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Upon the Sardin

was graven

Reuben 2
Topaz

Simeon
Smaragd

Levi
Chalcedony

Judah Sons of Leah.
Sapphire

Issachar
Sardonyx

Zabulon
Hyacinth

Dan
Crysoprase

Naphtali

Of Bilhah, Rachel's Maid.
Amethyst

Gad
Chrysolite

Aser

Of Zelpha, Leah's Maid.
Beryl

Joseph

Of Rachel.
Jasper

Benjamin These were compared to the twelve the flesh. The name of Zabulon was celestial signs, brighi as lamps, and po'ish- graven on this stone, with the addition of ed in their works like ivory and shining these words of direction, as write plainly like sapphires.

on them the names of the three tribes, 1. Of the Sardine, derived of Adam Judah, Issachar, Zabulon. The two (Odem) signifying ruddy or red, of a latter are often set down with the four blood colour, also of Sardis, a chief city former patriarchs, to keep Leah's off in Asia where such stones were found. spring together. The name of Reuben was engraved on 7. Hyacinth, or Jacinth. this stone, to foreshew the warlike state of bright purple colour. Upon it Dan was that tribe which frontiered upon the enemy, graven. In Hebrew it is named Leshem, and in Saul's days conquered the Hag- and a city of that name afterwards fell arims, and went armed before their bre. unto the tribe of Dan, as the stone porihren at the conquest of Canaan.

tended. Hence Leshem was called Dan. 2. Of the Topaz. From the Greek 8. The Crysoprase. Signifying Topazion and the Hebrew word transposed golden green. In Greek, however, it is Topad, or Topaz. It was a precious stone the Agate,—the best of which are green found in Ethiopia, called by Pliny (5. 37) with a golden list. Naphtali's name was of a glorious green colour" and by graven on this stone. Hence Rachel's Strabo, of a “golden colour.” On this maid's two sons are linked together. stove Simeon's name was engraved to 9. The Amethyst. A stone of a wan shew there was little glory till Ezekiah's purple hue and ruddy ; so, it being a days, when the Simeonites smote the rem warlike sign, Gad was graven on it, whose nant of Amalek.

wars were prophesied and his victories 3. The Smaragd, or Emerald. Of foretokened. Here again the third row

most goodly and glorious green,' that of stones was intimated,-write plainly the eye is delighted and refreshed but on them the names of the three tribes, never filled by looking on it: and as there Dan, Naphtali and Gad. are many kinds of Emeralds, so some glit. 10. The Chrysolite. Signifying 'a ter like the sun, whose chariot is there- golden slone,' for the glorious colour of fore feigned by poets to shine with clear it, “a golden sea green and shining.' Smaragds. On this stone Levi was en The Hebrew name is Tarshish, also the graved to foreshew Levi's glory, who name of the ocean sea,' therefore called should teach Jacob God's judgments and of the sea colour' by the Chaldees.Israel his law, .

Aser was graven on this stone, who dwelt 4. The Chalcedony shines like a star, near the sea with his brethren. but of purple hue; and the carbuncle, 11. The Beryl. Joseph was graven to which it belongs, has the name of fire, on this stone ; and on two of these siones like which it shines. On this stone was all the tribes were written. The Beryl Judah's name engraved ; and his glory is of a sky colour, but_walerish. Job was foreshewn by Caleb, 'Othoniel, David calls it precious; and in Joseph, Joshua, and Solomon, and, above all, in Christ, Deborah, Gideon, Jephtha and Abdon, who came of this iribe.

the Judges of Israel, the glory of the 5. Sapphire. It is a very goodly stone, Beryl shewed itself. transparent, very hard, of blue orsky co 12. The Jasper. A stone of great lour, and used, therefore, in heavenly worth and glory, of which are many hues, visions. On this stone the name of some green, azure, airy, parti-coloured, Issachar was engraved.

spotted like panthers, from pantere,' 5. Sardonyx. A compound of Sar- and says the Chaldee, 'Benjainin was dine and Onyx, derived from smiting, or graven on Apantor.' This last stone for bearing strokes. According 10 Pliny, it the youngest Benjamin is the foundation is mixed, of a white and ruddy hue, shin- of the celestial Jerusalem. The glory of ing like the rail of a man's hand set in Jasper shone in his tribe when Solomon's

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Temple was built, and in particular per. PINING OF SENATORS FOR BEING ABSENT. sons, as Ehud, Mordecai and Esther, and Amongst the Romans if any man being Paul the Apostle. To the stones of the called a Senator did absent himself, then fourth row the names were written as the did he pay a fine, which, if he did not other three rows previously noticed. ransome, then did the common treasurer

Pyra. Coedere vel concidere pignora,' that is,

seize or straine upon the pledges ; upou To the Editor of the Olio. which these two phrases are used, name:

ly, ' Capere pignora et auferre pignora,' MR. EDITOR. --The following extracts that is, io straine (distraine) or seize upon are taken from a MS. in my possession, a man's goods. entitled, ! An English Exposition of GOADING OF MALEFACTORS. the Roman Antiquities, wherein many The custom was amongst the Romans Roman and English offices are paralleled,' that when any malefactor was going to &c. &c. By John Foster, 1686. the place of execution, and betrayed any Your obedient Servant, A. unwillingness to suffer, the executioner

goaded him with pricks. That there was The Romans marked out the place Stimuleum Supplicium, a kind of puwhere the walls of their cities should be nishment with pricks and goads, is evident, built, by ploughing up the ground, and and hence cometh that phrase, Stimulo because they left that part of the ground fodero, and hence that other phrase of unploughed, lightly lifting the plough kicking against the pricks.' over it where they appointed the gates [How different is this to the custom of of the city, thence a portando, from

car our ancestors, who, as the malefactor rying and lifting the plough, they called passed along on the way to execution, the gate porta. This custom is fully prepared for him a bowl of refeshing described by Calo.

drink to enable him to support himself PALATINE,

through his last earthly trial.] Upon a hill, named Palatine, was al

PISTRINO. ways the seate of the Roman Empire, The word Pistrinum, signifying in Eng. which from the hill tooke the denomina: lish a hand-mill, a word frequent in tion of a palatine, and hence the stately comical authors; it much resembled our buildings which we call palaces took their Bridewell, or place of correction, being names palatia. This hill Palatine first called pistrinum a pizendo, from poundhad the appellation Billatinus a Calando, ing, for the Romans did pound their corn from the bellowing, of cattle pasturing in a mortar, calling the place pistrinum, thereon in former times, and afterwards and because of the great pains that men the first letter being changed, it was cal- did suffer, as likewise the strict discipline led Palatinus.

used towards servants thus punished, for

their necks were thrust into a certain The Romans had many games with wooden engine called Paussio cape, lest nuts, some of which are at this day in haply, in time of grinding, they might

One holding an uncertain number eat of the meal; hence grew a custom of nuts in his hand, his fellow that played among them that when a servant had with him was to divine whether the num offended his master, he would menace him ber was even or odd. Horace alludes in this manner, In pistrinum te dedam,' to this.

I will cast thee into Bridewell. There

was a punishment to be condemned to It is certain that for a long time the use metal worke. Upian makes the differ. of paper was not known, whence men were ence between these two phrases · Damwont to write sometimes upon the inward nari in metalum, et Damnari in opus rindes of trees, called in Latin libri, (so metalli,' to be thus : that the first sort did that to this day we call our books libri, weare heavier and greater fetters than the because in old times they were made of last. (To be continued) those rindes of trees.) Sometimes they did write in great leaves made of that rush MR. A. AGLIO'S MEXICAN papirus, growing in Egypt, from which

ANTIQUITIES. we have derived our English word paper, and the Latin word papyrus, now signify. When we say, that Mr. Augustine ing writing paper. The manner how they Aglio is known, or ought to be better sealed their letters was thus :— They did known, 10 the public, as the artist who bind another table unto that where the executed the justly admired altar piece, inditement was, with some strong thread, ceiling, &c. in the Catholic Chapel, Moorsealing the knot of thread with wax, fields, and that he has produced numewhence Cicero saith · Linum inscidimus, rous paintings, consecutively, which are that is, we opened the letter.

evidences of his studious ability and un

ODD OR EVEN.

use.

PAPER.

For the Olio.

doubted genius, we only prepare our MOSAIC GEOLOGY. readers for a treat in another department

BY J. F. PENNIE, ESQ. of art, which is the result of five or six years unremitted labour,-three of which

Continued from page 361, Mr. A. spent in the investigation of the principal European libraries, and in copy The same is implied in the words of ing every document connected with the Peter, “ The world which then was, peobject of his inquiry which they contained. rished.” One would suppose that any In obtaining access to those materials, he person of common understanding must had often to contend with great difficulties, know that its inhabitants are meant by and in some instances the obstacles op- the world, a mode of speech used to the posed to his researches seemed insur- present day; for the globe itself, however mountable. We allude to the “ Mexican ruined, desolated, or changed, according Antiquities," which are, like stars in the to Peter's opinion, did not perish. The firmament, pregnant with intelligence and Psalmist may also well say, " He send. of superlative interest, inasmuch as they eth forth his waters and ihey destroy the are, by analogy, connected with ancient earth ;" such inundations frequently takhistory, and convey a complete chrono- ing place in various parts of our globe. logieal and astrological analysis of the In the 7th verse of the 6th chapter of “ Collection of Mendoza," preserved in Genesis, we read, “ And the Lord said I the Bodleian Library at Oxford.

will destroy man whom I have created The Codex Telleriano Remensis in the from the face of the earth, both man and Royal Library at Paris.

beast, and the creeping thing, and the The Mexican MSS. of the Library of fowls of the air ; for it repenteth me that the Vatican.

I have made them.'' Not a word of desFac-simile of a series of Mexican hiero. troying the earth, as well as the creatures glyphical paintings, also in the Vatican.

belonging to it. Besides, if it can in any Fac-simile of ditto, in the Borgian Mu passage whatever be shown that the word seum at the College of the Propaganda in destroyed refers as well to the earth as 10 Rome.

its inhabitants, it must have been comFac-simile of ditto, in the Royal Li- pletely fulfilled in the destruction of the brary at Dresden.

works of man, and the partial injuries Fac-simile of ditto, in the Imperial Li• done to the earth by the flood, without brary at Vienna.

the antideluvian ocean being turned out of Specimens of Mexican Sculpture, and its ancient resting-place; to accomplish the Monuments of New Spain, consisting which Penn asserts that either its original of 125 drawings, with appropriate de- bed was elevated by subterraneous fires, scriptions, made by M. Dupaix, at the or the old land depressed and broken up express command of the King of Spain. to form a basin for the present sea-he

To these are added, fac-similes of all cannot exactly tell us which. But not the hieroglyphics, and copies of all the one word is there in the Bible to favour MSS. which are to be found in the prin- such a wild hypothesis, although this cipal libraries in Europe, accompanied by gentleman claims for himself the excluan English translation, with copious notes sive title of The Mosaic GEOLOGIST ! and extracts. To delineate these illumi He moreover asserts that this complete nati at length, would require more acumen change of the bed of the ocean fully acthan the best of us can be supposed to counis, not only for those beds and rocks possess. By observing ad interim, how- of shells found on land far remote from ever, that the time for the publication of any sea, but also for the coal-fields found these “ Antiquities" is approaching, in resting on the cemented fragments of becthe compass of seven voluines, imperial cia, or primitive rocks, which he says folio, when the literary world will obtain were formed from the first beds of seaaccess to one of the most elaborate and weed which grew in the antideluvian splendid works that has ever appeared on ocean, and continued to be formed and the subject of Mexico,—the people of covered alternately till the deluge. But which are not so ignorant as many En. we shall refer to this subject hereafter. glishmen may consider them to be. As a proof that the earth itself was not (To be continued in our next.) destroyed, we shall appeal first to the

Bible, on which Mr. Penn so vauntingly Those who cannot cope with you in rests his theory; and there we read in argument frequently load you with abuse; the 8th chapter of Genesis that “the waas boys get from their antagonists, if un ters returned from OFF THE EARTH con. able to fight them, and then make up for tinually." Again we find that when their weakness or cowardice by pelting Noah had waited yet another seven days, them with mud.

he again sent forth the dove, “ and ihe

dove came in to him in the evening, and the old sea, ready to sprout up when the lo, in her mouth an olive leaf PLUCKED waters had taken to their heels and ran OFF. So Noah knew that the waters were away, or did Noah and his sons dive like abated FROM OFF THE EARTH. These Indian pearl gatherers, to the bottom of texts alone, as they stand, without any the new ocean, among the late forests comment, utterly confule Mr. Penn's and valleys, and bring up all the trees grand theory. He says that the primitive and herbs with which the deluvian earth earth was destroyed, that it perished, and at present is stocked ? Either the one or Moses positively asserts, that the waters the other of these alternatives must have continually receded and abated from been the fact, or Mr. Penn's theory must off the earth. Yet Mr. Penn, whimsi. be utterly false ; for we read of no new cally enough, we think, claims the title creation in Moses of trees and herbs of Mosaic GeologIST.

yielding seed after their kind, subsequent We would ask Mr. Penn where the to the Deluge. dove found the olive branch which she Let any one picture to himself for a carried back to Noah ? Not floating moment the new and beautiful world Mr. withered on the water certainly, for in Penn ustiers Noah and his family into, such a state it would have been no token after their quitting the ark. Nothing to Noah that the waters were abated from around them but one eternal, interminable off the earth. No, it seems that she desart of mud, with naked mountains and “ PLUCKED IT OFF." From what?—why ghastly rocks, plains of sand, valleys of from an olive-tree we should imagine. sea shells, stones, and putrefying weeds, And pray, Mr. Penn, be so kind as to unrelieved by a single tree, or flower, or inform us where this olive-tree grew, or blade of glass. The imagination of man, rather where was it growing and stand in its wildest flight, cannot paint half the ing at the very time the dove plucked off dreary horrors of such a frightful scene ! one of its branches ? On the antideluvian But this is not all; Moses positively anearth, or in the slimy bottom of the old nibilates this silly hypothesis at one blow antideluvian ocean ?' Why, not even Mr. in the following words : Penn himself, we can hardly think, could " And a river went out of Eden, toventure to tell us that olives grew in anti water the garden ; and from thence it was deluvian times at the bottom of the sea ! parted and becaine four heads. The consequence then is, that this Mosaic “ The name of the first is Pison ; that Geologist's theory expires with the sen is it which compasseth the whole land of tence, that the olive-tree from which the Havilah, where there is gold. dove Plucked a branch or leaf, stood on “ And the name of the second river is the same spot it did previous to the De- Gihon ; the same is that compasseth the luge. How this said olive-tree held firm whole land of Ethiopia. by the roots amid the rush and roar of the " And the name of the third river is Universal Deluge, and kept ils leaves Hiddekel; that is it which goeth towards green for six months under water, we leave the east of Assyria ; and the fourth river botanists to explain.

is Euphrates." Further,-If it had been on the bed of Here we find the sacred writer not only the ancient ocean that the inhabitants of enumerates the rivers that flowed out of the ark, after quitting it, took up their Eden, but tells us their names, which abode, how could the herbacious animals were well known in his time, and also have existed ? -could they possibly have those of the distant countries' which they fed on the noze, slime, and sea-weed, encompassed-countries that exist to the of the departed ocean. Perhaps Mr. present hour in the maps of Asia and Penn would tell us they existed, till the Africa. Now Mr. Penn seems to have grass grew, on stinking fish, such as were kuown that these names were a death. not nimble enough to escape with the blow to his theory, and tumbled him at ocean when it took its flight into the other once from his usurped throne of Mosaic hemisphere, or were boiled to death by Geology, and therefore, as he could not the “ subterraneous fires."

leap over them in his progress to that We also find that Noah planted a vine. self-raised seat, he boldly kicks them out yard shortly after his quitting the ark. of his way, and with amazing effrontery Where did he find the vine-trees ? among declares they are a false gloss, an interthe sea-weeds growing in the mud of the polation which has surreptitiously crept old ocean ? And whence came, good into the text! This he presumes to assert Mr. Penn, the trees of the forests, and all on his bare ipse dixit, without a single the numberless species of fruit trees,

For what he says reherbs, and flowers, that adorn the pre specting a gloss of the last clause of the sent earth? Were their seeds lying two third, and the whole of the fourth verse thousand years in the muddy depths of in the fifth chapter of John, appeariug in

fact to prove it.

it was

a marginal nole by a different hand in the which is separated from it by a narrow Greek Codex Ephreim, if correct, goes not neck of land), saw an eagle rising above one step in support of his rash assertion the steep mountains that enclose the narrespecting the text of Moses, which is row valley. The eagle himself was, inmerely conjectural. But it is evident as deed, no unusual sight; but there is somethe sun at noon day, that had not these thing so imposing and majestic in the names of rivers and countries, which are flight of this noble bird, while he soars to be found at the present day, stood like upwards in spiral circles, that it fasciimpassable barriers in his way, such a nates the attention of most people. But conjecture had never entered his sapient the spectators were soon aware of somehead. According to his method, a man thing peculiar in the flight of the bird they has but to broach a theory, however fan were observing. He used his wings viociful and improbable, and when he finds lently, and the strokes were often repeathimself flatly contradicted by some an- ed, as if he had been alarmed and hurried cient established author, instantly to de- by unusual agitation; and they noticed, clare such contradictions to be merely at the same time, that he wheeled in cirglosses and interpolations,- a mighty cles that seemed constantly decreasing, easy way of getting over every diffi- while his ascent was proportionally rapid. culty.

The now idle haymakers drew together in This gentleman also attempts, as we close consultation on the singular case, have seen, to confirm his theory, suppose and continued to keep their eyes on the ing or rather asserting, that our coal-beds seemingly distressed eagle, until he was have been all produced from vast fields of nearly out of sight, rising still higher and sea-plants alternately covered with sand- higher into the air. In a short while, stone and lime-stone rocks. If such were however, they were all convinced that he the case, how comes it to pass that not was again seeking the earth, evidently not only in the coal, but in the rocks accom as he ascended, in spiral curves ; panying it, there are found the remains like something falling, and with great and impressions of ferns, reeds, and bam- rapidity. But, as he approached the boos, corresponding with nothing that has ground, they clearly saw he was tumbling yet been found in the sea ? While a still in his fall like a shot bird ; the convulstronger proof can be produced that coals sive fluttering of his powerful wings stopare not formed of marine plants by the ping the descent but very little, until he surturbrand, which Dr. Henderson found fell at a small distance from the men and in Iceland, in four different strata, mingled boys of the party, who had naturally run with others of lava, basalt, tuffa, and in- forward, highly excited by the strange durated clay. The fourth or upper

A large black-tailed weasel most stratum consists of what the Icelanders or stoat ran from the body as they came call steinbrand or coal, from which it near, turned with the usual nonchalance only differs," says the doctor," in the and impudence of the tribe, stood up upon absence of the gloss. The two lowest of its hind legs, crossed its fore paws over these strata exhibit the most perfect spe- its nose, and surveyed its enemies for a cimens of mineralised wood, free from moment or two (as they often do when all foreign admixture, and of a jet black. no dog is near), and bounded into a saugh The numerous knots, roots, &c., and the bush. The king of the air was dead ;annual circles, remove every doubt of the and, what was more surprising, he was vegetable origin of this curious substance. covered with his own blood; and, upon The only changes it has undergone are further examination, they found his throat induration and compression, having been cut, and the stoat has been suspected as impregnated with bitumenous sap, and the regicide unto this day." flatened by the enormous weight of the This singular story I always looked upon superincumbent rocks."

as too good to be true, until lately a friend To be continued.

mentioned the following fact that came under his own observation :--A light snow.

covered the ground, and he, having walka, The Naturalist.

ed out to an adjoining hill 10 meet with one of his shepherds, fell in with the track

of one of these weasles, which is easily to By W. Selkirkshire.

be distinguished from that of the smaller

species, by the larger footprint and length The following story is told in Selkirk- of the spring, among the snow.

He fol. shire :-“ A group of haymakers, while lowed ihe track for some time, for his busy at their work on Chapelhope mea amusement, along the side of the hill, dow, at the upper end of St. Mary's until he came to the marks where a pair Loch (or rather of the Loch of the Lowes, of grouse had been sitting, when he lost;

occurrence.

TRAITS IN THE HABITS OF THE WEASEL.

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