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remain :

an

morn,

and elegant miscellany, you will oblige trated sulphuric and nitric acids, without by printing it. I am, Šir,

the smallest' injury or discoloration ; the

Yours, &c. nitrous acid changed the cuticle to a yel. March 151h, 1830.

R. J. low colour ; with the acids in this state

he rubbed his hands and arms. All these Paris, Aug. 1803. experiments were continued long enough "Sir,- Paris has for some days sung

to prove their inefficiency to produce with relations of the wonderful exploits any impression.

It is said on unquesof a Spaniard in that city, who is en

tionable authority, that he remained a dowed with qualities by which he resists considerable time in an oven heated to the action of very high degrees of heat, 65 or 70°, (178–189 Fahr.) and from as well as the influence of the strong which he was with difficulty induced to chemical re-agents.

Many histories of retire, so comfortable did he feel that the trials to which he has been submitted high temperature. before a commission of the Institute and “It may be proper to remark, that Medical School, have appeared in the this man seems totally uninfluenced by public papers; but the public wait with any motive to mislead ; and, it is said, impatience for the report to be made in he has refused flattering offers from some the name of the commission by Professor religions sectaries of turning to emoluPinel,

ment his singular qualities. J. E." “ Until this report, which will contain a variety of details on the mode of con TO A YOUNG LADY ON PARTING. ducting the experiments, be made known,

(For the Olio.) your correspondent sends some of the more remarkable circumstances, of which Tho' we part in our sorrow and sever in pain, he has been himself a witness.

My heart will be yours while its pulse does “ The subject of these trials is a young Tho' I feel in our parting the torments of grief, man, a native of Toledo in Spain, twenty Yet memory still shall afford me relief. three years of age, and free of any

I have thought in the moments of love's early apparent peculiarities which can nounce any thing remarkable in the That those were the brightest which thou organization of the skin ; after exami.,

didst adorn;

And in that sweet thought could never surmise nation, one would be rather disposed to

That the dark flash of auger could be lit in conclude a peculiar softness than that

those eyes. any hardness or thickness of the cuticle existed, either naturally or from mecha. I have loved, ah, how wildly,-words cannot nical causes.

impart Nor was there any cir

The affection that wound thee so close round cumstance to iudicate that the person had been previously rubbed with any matter

I have gazed, ah, how fondly words caunot capable of resisting the operation of the

express,

Till my soul's been entranced in that moagents with which he was brought in

ment of bliss. contact. This man bathed, for the space of I have met, and with sorrow have warmly de

plored six minutes,

and without any injury The moment that drove me from her I adored, either to his sensibility or the surface of And ne'er till life parts from this body of pain the skin, his legs in oil, heated at 97°

Could I fancy ibat aught could so depress

me again of Reaumur, (250 degrees of Fahrenheit ;*) and with the same oil, at the I will think that the heart-broken farewell we same degree of heat, he washed his face

took and superior extremities. He held for

Even more than repaid by thy last parting

look, the same space of time, and with as little

I will hope that the hour, tho' distant, may inconvenience, his legs in a solution of muriate of soda, healed to 102 of the

To call me to thee and my dearly loved home.

J.G. same scale, (261, Fahr.) He stood on and rubbed the soles of his feet with a bar of iron heated to a white heat ; in

THE KREMLIN. this stale he held the iron in his hands and rubbed the surface of his tongue.

The name of this object of popular “ He gargled his mouth with concen

curiosity to Europeans, is_supposed 10.

have been taken from the Tartar word, • As the method of converting the degrees Krem, or Krin, * (fortress) and is situated on Requmur's thermometer to those on Fah on a rising ground, but by no means the renheit is not generally known: we insert the highest in Moscow, as affirmed by a ècore rule:--multiply the number on Reaumur by 21, and add 33 to the product. The heat of boiling water is 212° of Fahrenheit.--Ed.

Chantreau.

my heart;

come,

At your

reason..

of writers; it is in the form of a triangle, per-minded people to decide. It fell, as surrounded by a high wall of brick, some say, into the place where it was flanked by towers at each angle, and first cast, but this is certainly an error ; about chree wersts in circumference. It be that as it may, you are now obliged contains five cathedrals, a misnamed to have a plank lifted up, and run the palace, or two.;, and nunneries, the in- risk of breaking your neck in descending habitants of which make more use of their a wet, slippery, and broken ladder. I eges, than their knees, and are oftener was more gratified in ascending to the found in the city than in their cells; an summit of the tower of the Ivan Vélikoi. arsenal, containing all the crowns and The view here, although inferior, in my negalia that Russia kindly now marks as humble opinion, to that from the church her own; with all the splendid rags of St. Nicetas the Martyr, is still uncom.. worn by the Czars during their corona- monly grand and imposing. tion, and a pair of Paul's dress boots, feet the Moskowa (in Summer) rapidly very closely resembling those of a French hurries along its muddy waters ; large postillion, and the litter in which Charles rafts conveying wood for the stoves seem, XII. was carried at the battle of Puliowa, to occupy half the river. Here glide to these add the never-to-be.forgotten amazing barges for the conveyance of throne of Abbas Mirza. Jewels of great corn, with about 30,000 pigeons in each, value are here in holy keeping, and out- eating most voraciously, to the no small side of the arsenal, ranged in regular diminution of property, and unmolested lines, trophies won by the climate of by the boalmen ; religion, or absurd Russia, in the shape of numerous guns squeamishness, is the

Some left and taken from the Frencb. To writers affirm, that the Russians abstain these add the tower of Ivan Velikoi, from killing pigeons, because the Holy (John the Great,) and the great bell. Ghost appeared in the shape of a dove. There is no doubt but that it is a very The lower orders are ignorant enough great bell, but it is kept in a very dirty, for any thing; but I have seen a certain wet, disagreeable dark hole ; and, as the prince eye the legs of a pigeon, as they lower rim is covered with water, and the peeped invitingly through the crust of a place is so dark that one can scarcely see pie, with evident delight, and feast upon a yard in front, the great bell must be the bird afterwards; but it must be ad. described by other travellers, whose mitted that, with high or low, pigeons. eyes, resembling those of cats, may be are not usually articles of food, but are able to see in the dark. Boris Godonoff, gerserally respected-in all my rambles. who waded through a few crimes to through the markets, I never remember usurp a throne, thought to atone for past seeing one for sale. New Mon., misdemeanours, and gain everlasting happiness, by giving to the cathedral of Moscow a bell of 288,000 lbs. weight. The Einpress Ann, who had very few

For the Olio. public sins to regret, still thought to outdo all the sovereigns of Russia in true

Ob thou art fair, the roseate morn Christian piety, had the bell

recast, and

Its beauty yields when thou art nigh,

And lends to earth a heavenly charms added thereto 2,000 pcuds* more metal, The radiance of thy soft blue eye! so that this truly cpious, offering, this Oh would my feeble pen could tell atonement for past sips, public and pri.

How deep the love I hear for thee !

What transports doth my bosom swell vate, now weighs, or did weigh, 368,000 When beams thine hallow'd glance on: lbs. more or less, making, without doubt, the largest and most useless bell in the world. This noisy, mass was once pro

Oh thou art fair, the diamond's blaze

That mingles in thy raven tress, perly placed in its belfry—but the belfry Bedimm'd, exhales its feeble rays was destroyed by fire; down fell the re Before thy beaming loveliness; ligion of Godonoff and Ann into the hole, E'en so the opal star that shines from which it has never been released

On evening's brow serenely bright,

Its scintillating fire resigus by the piety even of Alexander. In its Before the rising orb of night. T.E. fall it was broken, leaving an aperture, by which two people, who defy filth of all sorts, wet leet, and consequently

ANCIENT MEASURES, colds, (which Granville says are not

THEIR DERIVATIONS AND USES. known in Russia, but are indigenous to

(For the Olio.) London,) may enter. Whether this bell is a national monument of bigotry, stufrom the measures of the Hebrew and

Our measures having been derived pidity, or pride, I leave all steady, pro- other nations, we consider them princi

* A poud is between 18 and 19 lbs. pally of two sorts : measures of appli.

TO

me!

and “

eation,” as a span, a cubit, or a yard; were designed by a set number of egg

measures of capacity," as pints, shells equally middle sized. quarts, pecks and bushels. The ground The kab. This held twenty-four eggs of these measures (that no deception in proportion to our quart. The famine might be practised) was the breadth of so in Samaria was so great that the fourth many, or so many middle-sized barley. part of a kab of dove's dung was sold for corns, laid side by side; the length of a five pieces of silver. The rabbins have a finger, an inch, which contained six proverb, that " ten kabs of speech debarleycoros joined together in the thickest scended into the world, and the woman part; though in ground reckouing it took away nine of them." passed for an inch, yet speaking accu The omer. This contained one kab raiels four fingers made three inches. and a half and a fifth part of a kab; three Vide Jerem. lij. 21.

pints and a half and a fifth part of half a The " lesser hand and the greater pint. It was a tenth part of an ephah. hand” were twofold. The lesser con The measure. This was six kabs; a tained four fingers' breadth, “ three gallon and a half; as, to-morrow this fingers." The greater contained the time a measure of fine flower shall be sold measure between the thumb and the little for a shekel." finger at full stretch, which made a span. The ephah. This contained half a

The foot, according to similar inea. bushel and a pottle. surement, made twelve inches. Ancient Half an homer. This measured two authors mention four kinds of cubits. bushels, six gallons and a pottle. The cominon cubit measured from the The homer. This is so called, because elbow to the fingers' end ; it containrd a it held so much corn as an ass could well foot and a half, or half a yard. A holy bear, containing ten ephahs, or five cubit was a full yard, containing two bushels and Ave gallons. common cubits. The king's cubit was The log: This held the quantity of six three fingers longer than the common eggshells, half a pint. cubit. A geometrical cubit contained six The hin. This measured seventy-two common cubits, by which it is supposed eggshells, or three quarts. Noah's ark was built:

The bath. This measure, of the same The line or rope. The just length of capacity with the ephah, the tenih part of this is not accurately known, as it was the homer, held four gallons and a half. used to measure lands for making posses The pot. This was of the same quality sion for an inheritance, as " the liv as the log, containing six eggshells, half fallen to me in pleasant places, yea I have a pint. a goodly heritage."

The measure. This signified properly The reed. This was for measuring that measure of corn allowed servants for buildings; ils length was six cubits and a their maintenance every day. Whence handbreadth. These cubits were the the speech of Pythagoras, we must pot king's cubits, because the length was less rest on the provision which suffices for a uncertain than the rope, shortened or day, but we must take for the morrow.' lengthened by shrinking or stretching. of the Romans, it held four sextarii, a

This was for ascertaining quart. the lengths and breadths of ways and The firkin. This measure was in uso walks.

among the Athenians, equal to the bath, The furlong. This contained 125 four gallons and a half. paces,

the eight part of our mile. Heathen Oiher minor measures were used by writers think the length determined from the ancient people ; but as they were not standing, because Hercules ran so much of standard value, and did noi occasion groupd over before he stood sill.

exactness generally, they were only for The mile. With us this is a thousand families of tribes, and not remarkable paces, but more with the ancients, which beyond their purpose. PYLADES. ihey translated a dinner, or meal, and being applied to journeys, walks, or ways, so much length as could have Notices of New Books. been travelled in half a day, from meal to meal, or bait to bait ; as, ** when there The Life of Columbus. By Washingwas about half a day's journey of

ton Irving. ground.”

The eleventh vumber of the “ Family The measures of capacity. These Library,” containing an Abridgement of were of two sorts : some for dry things, Mr. Washington Irving's Life and Voysuch as corn, seed and spice ; some for ages of Columbus, is now before us. IL liquids, as wine, oil and spirit. That will be needless to say that the style is these might be justly apportioned, they simple, clear, and perspicuous ; indeed,

are

66

The pace.

west.

the works of this gentleman form a strik. volutions, and every day described a ing contrast to the flimsy and over- circle round the pole. The high opi. strained writing so common to many of, nion they entertained of Columbus -as a our modern au: hors. Every ove must be profound astronomer gave weight to his acquaiuted with Bracebridge Hall, the iheory, and their alarm subsided. Sketch Book, and other miscellaneous They had now arrived within the productions, which stamp the author the influence of the trade wind, which, folbest essayist since the days of Goldsmith. lowing the sun, blows steadily from east The preseat work, a short time since pub- to west between the tropics, and sweeps lished in four volumes, greatly adds to over a few adjoining degrees of the ocean. his already acquired fame, and places him With this propitious breeze directly aft, upon a level with our most popular wri. they were wafted gently but speedily over ters.

a tranquil sea, so that for many days they This is certainly one of the best modern did noi shift a sail. Columbus in his jour. historical works in our language ; and we nal perpetually recurs to the bland and have now an abridgment of it, by the temperate serenity of the weather, and author's own hand, so cheap, as to render compares the pure and balmy mornings to it available to all classess. Before we those of April in Andalusia, observing, venture upon any extracts, we must pay that the song of the nightingale was alone tribute to the industry and research of Mr. wanting to complete the illusion. Irving. Is there not every thing to ad They now began to see large patches mire in the labour of this talented indi- of herbs and weeds all drifting from the vidual, who travelled into Spain for the Some were such as grow about purpose of searching every document that rocks or in rivers, and as green as if remight throw a light upon the great man cently-washed from the land. On oue whose life and actions he has thus laid of the patches was a live crab. They before us? We noticed the larger edition saw also a white tropical bird, of a kind of this work in our former volumes, and which never sleeps upon the sea; and we must confine our present notice to the tunny fish played about the ships. Cofollowing extract.

lumbus now supposed himself arrived in The difficulties which the great naviga. the weedy sea described by Aristotle, into tor had to encounter in his voyages, are which certain ships of Cadiz had been thus forcibly detailed.

driven by an impetuous east wind. " When about one hundred and fifty As he advanced, there were various leagues west of Ferro, they fell in with a other signs, that gave great animation to part of a mast of a large vessel, and the the crews; many birds were seen flying crews, tremblingly alive to every portent, from the west ; there was a cloudiness in looked with a rueful eye upon this frag- the north, such as often hangs over land ; ment of a wreck, drifting ominously at and at sunset ihe imagination of the seathe entrance of these unknown seas. men, aided by their desires, would shape

“On the 13th of September, in the those clouds into distant islands. Every evening, Columbus, for the first time, one was eager to be the first to behold and noticed the variation of the needle, a phe- announce the wished-for shore ; for the nomenon which had never before been sovereigns had promised a pension of thirty remarked. He at first made no mention crowns to whomsoever should first disof it, lest his people should be alarmed ; cover land. Columbus sounded occasionbut it soon attracted the attention of the ally with a line of two hundred fathoms, pilots, and filled them with consternation. but found no bottom. Martin Alonzo It seemed as if the very laws of nature Pinzon, as well as others of his officers, were changing as they advanced, and that and many of the seamen, were often solithey were entering another world, subject citrus for Columbus to alter his course, to unknown influences. They appre- and steer in the direction of these favour: hended that the compass was about to able signs; but he persevered in steering lose its mysterious virtues, and, without to the westward, trusting that, by keep; this guide, what was to become of them ing in one steady direction, he should in a vast and trackless ocean ? Columbus reach the coast of India, even if he should lasked his science and ingenuity for rea miss the intervening islands, and might sons with which to allay their terrors. He then seek them on his return. told them that the direction of the needle “Notwithstanding the precaution which was not to the polar star, but to some had been taken to keep ihe people ignofixed and invisible point. The variation, rant of the distance they had sailed, they therefore, was not caused by any fallacy gradually became uneasy at the length of in the compass, but by the movement of the voyage. The various indications of the north star itself, which, like the other land passed away one after another, and heavenly bodies, had its clianges and re the same interminable expanse of water

continued to extend before them. They came on a heavy swell of the sea, unachad advanced much farther to the west companied by wind, a phenomenon that than ever man had sailed before, and often occurs in the broad ocean, caused though already beyond the reach of suc by the impulse of some past gale, or discour, were still pressing onward into that tant current of wind. It was, nevertheapparently boundless abyss. Even the less, regarded with astonishment by the favourable wind, which seemed as if pro- mariners, and dispelled the imaginary videntially sent lo waft them to the new terrors occasioned by the calm. world with such bland and gentle breezes " The situation of Columbus was daily was conjured by their fears into a source becoming more and more critical. The of alarni. They feared that the wind in impatience of the seamen rose to absolute these seas might always prevail from the mutiny. They gathered together in the east, and if so, would never permit their retired parts of the ships, at first in little return to Spain. A few light breezes knots of two and three, which gradually from the west allayed for a time their last increased and became formidable, joining apprehension, and several small birds, in murmurs and menaces against the adsuch as keep about groves and orchards, miral. They exclaimed against him as an cane singing in the morning, and flew ambitious desperado, who, in a mad away at night. Their song was won- phantasy, had determined to do something derfully cheering to the hearts of the poor extravagant, to render himself notorious. mariners, who hailed it as the voice of What obligation bound them to persist, land. The birds they had hitherto seen or when were the terms of their agree. had been large and strong of wing ; but ment to be considered as fulfilled? They such small birds, they observed, were too had already penetrated into seas untrafeeble to fly far, and their singing showed versed by a sail, and where man had that they were not exhausted by their never before adventured. Were they to flight.

sail on until they should perish, or until “On the following day there was a pro- all return with their frail ships should befound calm, and the sea, as far as the eye come impossible ? Who would blame could reach, was covered with weeds, so them, should they consult their safety as to have the appearance of a vast inun- and return? The admiral was a foreigner dated meadow, a phenomenon attributed without friends or influence. His scheme 10 the immense quantities of submarine had been condemned by the learned as plants which are detached by the currents idle and visionary, and discountenanced from the bottom of the ocean. The sea- by pe

of all ranks. men now feared that the sea was growing therefore, no party on his side, but rather shallow; they dreaded lurking rocks and a large number who would be gratified shoals, and quicksands, and that their by his failure. vessels might run ayround, as were,

in “ Such are some of the reasonings by the midst of the ocean, far out of the which these men prepared themselves for track of human aid, and with no shore open rebellion. Some even proposed, as where the crews could take refuge. Co an effectual mode of silencing all afterlumbus proved the fallacy of this alarm, complaints of the admiral, that they should by sounding with a deep sea-line, and throw him into the sea, and give out that finding no bottom.

he had fallen overboard, while contem“ For three days there was a conti- plating the stars and signs of the heavens, nuance of light summer airs, from the with his astronomical instruments. southward and westward, and the sea was “ Columbus was not

gnorant of these as smooth as a mirror. The crews now secret,cabals, but he kept a serene and became uneasy at the calmness of the steady countenance, soothing some with weather. They observed that the contrary gentle words, stimulating the pride or the winds they experienced were transient avarice of others, and openly menacing and unsteady, and so light as not to ruffle the most refractory, wiih punishment. the surface of the sea ; the only winds of New hopes diverted them for a time. On constancy and force were from the west, the 25th of September, Martin Alonzo and even those had not power to disturb Pinzon mounted on the stern of his vessel, the torpid stillness of the ocean ; there and shouted Land! land! Senor, i was a risk, therefore, either of perishing claim the reward !' There was, indeed, amidst stagnant and shoreless waters, or such an appearance of land in the southof being prevented, by contrary winds, west, that Columbus threw himself upon from ever eturning to their native coun. his knees, and returned thanks to God, try:

and all the crews joined in chanting Glo- Columbus continued, with admirable ria in excelsis. The ships altered their patience, to reason with these absurd fan course, and stood all nighi to the southcies, but in vain ; when fortunately there west, but the morning light put an end to

There was,

it

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