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and circumstances. He was always ready and glad to pay debts. And no one ever asked payment in vain, when he had any money. But he had become accustomed to being in debt during the many years of his necessity, when he could not avoid it. He had the enthusiasm of genius, and counted money nothing in comparison with success in a humane invention, and for that purpose used it profusely, and so became habituated to profuse expenditure. Then he felt justified in this free use of it for his inventions, though he was indebted, because he felt confident that his object was benevolent, and that the final result would be the discharge of all pecuniary obligations. When we consider these things, and add to them the fact, that among his first acts, after his first full success, was the searching out and paying debts, to the amount of thirty-five thousand dollars, from which he had been legally discharged, we shall be assured that with regard to indebtedness he was, in heart and intention, honorable and upright. Still his improvidence was a fault to be regretted. His character would have been more complete if this had been otherwise.
There was in Mr. Goodyear an admirable combination of gratitude and generosity, and also a beautiful regard for his kindred and relatives. When the days of his prosperity at length came, he remembered those who had aided him in his adversity and extremity. And he was not satisfied with a full payment of their dues. But when any of them were in pecuniary misfortune he aided them with a princely generosity. Indeed, some of them with their families were really supported by him for years. He, also, as soon as he was able, afforded modes of remunerative employment and ways of advancement for many of those who were allied to him or his by kindred. In his manifold experiments, and through his influence in connection with the extensive manufacturing under his patents, a large number of them have been employed, and have found avenues to lucrative and independent business for themselves. And for all objects of benevolence he had an open heart and hand, giving to them cheerfully and unsparingly, whenever he had money at his disposal.
Mr. Goodyear's remarkable charity and forbearance toward
those who had wronged him, should be noticed. He had been greatly injured, and that by those whom he had greatly benefited. On this point the United States Commissioner thus speaks :
“ The public stipulated with him that he should peacefully enjoy for fourteen years the monopoly created by his patent, and, had he been permitted to do so, he would no doubt long since have realized an ample remuneration; but, so far from this having been the case, no inventor probably has ever been so harrassed, so trampled upon, so plundered by that sordid and licentious class of infringers known in the parlance of the world, with no exaggeration of phrase, as pirates.' The spoliations of their incessant guerilla warfare upon his defenseless rights have unquestionably amonnted to millions. In the very frout rank of this predatory band stands one who sustains in this case the double and most convenient character of contestant and witness; and it is but a subdued expression of my estimate of the deposition he has lodged, to say, that this Parthian shaft-the last that he could hurl at an invention which he has so long and so remorsely pursued—is a fitting finale to that career which the public justice of the country has so signally rebuked.”
Yet through the whole narrative which Mr. Goodyear has written, there is not one severe or unkind word, even towards the man who so greatly defrauded him, and who compelled him to the trouble, anxiety and enormous expense of constant litigation.
His humility, reverence and loyalty towards God were most exemplary. One who knew hir thoroughly, says that - the most marked features of his religious character were deep consciousness of the evil of sin, and of his nothingness before God. Self-reliant as he appeared as a business man, his soul was more humble before God, and he seemned more deeply conscious of his dependence upon him and need of forgiveness, as well as of forbearance, than any other person with whose religious experience I have any intimate acquaintance."
He might, if any among us dependent and sinful creatures might, have felt pride in the beneficence of his works. But he allowed himself nothing in that respect. And in his last days, when reference was made to his useful works, he said: “What am I? To God be all the glory."
The piety which sustained him through the peculiar strug. gles and trials of his life, sustained him in death. He died in faith.
“I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord, from henceforth, yea, saith the Spirit, for they rest from their labors, and their works do follow them.”
And now only a few words more, to indicate some of the lessons of this remarkable life. Most of them lie on the surface, and need but a word to bring them to your thoughts.
But one of them, which is specially illustrated by an incident of Mr. Goodyear's life that has not yet been brought to your notice, should be more distinctly developed. That is, God's providence in the working and results of inventive genius.
Mr. Goodyear's chief discovery, the vulcanization of rubber, was immediately caused by what is termed an accident. The United States Commissioner, to whose able and eloquent decision I have so often referred, thus describes it: “In one of those animated conversations so habitual to him, in reference to his experiments, a piece of India rubber combined with sulphur, which he held in his hand as the text of all his discourses, was by a violent gesture thrown into a burning stove near which he was standing. When taken out, after having been subjected to a high degree of heat, he saw-what it may be safely affirmed would have escaped the notice of all others—that a complete transformation had taken place, and that an entirely new product, since so felicitously termed elastic metal,' was the consequence. When subjected to further tests, the thrilling conviction burst upon him that success had at length crowned his efforts, and that the mystery he had so long wooed now stood unveiled before him. His history in this respect is altogether parallel with that of the greatest inventors and discoverers who have preceded him."
Mr. Goodyear, in his account, though he justly claims that,
owing to his long search for such a result, and his intense attention to everything that might produce it, he perceived it, when others would not-in fact, others thought nothing of it when their attention was directed to it-he perceived it, and saw that the great object was gained; yet, he reverently adds, that, as it was not what any known facts or principles would have indicated, “it should be considered as one of those cases where the leading of the Creator providentially aids his creatures, by what are termed accidents, to attain those things which are not attainable by the powers of reasoning he has conferred upon them.” This is a pious, but true and sublime conclusion. God presides over and aids inventive genius. To its keen eye, peering earnestly into the darkness, he shows the light.
For the rest, the lessons are plain, and very practical and urgent for us. 1. In the first place, find out what your peculiar endowments are, what talents are entrusted to you, what you are called to do. 2. Then, in the second place, do it-do it industriously and earnestly. But this is not enongh. 3. In the third place, do it unselfishly, benevolently, religiously, as the servant of God and the friend of man.
But, finally, the special lesson of this personal history is this: that every man should regard himself as called of God to his life's work, the particular thing for which he is fitted, by a sacred calling, a sacred commision. You are called of God to be a lawyer, a physician, an inventor, an artisan, a inerchant, a teacher, or to any, even the humblest work, as truly as an apostle, a minister of the gospel, or a missionary, is called of God. And your work, if done aright in spirit and outward form, is as truly divine. Regard yourself, then, as called and commissioned of God for your life's work; and do it with a sublime and ennobling sense of being God's appointed officer. Do it with loyalty, with faith, and with fidelity.
ARTICLE XII.-NOTICES OF BOOKS.
HAGENBACH'S History of DOCTRINES.* -Dr. Hagenbach, Professor of Theology at Basle, a leading theologian of the evangelical school, is the author of several meritorious works. One of these is a history, in two volumes, of the church in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which presents an interesting sketch of religious movements and changes during this period, especially of such as belong to Germany, interspersed with biographical details. His principal production is the History of Doctrines, of which, the translation in the third edition, (including the amendments made in the author's second edition) lies before us. It forms a part of the Edinburgh translations from the German, issued by Messrs. T. and T. Clark.
Hagenbach divides the history of doctrines into five periods ; the first period extending from the close of the Apostolic Age to the death of Origen, (from the years 80-254,) and characterized as the Age of Apologetics; the second period, from the death of Origen to John of Damascus, (254-730,) called the Age of Polemics; the third period, from Jobn of Damascus to the Reformation, (730-1517,) styled the Age of Systems, (Scholasticism in its widest sense;) the fourth period, from the Reformation to the rise of the Wolfian Philosophy, (1517– 1720) described as the Age of Polemico-ecclesiastical Symbolism; the fifth period, (from 1720 to the present day,) the epoch of antithesis between faith and knowledge, philosophy and Christianity, reason and revelation. The best writers differ in their classification. One of the briefest and most ingenious arrangements of the subject, we have lately seen in Dr. Alexander's Letters. It is quoted from a German author. 1. Theology, the doctrine of God and the Trinity, which was fixed by the Greeks. 2. Anthropology, the doctrine of the fall and of grace
* Compendium of the History of Doctrines. By K. R. HAGENBACH, Doctor and Professor of Theology in the University of Basle. Translated by Carl W. Buch. Third Edition. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1858. Philadelphia : Clark, English & Co. Two Volumes, pp. 496, 483.