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produces faith, patience, obedience, energy, heroism, in union with all that is mild, tender, and gentle, as in himself.
“What Satan revolted from and endeavored to break down must have been this discipline of suffering and obedience, which Christ made it his main end to build up again, and to fortify; and the immemorial principles of Satan's kingdom in all ages show that such was the fact. Here, then, we have the deep root of the great revolt, and of that origin of evil which Satan would have us regard as so profound a mystery. I have shown, in its place, that God's power of infinite and benevolent suffering, without irritation, bitterness, or corruption, is in his own judgment his highest glory and perfection ; and that he desired, and that for the best of all reasons, to form in his own image, in this respect, those who were to be united with himself in founding an eternal kingdom, and training its coming millions. How he formed Christ and the church by suffering, we know in fact. That Satan and his fellows needed in some way an equivalent discipline of suffering, and were called to it, and also that they revolted from it, renouncing faith, obedience, and patience, and enthroning self-will and self-indulgence, the very nature of the case, and their spirit and policy in all ages since, most clearly evince.
In the eleventh place, the very nature of God, and of created minds, shows that the reorganization of the system of the universe must be simple, and easily understood. Such is God, and such are the relations of creatures to him and to each other, that a proper organization of the universe around and in God must be simple, just as in the solar system the organization of the planets and their satellites around the sun is simple. So, too, the idea of a division and disorganization of the universe, by a great leading spirit and his associates, is simple, and the ruin to which it leads is obvious. No less simple is the idea of a reorganization and a restitution of the original system of the universe, and of the defeat and destruction of the disorganizers. It is no less plain what must have been the need of Christ when be undertook the great work of reorganization. It must have been to destroy the power of disorganizing principles, and to give intensity to the true organic principles of the system, and to establish and perfect the universal system on its original plan; and so to effect the restitution of all things to their true and primitive order.
“Not only is the conception of the spiritual system of the universe simple and intelligible, but God has taken special pains to make it popular by incorporating the idea of it in the form of an analogy, in the fundamental organic element of social life—the family. In man, as the head of the system, we see the image and glory of God; in woman, the image of the church, in the peculiar and intense reciprocal affection on which the union is founded, the peculiar reciprocal love of God and the church.
“Now, what can be more popular, what more simple, what more intensely affecting, than the system of the universe presented under this analogy ?
“It is the reorganization of the universe by the prostration of Satan, and the marriage of God to his redeemed and sanctified bride, through whom he may train all coming generations to love and obey himself.” pp. 261-255
These positions are enforced and illustrated with more or less interest; some of them occupying much attention, and others being passed
over more lightly. Besides these, there are other questions fundamental to all our knowledge,-questions of logic and metaphysics, criticisms of all antecedent theologies and theodicies, and replies to the critics of his former volume. These various subjects are handled with the author's well known ability, and in his well known manner, and under the influence of an earnest love of truth, a glowing zeal for Christ, with a spirit which at times seems transfigured with light freshly caught from communion with the Master. There are many grand and glorious truths concerning God and man, and the principles by which God governs, and the methods by which He is redeeming and will finally restore humanity,-many just, forcible, scorching, and yet much needed, criticisms of the falsehoods or half truths which underlie many of those pretentious theologies and sanctimonious church organizations by which the simplicity of Christianity has been corrupted and its efficiency bas been greatly hindered.
Withal there are certain infelicities of phraseology wbich will offend many sensitive Christian minds, because of the tendency to degrade sublime and awful themes-irreverent because colloquial phrases, which, though they help the logical apprehension, are strangely out of keeping with the author's higher estimate of direct spiritual impression. There is also not a little ponderous and cumbrous phraseology, by which simple truths are made complex, and familiar principles are obscured. An air of confidence, almost amounting to pretension, certainly bordering on egotism, is rather out of place in a book which makes its especial object to magnify humility, to abase arrogance, and extol the modest virtues. But the book was written by a great and good man, and will repay for the reading any one who has the capacity to comprehend its import, and separate the wheat from the chaff.
We do not review this work at length for the following reasons : The positions taken in it are none of them new. Consequently, there are no novelties to be attacked or defended. Some of them are expressed in peculiar language, wbich is occasionally open to criticism, but when translated into more familiar and appropriate phraseology these will be easily recognized as having been propounded before, and earnestly vindicated by able and fervent theologians. Others, though true, are made quite too much of in their relative importance as parts of the scheme of Theology. But the good sense and good feeling of the author's friends will readily assign to these their lawful place and importance. The minor defects of the work to which we have already alluded, will be overlooked without the intervention of apologetic or friendly criticism. Finding no occasion either to criticise or to defend the work, we dispense with the necessarily somewhat difficult task of following it in detail, and leave it to the judgment of our readers.
GRAHAM LectureS. Divine ASPECTS OF Human Society.* _Messrs. Robert Carter & Brothers send us one of the most beautifully printed volumes of the season, containing the second series of “The Graham Lectures." This course of Lectures was founded by the bequest of the late Mr. Graham, and inaugurated by the eloquent series of Dr. Storrs on the Constitution of the Soul. These have been given to the public in a voluine uniform with the one before us. Professor Huntington follows Dr. Storrs in a course of Lectures on Society as a Manifestation of the Divine Wisdom and Goodness. The subjct is discussed under the following order of topics : Society as a Divine Appointment; as a living Instrument of Divine Thought; as a Discipline of Individual Character ; as a School of Mutual Assistance; in its Relation to Social Theories ; as a Motive and Incentive to the Intellect; as holding in itself Laws of its own Progression; as the Sphere of the Earthly Kingdom of Christ.
The theme is a noble one, opening as it does the widest range for philosophical and ethical discussion, and admitting also the enforcement of important practical truth. Into the philosophical discussions appropriate to his theme Dr. Huntington does not enter as profoundly as was to be desired. We would not insist that all the metaphysical questions involved in a truly religious theory of society should be raised before a popular audience ; still less would we absurdly require that they should be discussed with the technical language and abstract refineinents that are appropriate to the schools. But in times when the faith of men is so extensively disturbed in regard to society, and the designs of nature and of God as revealed in it seems almost a duty that those who have the opportunity should clearly and sternly enforce those great truths which the light of nature clearly reveals, and which the mirror within the human heart most distinctly reflects. Dr. Huntington does not indeed neglect this duty, but it seems to us that he has not made his lectures as instructive on these points as he might and ought to have done. We doubt not that these lectures served to pass the hour for his
* Graham Lectures. Human Society : Its Providential Structure, Relations, and Offices. Eight Lectures delivered at the Brooklyn Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y By F. D. Huntington, D. D. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1860. 8vo
hearers most agreeably, and that they received from them elevating and useful impressions. It were better had they also taken home clear and well settled opinions concerning much questioned truths that would have remained with them as principles never afterwards to be disturbed or denied. The defect of clear and distinct impressions is still more obvious to the reader of these pages than it was to the hearer of the lectures. We naturally look to a printed series of lectures for the reassertion of familiar principles in forms fitted to impart fresh energy of conviction, or for new arguments that tend to settle disputed truths.
But though there is little or nothing which may be properly said to be a contribution to the scientific or reflective thought of our times, there are many important illustrations of our practical relations to society, and of the duties which grow out of them. Some of the pictures with which these pages are enriched are of charming beauty. Many of the illustrations are felicitously selected from a mind abounding in intellectual wealth. Through the whole work there is breathed that natural yet elevated Christian spirit for which all the writings of the author are 80 happily distinguished. As an example of bis manner, we quote the following:
"To appreciate this mental stimulus from social wants, we have only to look round first upon the furnishing and the walls of our own dwellings. Here are the results of mechanical industry, guided in every manufacture by intellectual faculty. Here are fabrics that comfort the body, save and measure time, light the rooms at nightfall, set the windows that let the sunrise beckon to us in the morning, pour the pond that mirrors the mountains into our chambers, dig and forge the metals that form the implements and the coin and the plate that social necessity uses, bring the coal mine and the forest to soften the winter, spread carpets under our feet, or hang the pictured scenery of countries we never saw before our eyes.
“Or else, for a more vivid and magnificent illustration yet, enter one of our annual exhibition rooms of industry and invention,-a County Fair, or the Crystal Palace of a continent. Every such collection of workmen and their works is a social jubilee of mental victory. It is Society celebrating the Brain's Independence. The whole scene is a vital institute of intellectual instruction. It is an educator. It is an argument. It is an encyclopædia. It is a poem. It is a manual of learning. It is one of the people's quick-witted, extemporized universities. It is a school of design. It puts new illumination into old task work ; it raises the tone of life ; it brightens the observer's senses. It reaches back its quickening touch into all the workshops and factories of the land, and rouses the mind there. It helps finish and edify Society. For still the laborer is greater than the labor; the engineer is superior to the engine; the operative is of more significance than the loom; the woman is finer than her embroidery. There are the trophies of peaceful battles, wbich the mind, like a loyal general, having wrestled with the obstinacy of nature, brings home to its commonwealth and sovereign, Society.” pp. 202, 3.
Dr. Bellowa's RESTATEMENTS OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE.* _Dr. Bellows tells us in his preface that the recent evidences of public interest in his religious opinions have emboldened him to publish a volume of sermons. This volume is entitled Restatements of Christian Doctrine—with the running title of The Readjustment of Faith. We have shared somewhat in the general interest of the public, and on reading the announcement that the book was designed to gratify it, were emboldened to the confident belief that we should find in this volume what Dr. Bellows does believe. But on looking through it with aroused attention we are enabled to find but few, if any, statements of doctrine at all. We have found statements enough, and in that graceful and most felicitous diction of which the author is so dexterous a master, concerning the character which the true Christian doctrine is fitted to form. To the most of these we take little exception, indeed to nearly all we give our heartiest assent. We find also certain speculations about Human Nature, Sin and Moral Evil, which, with much that is well and wisely said there is blended now and then a vague speculation that is given at random, with little precision of doctrine and with scarcely any attempt at proof. We find a catholicity of spirit and disposition to find truth even in the hardest statements of orthodoxy, which does honor to the author's broad and generous nature, and is quite refreshing among the so-called Liberal Christians. We find a distinct recognition of the power and need of the Holy Spirit and of the corruption and power of Sin that would have been called mystic cant by the clear and precise Unitarians of another day. We find the most distinct avowals of the necessity of positive faith, of formal observances and of “a Christian year" of Holy Days and Holy Rites. We find the most decided refutation of the rejectors of a supernatural Christianity and the most just and earnest reproof of the temper and the wisdom of godless philanthropists. In short, we find almost everything but that which we seek for, viz, “ Statements of Doctrine."
We do not find clearly defined nor earnestly proved what Paul or John teach concerning Christ or man or the kingdom of God, but only discourses mostly practical founded on the assumption that a certain form of Liberal Doctrine supposed to be held by the author, but not declared, is to be taken as the true. The defect of the author seems to be similar to that
* Restatements of Christian Doctrine, in Twenty-five Sermons. By Herny W. Bellows, minister of all Soul's Church, New York. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1860. 12mo. pp. 434.