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5. John Skip, Bishop of Hereford. superstitious innovations that had been grad
6. Thomas Thirlby, Bishop of Westmin- ually brought in during the latter ages. ster.
The compilers, it is generally said, began 7. Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of Rochester, with the morning Prayer. I do not know and afterwards of London. He was esteem- that any one, either of our ritualists, or comed the cablest man of all that advanced mentators on the Liturgy, has described the the Reformation, for piety, learning, and office of Mattins, or Morning Prayer, as this solidity of judgment. He died a martyr in service was performed in the Church of EngQueen Mary's reign, being burnt at Oxford, land prior to the reformation. A general October 16, 1555.
and summary account of it may therefore 8. Dr. William May, Dean of St. Paul's, gratify curiosity, where easy access cannot London, and afterwards also Master of be had to the books in which it is ordained. Queen's College in Cambridge. . Such an account will illustrate the principles
9. Dr. John Taylor, Dean, afterwards upon which the leaders of our reformation Bishop, of Lincoln. He was deprived in the proceeded : and a comparison of ancient beginning of Queen Mary's reign, and died mattins, with the mattins in Edward's first soon after.
book, will prove, that the object of the com10. Dr. Simon Heynes, Dean of Exeter. pilers of our Liturgy, was, according to their
11. Dr. John Redmayne, Master of Trin own account, “neither to please those who ity College in Cambridge, and Prebendary were so addicted to their old customs, that of Westminster.
they thought it a great matter of conscience 12. Dr. Richard Cox, Dean of Christ to depart from a piece of the least of their Church in Oxford, Almoner and Privy ceremonies," nor, “on the other hand, those Counsellor to King Edward VI. He was who would innovate all things, and liked deprived of all his preferments in Queen nothing that was not new. They attempted Mary's reign, and fled to Frankfort ; from “not so much to satisfy either of these parties, whence returning in the reign of Queen as to please God, and profit them both.” Elizabeth, he was consecrated Bishop of Mattins, at this time, began with the Lord's Ely.
Prayer, Hail Mary, and the Creed, which 13. Mr. Thomas Robertson, Archdeacon were said with a low voice, or privately, by of Leicester.
the priest and people, all kneeling. Then, The commissioners met in May, 1548. all standing up, the four versicles, which in Having agreed to change nothing for the our office follow the Lord's Prayer, are said sake of change, but merely to endeavour, as with a loud voice by the priest and people far as circumstances would admit, to bring alternately. When the priest pronounces everything back to the standard of the the first versicle, "O Lord, open thou my purer ages of the Gospel, by abolishing the lips," he is directed by the rubric, with his erroneous doctrines, and in particular the thumb to sign his mouth with the sign of unnecessary ceremonies, which Popery had the cross; and at the third versicle,“ O God, introduced, they proceeded to examine the make speed to save me," he is, with his right Breviaries, Missals, and Rituals, together hand, to cross himself from his forehead to his with the books of other offices at that time breast in one direction, and in a transverse in use. These they compared with ancient line from the left shoulder to the right. After Liturgies, and the writings of the fathers, the versicles, follow Gloria Patri, and in genWhatever they found consonant to the eral, Allelujah. Between Allelujah, and the doctrine of Scripture, and the worship of invitatory psalm, or Venite exultemus, comes early christian churches, they generally the Invitatory, which varies according to the retained, and frequently improved. But season, or day. After Venite, follows a metrithey rejected the numerous corruptions, and cal hymn. Then psalms are recited, and lessons read. In this part of the service there , rist, and the prayer of "oblation" that was is considerable variety on different days. used to follow it; the omitting of the rubric,
Thus was our excellent Liturgy compiled that ordered "water" to be mixed with wine, by martyrs and confessors, together with with several other less material variations. divers other learned bishops and divines; | The “habits" also, that were prescribed by and being revised and appicved by the arch the former book, were ordered by this to be bishops, bishops, and clergy of both the pro- | laid aside; and, lastly, a rubric was added vinces of Canterbury and York, was then at the end of the Communion office to exconfirmed by the King and the three Estates plain the reason of “kneeling," at the Sacrain Parliament, in the year 1548, who gave ment. The book thus revised and altered it this just encomium, namely, “which at was again confirmed in Parliament i this time BY THE AID OF THE HOLY year 1551. It is frequently called the second GHOST with uniform agreement is of them Book of Edward the Sixth, or the Book of concluded, set forth, &c." This Common the fifth year of Edward the Sixth ; and is Prayer Book is frequently called the first very near the same with that which we now Book of Edward the Sixth ; or the Book of use. But both this, and the former Act made the second year of Edward the Sixth. in 1548, were repealed in the first year of
But about the end of the year 1550, or the Queen Mary, as not being agreeable to the beginning of 1551, some exceptions were Romish superstition, which she was resolved taken at some things in this book, which to restore. were thought to savour too much of super-| When we consider the purity and excelstition. To remove these objections there- lence of this Liturgy, and its favourable fore, Archbishop Cranmer proposed to review reception, we are naturally led, to reflect it: and to this end called in the assistance upon the satisfaction and pleasure, with of Martin Bucer, and Peter Martyr, two which its venerable authors must have conforeigners, whom he had invited over from templated the successful issue of their lathe troubles in Germany: who, not under bours; and to indulge a secret wish that standing the English tongue, had Latin they had been permitted to enjoy upon earth versions prepared for them: one Allesse, a a protracted sense of so sublime a gratifica Scotch divine, translating it on purpose for tion. But scarce was this salutary work the use of Bucer; and Martyr being furnish- completed, when the premature death of ed with the version of Sir John Cheke, who Edward made way for the elevation of Mary had also formerly translated it into Latin. to the thorne, and the re-establishment of po
The following were the most considerable pery in this kingdom. additions and alterations that were then Though we must lament the fate of such made ; some of which must be allowed to be men, as Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, and good : namely, the addition of the Sentences, execrate the memory of Mary for bringing Exhortation, Confession, and Absolution, at to the stake, prelates, to whom the reformathe beginning of the morning and evening tion is so essentially indebted, yet we have services, which in the first Common Prayer reason to rejoice, that her reign was not of Book began with the Lord's Prayer. The sufficient duration to destroy the fruits of other changes were the removing of some their pious industry, and to restore the superrites and ceremonies retained in the former stition, and tyranny of the church of Rome, book; such as the use of "oil in baptism;" which were now so justly dreaded and abthe “unction of the sick ;" “ prayers for souls horred... departed,” both in the Communion office But upon the accession of Queen Elizaand in that for the Burial of the Dead; the beth, the Act of repeal was reversed ; and, leaving out of the “invocation of the Holy | in order to the restoring of the English serGliost" in the consecration of the eucha- | vice, several learned divines were appointed
to take another review of King Edward's | bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enorLiturgies, and to frame from them both a mities,” which was a part of the last deprebook for the use of the Church of England. cation in both the books of King Edward; The names of those who, Mr. Cambden and the adding of those words to the first says, were employed, are these that follow : petition for the Queen, “ strengthen in the
Dr. Matthew Parker, afterwards Arch true worshipping of thee, in righteousness bishop of Canterbury.
and holiness of life," which were not in Dr. Richard Cor, afterwards Bishop of before. The two sentences added in the Ely.
delivery of the Sacrament were these, “the Dr. May.
body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was Dr. Bill.
given for thee;" or “the blood of our Lord Dr. James Pilkington, afterwards Bishop Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee; preof Durham.
serve thy body and soul to everlasting life :" Sir Thomas Smith.
which were taken out of King Edward's · Mr. David Whitehead.
first book, and were the whole forms then Mr. Edmund Grindall, afterwards Bish used: whereas in the second book of that op of London, and then Archbishop of King, these sentences were left out, and in Canterbury.
the room of them were used, “take, eat," or To these, Mr. Strype says, were added “ drink” this, with what follows ; but now Dr. Edwin Sandys, afterwards Bishop of in Queen Elizabeth's book both these forms Worcester, and Mr. Eduard Guest, a very were united. learned man, who was afterwards Archdea | Though, besides these here mentioned, con of Canterbury, Almoner to the Queen, there are some other variations in this book and Bishop of Rochester, and afterwards of from the second of King Edward : namely, Salisbury. And this last person, Mr. Strype the first rubric, concerning the situation of thinks, had the main care of the whole busi- the chancel and the proper place of reading ness ; being as he supposes, recommended divine service, was altered; the habits enby Parker to supply his absence. It was joined by the first book of King Edward, debated at first, which of the two books of and forbid by the second, were now restored. King Edward should be received; and Se- At the end of the Litany was added a prayer cretary Cecil sent several queries to Guest, for the Queen, and another for the Clergy. concerning the reception of some particulars And lastly, the rubric that was added at the in the first book; as prayers for the dead, end of the Communion office, in the second the prayer of consecration, the delivery of book of King Edward VI, against the notion the sacrament into the mouth of the com- of our Lord's “real” and “essential ” premunicant, &c. But however, the second sence in the holy Sacrament, was left out book of King Edward was pitched upon as of this. For it being the Queen's design to the book to be proposed to the Parliament unite the nation in one faith, it was recomto be established, who accordingly passed mended to the divines to see that there and commanded it to be used, “with one should be no definition made against the alteration or addition of certain lessons to be aforesaid notion, but that it should remain used on every Sunday in the year, and the as a speculative opinion, in which every one form of the Litany altered and corrected, and was left to the freedom of his own mind. two sentences added in the delivery of the And in this state the Liturgy continued sacrament to the communicants, and none without any farther alterations, till the first other, or otherwise."
year of King James 1; when the Puritans, The alteration in the Litany here men who were now a numerous body, having tioned was the leaving out of a rough - ex- petitioned for a reform of what they termed pression, namely, “ From the tyranny of the abuses, the King appointed a conference to