-President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until such disability be removed or a President shall be elected.'
“In this shape the subject was sent to the committee of style, &c.”
"NOTE-By the act of 1792, in case of vacancy in the offices of President and Vice-President, the president of the Senate, and if there be none, the speaker of the House of Representatives, assumes the duties of President, until an election is had.
"By the act of 1845, the electors of President and Vice-President are to be chosen on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, in all the States."
The volume contains much other valuable information; viz: a Digest of the History of the several Colonial Confederations; The Origin of the Federal Constitution; The Cession of Western Territory ; The Organization of the Executive Departments of the Federal Government; Organization and Admission of New States into the Union; Table of Electoral votes for President and Vice-President from 1789 to 1856; Tables of the names of the members of each Cabinet from Washington's to Buchanan's, inclusive ; Lists of Officers of the Government, froin 1789 to 1860; Presidents pro tempore of the Senate; Speakers of the House of Representatives; Members of Conventions and Congress, prior to the adoption of the Constitution ; besides other statistical information of importance.
The PuritaNS AND QUEEN ELIZABETH.* -In November, 1859, page 1100, an announcement was made of the appearance of the first volume of this unique and interesting work. A second volume has since been given to the public, which would have received a notice in the August number, bad not its already crowded pages prevented. On the completion of the work, which is to be in three volumes, we propose to give an extended review of it. At present we content ourselves with making an extract from one of the chapters in the first volume, which will give our readers some adequate conception of the dramatic power of the author. The chapter treats of “The Troubles at Frankfort," and the strifes
* The Puritans: or the Church, Court and Parliament of England, during the reigns of Edward VI and Queen Elizabeth. By SAMUEL Hopkins. In three Volumes. Vols. I and II already published. Large octavo. pp. 549, 539. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 1860. Price $2.50. [T. H. Pease, New Haven.]
“On the 12th of March, a company of stranger Englishmen arrived at the inn of Fritz Hansen. When they had refreshed themselves at his generous board, one of them asked him, somewhat querulously, whether he had or had not sent for Master Whittingham and Master Knox. Being answered in the affirmative, the querist turned to one of his companions, saying in English, You can manage this German language better than 1, Doctor Horn. Will you please catechise the man?'
“ Upon which, Doctor Horn, addressing Fritz, asked, “You know our country. men in Frankfort!
“Yes, sir; and proud to say it.'
"" No doubt, no doubt. Englishmen are an honor to any city. But we are told that our countrymen here have not been peaceable among themselves in teligious matters.
“O, sir! that's all over now. It was only for a little while. To-morros-let me see! This is the twelfth day of March, Yes—to-morrow will be five weeks since they came to a happy agreement.'
• Humph! An agreement to be half one thing and half another; half English and half Genevan,—was it not ?'
“Fritz, wondering not a little at such a way of speaking about Christian harmony, replied, “They have a Liturgy, good sir.'
" • But not like the English.' “ I am told that some of it is like the English, and some of it not.' “So we have heard. But have they continued this new way up to this time?" “Yes, sir ; and under the new way, they live very quietly and happily.'
"Enough; if our countrymen for whom we have sent ever come, show them in
“It was as Fritz had said. The five weeks since the 6th of February had passed peacefully and happily with the English church, under the modified Liturgy agreed upon. The good people of Frankfort, seeing thein once more walking in love and worshiping in unity, had almost forgotten the by.gone strifes; while the exiles themselves had followed their secular pursuits without distraction, and their worship without bitterness. They had indeed to regret that all their fellorexiles should not be united in one home and one church; and especially that any should stand aloof merely through a rigid reverence for forms, whose civil and ecclesiastical authority had come to an end, whose stability and perfection even their authors had never pretended, and which were displeasing to the Reformed churches ainong whom the exiles had taken refuge. This regret, however, bad not intermeddled with their joy.
“The company who had just taken possession of Fritz Hansen's hostel Tère Doctor Richard Cox, Tutor, Almoner, and Privy Councillor of the late King Edward, Doctor Robert Horn, lately residing at Zurich, and 'others of great pote and quality.' Cox was one of several whom they of Strasburg had officiously proposed to take oversight and charge of the church at Frankfort; and Horn had signed the letter of the 13th of October from Zurich, avowing a “full determination to admit and use no other order than the last taken in the Church of England.'