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“They were soon greeted by the principal members of the English church, and welcomed with honest cordiality. When Dr. Cox announced that he and his companions had come to abide there, Master Whittingham replied with sinceriy: "We thank God! Would that all our countrymen who are beyond the paw of the tigress and the spite of the Lutheran were one family, in one tabernacle, and at one altar!'

"We do our part, you see, to forward your prayer,' replied Dr. Horn. now, good sir, we would fain find better commodity of lodging than this hostel, an we may. An your better acquaintance with Frankfort may serve us in this, we shall be beholden for your kindness.'

“We do remember our own needs when we came hither,' replied Master Whittingham ; 'and how the kind words and good offices of Master Valeran and Master Morellio were like cold water to our fainting spirits. God forbid that we fail in the like to you. An there be Christian hearts in Frankfort, ye shall have entertainment and every brotherly service, anon.'

“The offer was as gladly accepted as it was heartily made; and all hospitality and kindness were immediately extended to the new comers. When the order of religious service was spoken of, and their hopes expressed that some further return to that of King Edward's Book might be attained, they were told unequivocally that the present order could not be changed until the last of April, without breach of a promise which had been established by invocation of God's name; that the holy sacrament had been received as the sure token or seal of the present agreement; and that therefore it would be a sort of sacrilege to change. It was, moreover, frankly stated, that any further adoption of the English Book would be offensive to the honest consciences of the church, and would hazard the good will of the citizens and the favor of the magistrates.

“So, we find all things just as we expected, Doctor Cox,' said Doctor Horn, so soon as they were by themselves again. What with their conscience, as they call it, their seal of agreement, and the magistrates, we are like to have enow to look after in putting down this upstart new-fangledness.'

Mark me!' replied Dr. Cox, with vehemence, we have come for the very purpose of putting it down; and it shall be done. I put not my hand to the plough and look back. I have come to repair this broken wall; and, if need be, will copy Nehemiah, with his trowel in one hand and his sword in the other. To the wind with agreements and pledges and consciences, an they go in anything to deface the worthy ordinances and laws of our sovereign lord, King Edward, of most famous memory. An I fail in one way, I will invoke another.'

" But they are so confiding and brotherly,' objected Doctor Horn, it will seem like treachery to do violence to their arranging.'

"Say rather, their deranging. An Master Knox's conscience turns holy things upside down, and my conscience bid me put them to rights again, pray who should yield ? Must I stay reformation, forsooth, because another maketh naughty pledge in God's name and on the sacrament? Must I be squeamish on the score of common courtesy and common hospitality? We will try whether will prevail with Englishmen,—the Primer of a vulgar Scot, or the Liturgy of a king; so mean a fellow as John Knox, or the friend and Councillor of Edward the Sixth. We will try it-an the heavens fall, Doctor Horn-at to-morrow morning's prayers.'

“They did try it; and the first response' in prayer from their lips-like a discord in soothing music-—wrought consternation and grief. The spirit of devotion fell, like a clipped bird. The form of prayer proceeded; but, to the last * Amen,' not a prayer had gone up to God, -nothing but amazement, a sense of wrong, and exultation for a successful plot. Of course there were complaint and commotion. The elders rebuked their guests for so rude a violation of order in a brotherhood by whom they had just been welcomed, and in unsuspecting faith. It was of no avail. The others only retorted, that the dishonor of their country's ritual merited dishonor; that they would do as they had done in England; that they would have the face of an English church.

“This was on the 13th of the month,—Tuesday or Wednesday. It does not appear that the precisians attempted any other outrage during the week; but by some crafty measures, not on record, the pulpit on Sunday forenoon was occupied-abruptly, and without the previous consent of the congregation properby a preacher of Cox's party, who read the Litany of King Edward's Book, to which Doctor Cox and his friends gave the responses. Not content with this, the minister in his sermon uttered many taunting and bitter speeches against the past doings and present order of the congregation." pp. 93-98.

History of Williams College.*—This work is from the pen of a graduate and zealous friend of the institution whose annals it records. It is a handsome volume of four hundred and thirty-two pages, embellished with representations of the various buildings of the College, and with portraits of several leading benefactors. The value of the work is enhanced by the introduction of Governor Washburn, which contains interesting reminiscences of College life at Williamstown when he was an undergraduate. The author has, also, been aided by some of the living Professors, who furnish passages upon special topics; and besides making use of what has before been published upon this theme, he has evidently examined the unpublished sources of information with isdustry. This pleasing narrative leads us on from the foundation of “the Free School," (which was the germ of the College,) by the bequest of the gallant Colonel Williams, through the successive epocbs of Presidents Fitch, Moore, Griffin, and of Dr. Hopkins, the present efficient incumbent of the office. The struggles with poverty through which the institution bas had to pass, the contest occasioned by the attempts of President Moore and his coadjutors to remove it to Northampton or Amherst, the revivals of religion which have occurred with frequency

* A History of Williams College. By Rev. Calvin DURFEE. Boston: A. Williams & Co. 1860. Price $2.00. [T. H. Pease, New Haven.]

among its undergraduate students, the commencement in the prayer meeting of Mills and Hall of that movement which resulted in the formation of the American Board, the generous donations to the College by Lawrence, Jackson and others, and other circumstances of interest, are detailed in this history. We commend it to the attention not only of the graduates of Williams, but of all who are interested in the growth and progress of educational institutions in New England. The connection of Williams College with Yale, is a matter upon which friends of the latter institution may reflect with satisfaction. The first President at Williamstown, Dr. Fitch, as well as the third President, Dr. Griffin, received their training at New llaven; and among the Tutors at Williams, in its early days, we notice with pleasure the name of Jere

miah Day.

HISTORY OF HARWINTON.* _ This is another valuable town history, which we are glad to have added to the catalogue of similar works which are now rapidly increasing in number, and are of so much importance in illustrating the general history of the country. Harwinton is a town in the state of Connecticut.

PHILOLOGY.

Teutonic ETYMOLOGY.It is well known that Professor Gibbs has devoted much time to the study of scientific philology, especially in its connection with the English language. His previous linguistic studies had prepared him to enter upon the new fields which were opened by German scholars, in the domain of language; and, there is no one, we judge, in our country, who has more successfully pursued this new branch of investigation. We are not a little gratified with the fact, that the living principles of language thus mastered and possessed, Professor Gibbs has employed for the explanation and advancement, not of the classic tongues of Greece and Rome, but, with a kind of patriotic partiality, of our own English language ;-and surely no language more needs to be studied in the light of philological science. The fruits of

* The History of Harwinton in Connecticut. By R. MANNING CHIPMAN. 1860. 8vo. pp. 152.

+ Teutonic Etymology. The formation of Teutonic words in the English language. By Josiah W. Gibbs, Professor of Sacred Literature, Yale College. New Haven: Peck, White & Peck. 1860. 16mo. pp. 139. 60 cents. VOL. XVIII.

72

these labors have been published piece-meal, in the newspaper and periodical press, during the last quarter of a century; but of late these scattered fragments have been gathered and published in formal treatises. We have heretofore directed the attention of our readers to two of these-Philological Studies, and the Latin Analyst ;-we now present them with a third treatise, and the one which is, perhaps, the most important of all.

The object of this treatise we may explain as follows :

The words of language, as they exist in the forms which are employed in speech, are to be regarded as products or outgrowths of primary original elements, Words exist in what may be called natural families, and these primary elements without being words themselves, furnish the common materiel out of which the whole family has grown. Philologists compare language in its words and in its elements, to a tree, of which the root and stem represent the common elements, and the branches, the words which are actually used in speech. Thus, language is made up of roots and stems on the one hand, and of families of words growing out from the roots and stems on the other. This is found to be a fact so general as to imply a corresponding law through which it has come to pass. Moreover, the outgrowth of families of words from roots and stems is not accidental, but is controlled by law. The modes in which words are thus formed, have been investigated and classified. Words, then, are formed from roots and stems, either by internal changes, or by external additions. The interpal changes are either, what Prof. Gibbs calls, the play of the vowel sounds, or their modifications. The additions are either at the beginning, or at the end of words, by affixes or suffixes. The different affixes and suffixes express the relations in which the several branches of a family of words stand to each other. Now if a person should ascertain with scientific accuracy the pure root of any given family of words, and should then be able to trace out the modes through which the several branches of the family had grown out of this root, and to determine that the distinct relations of the several branches to the whole family had been expressed by the appropriate vowel changes, or the proper affixes and suffixes, he would have a complete knowledge, and that a scientific one, of that family of words—unless it might be, he could not determine why that individual root had that particular signification. He would have a complete genealogy of that family of words, and if he could ascertain the same thing as to the other families, a complete history of the language. Such is the ideal which the scientific philologist aims to reach.

Now, in view of this explanation, we can state definitely what the reader will find in this new work of Prof. Gibbs. He will find there, a list of the Teutonic Roots and Stems of the English language, and as founded on this, the several modes through which the existing families of words have been formed. He, of course, will not find the families of words themselves, or, perhaps, any one family, but the modes through which any one word must have been formed. This is the grand feature of the book, there are other things, but we must omit them.

This volume, small as it is, must have cost inmense labor. To find the pure or original form of the root requires extensive research. It may

be necessary to seek for it in various languages. You may hunt after it in the Anglo-Saxon, or the Maeso Gothic, or the Latin or the Greek, and not find it, for it has been preserved only in the Sanscrit, or the Sanscrit may have lost it, while the Anglo-Saxon shall have retained it. For these several languages are not derived from each other, but each is the equal of the other, and may have kept what the others have lost. So, too, the branches of the same family of words are not to be found in any one language; they have to be sought in all the cognate languages, and the various portions to be brought together and readjusted. Nowhere, we venture to say, has this arduous labor been performed for the English language, so accurately and scientifically as in the present volume.

Obviously, what is needed in such a work is comprehensiveness of knowledge, and accuracy of statement and arrangement; both of these we have in the present volume. What has been done will not need to be done over again. We commend, therefore, the volume to the attention of our readers, and trust the patience of the author will not be exhausted in waiting for that appreciation of the work which it merits, and will receive.

SCIENCE

GLACIERS OF THE Alps.*_Whoever would take in, by the mind's eye,

* The Glaciers of the Alps. Being a Narrative of Excursions and Ascents, an account of the origin and phenomena of Glaciers, and an exposition of the physical principles to which they are related. By John TYNDALL, F. R. S., Member of the Royal Societies of Holland and Göttingen, etc., etc., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution of Great Britain, and in the Government School of Mines. With Illustrations. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. 1860. pp. 446. $1.50. [T. H. Pease, New Haven.]

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