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be held at Hampton Court, between a select | Dr. Thomas Dove, Bishop of Peternumber of bishops and divines of the Estab
borough. lislied Church on one side, and the principal Dr. James Mountague, Dean of the leaders among the Dissenters on the other, Chapel. before himself as president, to hear what Dr. Thomas Ravis, Dean of Christ could be alleged for their non-conformity,
Church, and to judge whether an accommodation Dr. John Bridges, Dean of Sarum. between the parties would be practicable. Dr. Lancelot Andrews, Dean of West The demands of the Puritans were far too
minster. unreasonable to be granted, and very soon Dr. John Overall, Dean of St. Paul's. set aside the hope of agreement :—but their Dr. William Barlow, Dean of Chester. objections may have contributed to produce Dr. Giles Tompson, Dean of Windsor. some of the following improvements, which Dr. John King, Archdeacon of Notwere soon after made in the Liturgy. In
tinghain. the Morning and Evening Prayers a collect, Dr. Richard Field, after Dean of Glouand in the Litany a particular intercession,
cester. were appointed for the royal family : the There was little done in the English forms of thanksgiving upon several occa Common Prayer Book in King Charles the sions were then added : the questions and First's time : but it may be noticed in passanswers concerning the Sacraments were ing, that in the Scotch Common Prayer subjoined to the Catechism, which before Book there were several improvements that time ended with the answer to the ques- made, some of which were taken into the tion immediately following the Lord's pray- last review, and more might have been so, er: and the administration of private baptism but that the nation was not disposed to rewas by the rubric expressly confined to a ceive them, the distempers of the late times lawful “ minister," to prevent midwives or having prejudiced many against it. Some laymen from presuming to baptize. These of the most remarkable alterations in this and some other small additions and improve book are : the word “priest" in the rubrics ments were made by the authority of King is changed into “presbyter;" the Epistles James I, and universally adopted, although and Gospels are set down according to the they were not ratified by Parliament. The New Translation, as are also the Hymns following is a list of the bishops and other and Psalms; “ Glory be to thee, O Lord," divines of the Church, appointed on this oc is ordered to be said before the Gospel, and casion :
“ Thanks be to thee, O Lord," after it. Dr. John Whitgift, Archbishop of Can We come now to a memorable period in terbury.
the history of our Liturgy, when the doDr. Richard Bancroft, Bishop of Lon scendants and disciples of the Puritans, who don.
had been so clamorous for a reform of cereDr. Tobie Matthews, Bishop of Dur | monies, and what they termed abuses, in the ham.
beginning of James' reign, were but too sucDr. Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Winches- cessful in their schemes of innovation. It is ter.
generally known that, by their artful machiDr. Gervase Babbinton, Bishop of Wor nations, they contrived to inflame the nation cester.
into rebellion, to overturn the government Dr. Anthony Rudd, Bishop of St. Da both in church and state, and to erect upon its vid's.
ruins a Babel of their own. Their triumph Dr. Anthony Watson, Bishop of Chi- however, like that of their infatuated brechester.
thren, the builders of confusion on the plain Dr. Henry Robinson, Bishop of Carlisle. / of Shinar, was happily not of long duration.
So little reason had the nation at large to people.” The king said, “ the surplice nad be satisfied with that novel form of govern- always been reckoned a decent habit; that ment, to which it was subjected by the re- though for the present he might be obliged gicides, that upon the decease of the Protec to connive at disorder, he would never abet tor, the presbyterians themselves were will- irregularity by his own practice, nor dising to accede to the re-establishment of the countenance the ancient and laudable cusancient monarchy.
toms of the church, in which he had been When the restoration of Charles II. began educated." to be concerted, he published at Breda al At the return of the king, the church re declaration concerning liberty of conscience vived with the monarchy: but its revival in matters of religion. This was done with was not effected without some struggle and a view to soften the animosities that existed opposition. For more than fourteen years between the contending parties, and more had the hierarchy been broken down, and especially to conciliate the presbyterians. the Liturgy laid aside. A very different The committee of nobles and commons ap- form of ecclesiastical government, and of pointed afterwards to wait upon the king at public worship, now prevailed. Various the Hague, was accompanied by eight or other circumstances concurred to form a ten of the most eminent divines of the pres- prospect extremely favourable to the presbyterian communion. In a private confer byterians. The nine bishops, however, that ence with Charles, “they declared them- survived the usurpation, were speedily reinselves no enemies to a moderate episcopacy." stated, six others were soon after consecrated, The king in return “ assured them, that he and in a short time all the sees were filled. had no intention to impose hard conditions, On the 25th of October, 1660, came forth or embarrass their consciences : that he the king's Declaration respecting ecclesiaswould refer the settling of the matters they tical affairs, in which a promise was made, mentioned to the two Houses of Parliament, that the Liturgy should be reviewed by an who were the best judges of what indulgence equal number of divines of both persuasions. or toleration was necessary for the repose of And on the 25th of March following, 42 the kingdom.”
commissioners, that is, 21 episcopalians, and At a subsequent private audience they 21 presbyterians, including the assistants represented to Charles, that " as the Com on both sides, were constituted by letters mon Prayer had been discontinued in Eng patent. The commissioners were enjoined land for several years, it might be impolitic “to meet at the Master's lodging in the for his majesty to revive the use of it in his Savoy, and to take into consideration the own chapel immediately on his return. several directions, rules, forms of prayer, The people, they pretended, would be less and things in the Common Prayer containshocked if some part of it only were used ed, to review the same, comparing them with other prayers." The king, with some with the most ancient Liturgies : to advise degree of resentment, observed, that by the upon the exceptions and objections that liberty he granted them, they were not au- might be made, and if occasion should rethorised to infringe upon his. He hoped, quire, to make such reasonable corrections he said, “ to find the Liturgy regularly re and amendments as they might judge useful ceived in many places, and, that in his own and expedient for giving satisfaction to chapel, he would suffer no other form of tender consciences and restoring unity; but worship.” The ministers, though disap- avoiding all unnecessary abbreviations of pointed by the king's firmness, proceeded the forms and Liturgy, so long received in to importune, “that his majesty's chaplains the Church of England.” might discontinue the surplice, because the The names of the commissioners are as sight of the habit would give offence to the follows:
On the Episcopalian side. On the Presbyterian side of the Liturgy. Such usage as this, we PRINCIPALS.
may reasonably think, must draw the disDr. Fruen, Archb. of York. Dr. Reynolds, Bishop of Nor. dain and contempt of all that were concernDr. Sheldon, Bishop of Lond. Dr. Tuckney.
ed for the Church. So that the conference Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Durham. Dr. Conant. Dr. Warner, Bp. of Roches. Dr. Spurstow.
broke up, without any thing done, except Dr. King, Bp. of Chichester. Dr. Wallis. Dr. Henchman, Bp. of Sarum. Dr. Manton.
that some particular alterations were proDr. Morley, Bp of Worcester. Mr. Calamy, Dr. Sanderson, Bp. of Lincoln. Mr. Barter.
posed by the Episcopal divines, which, the Dr Laney, Bp. of Peterboro. Mr. Jackson. Dr. Walton, Bp. of Chester. Mr. Case.
May following, were considered and agreed Dr. Stern, Bishop of Carlisle. Mr. Clark.
to by the whole Clergy in Convocation. Dr. Gauden, Bishop of Exeter. Mr. Newcomen.
The principal of them were, that several On the Episcopalian side. On the Presbyterian side.
Lessons in the Calendar were changed for COADJUTORS.
others more proper for the days; the "prayDr. Earles, Dean of West. Dr. Horton.
ers for particular occasions" were disjoined Dr. Heylin.
from the Litany; and the two prayers to be Dr. Baricick.
used in the Ember-weeks, the prayer for the Dr. Pearson.
parliament, and that for “all conditions of Dr. Sparrow Dr. Woodbridge.
men," and the “ general thanksgiving,” were Mr. Thorndike. Mr. Drake.
added : several of the Collects were altered ; These commissioners had several meetings the Epistles and Gospels were taken out of at the Savoy, but all to very little purpose; the last translation of the Bible, being read the Presbyterians heaped together all the before according to the old translation: the old scruples that the Puritans had for above office for “ Baptism of those of riper years,', a hundred years been raising against the the two psalms prefixed to the lessons in the Liturgy, and, as if they were not enough, Burial Service, and the “ Forms of Prayer to swelling the number of them with many | be used at Sea,” for “the Martyrdom of King new ones of their own. To these, one and Charles the First,” and for “ the Restoration all, they demanded compliance on the of the Royal Family," were all added. There Church side, and would hear of no contra- | were also several other less material addidiction even in the minutest circumstances. tions: and through the whole service, ambiBut the completest piece of assurance was guities were removed, and various improvethe behaviour of Baxter, who (though the ments were made; for a more particular acKing's commission gave them no farther count of which the reader is referred to the power, than "to compare the Common Preface to the Common Prayer Book. In a Prayer Book with the most ancient Litur word, the whole Liturgy was then brought to gies that had been used in the Church, in that state in which it now stands; and was the most primitive and purest times;" requir unanimously subscribed by both houses of ing them "to avoid, as much as possible, all Convocation, of both provinces, on Friday unnecessary alterations of the Forms and the 20th of December, 1661. And being Liturgy, wherewith the people were alto- brought to the House of Lords the March gether acquainted, and had so long received following, both Houses very readily passed in the Church of England") would not so an Act for its establishment; and the Earl of much as allow that our Liturgy was capable Clarendon, then High Chancellor of Engof amendment, but confidently pretended to land, was ordered to return the thanks of the compose a new one of his own, without any | Lords to the Bishops and Clergy of both proregard to any other Liturgy whatsoever, vinces, for the great care and industry shown either modern or ancient; which, together in the review of it. Shepherd, Wheatly, with the rest of the Commissioners on the Dr. Nicholls, Bp. Tomline. Presbyterian side, he offered to the bishops, to be received and established in the room To the foregoing historical account of
the origin and progressive formation of the of the Church, held at Philadelphia, in May English Liturgy, it may be proper to subjoin 1784. Among other principles agreed on a brief notice of the alterations, that have by this body, it was determined “ That the been thought expedient, in accommodating doctrines of the Gospel be maintained, as it to the circumstances of the American now professed by the Church of England; branch of the Church.
and uniformity of worship continued, as near In the progress of the revolutionary war, as may be, to the Liturgy of the said the Episcopal Church, in this country, was Church.” reduced to a melancholy state of depression In September 1784, a meeting of the Clerand desolation. Her places of public wor gy of Massachusetts was held in Boston, ship were in ruins, her clergy greatly dimin where measures were adopted of a similar ished in number, and her scattered Congre nature with those agreed upon in Pennsylgations without any regular organization, or vania; and among others, a Resolution in the bond of union,
same words which have just been quoted. The first measures towards the re-estab The first step of a general nature, in relalishment of the Church, originated in Con- tion to the organization of the Church in necticut. In March, of the year 1783, there this country, was taken at a meeting of was a meeting of the Clergy, which resulted several of the Clergy convened at Newin recommending the Rev. Dr. Samuel Sea Brunswick, N. Jersey, on the 13th of May bury to the English Bishops, for consecra 1784, on the business of the society for the tion to the Episcopate; as a preparatory step support of Widows and Children of deceased to the regular organization of the Church Clergymen. Here it was determined to in this State.
procure a more general meeting from the On the 13th of August, in the same year, several States in the Union, to be held at there was a Convention of the friends of the New-York, on the 5th of the ensuing Octo Church in the State of Maryland. The ber; not only in relation to the objects of chief measure of this body, was the making the Society, but “to confer and agree on some of " A declaration of certain fundamental general principles of an union of the Episrights and liberties of the Protestant Epis copal Church throughout the States.” A copal Church of Maryland.” In one of the meeting was held accordingly. And though articles of this instrument, it is declared that the members were clothed with no legislative “it will be the duty of the said Church, powers, they with great unanimity, agreed when duly organized, and represented in upon a few general principles, to be recomConvention, to revise her Liturgy, forms of mended to the several States, as the ground prayer, and public worship; in order to on which a future ecclesiastical government adapt the same to the late Revol:ition, and should be established. These principles to other local circumstances of America; contained an approbation of Episcopacy, which, it is humbly conceived, will, and and of the Book of Common Prayer, and may be done, without any other or farther provided for a representative body of the departure from the venerable order and beau Church, consisting of clergy and laity. tiful forms of worship of the Church from The fourth article provided, “ That the said which we sprung, than may be found expe Church shall maintain the doctrines of the dient in the change of our situation from a Gospel, as now held by the Church of Eng. daughter to a sister. Church.” At a subse- land; and shall adhere to the Liturgy of quent Convention, in June 1784. the articles the said Church, as far as shall be consistent of this declaration were again approved, and with the American Revolution, and the certain fundamental principles of ecclesias Constitutions of the respective States." tical government were framed and agreed to. Pursuant to the recommendations of this
In Pennsylvania there was a Convention meeting a Convention assembled at Philadel. phia on the 27th of September, 1785, consist- ber, the 30th of January, the 29th of May, ing of clerical and lay deputies, from seven and the 25th of October, were directed to be of the thirteen United States ; viz. From discontinued. New-York to Virginia, inclusive, with the 8. In the forms of Prayer to be used at addition of South Carolina. They applied sea, two of the collects were so altered that themselves in the first place, to the making the words referring to the King and governof such alterations in the Book of Common ment of Great Britain, were made to apply Prayer, as were necessary in order to ac- to our own country. commodate it to the late changes in the Besides the foregoing alterations, the ConState.
vention went extensively into the further reThe alterations then adopted, were as fol- | view of the Prayer Book, Offices, and Artilows: viz.
cles; and proposed the result of their delibe1. In the versicles after the Creed and rations to the consideration of the Church, Lord's Prayer, the words O Lord, save the to be acted upon at a future Convention. King, were changed to O Lord, bless and | These alterations were printed, and acquired preserve these United States.
the name of the proposed Book. 2. The Prayers for the Royal Family, in The two next Conventions, the first of the Morning and Evening Service, were which met at Philadelphia the 20th of June, omitted.
1786, and the other at Wilmington, Dela3. In the Litany, the 15, 16, 17, and 18th ware, the 10th of October in the same year, petitions were omitted ; and instead of the were chiefly occupied in measures to obtain 20, and 21st petitions, the following words the Episcopacy in this country. At the were substituted :-that it may please thee latter meeting, however, the Nicene Creed, to endue the Congress of the United States, which had been omitted in the proposed and all others in authority, legislative, Book, was again restored by general consent, executive, and judicial, with grace, wisdom while the Athanasian Creed was rejected. and understanding, to execute justice and At a meeting of the General Convention maintain truth.
at Philadelphia, commencing the 29th of 4. In cases when the Litany is not to be September, 1789, the Liturgy underwent a said, the Prayer for the high courts of | general revision. It was now th Parliament, was altered to a Prayer for of Bishops was for the first time formed, as a Congress, nearly in the words in which it distinct branch of the Convention, although now stands in our occasional prayers. And two of them only were present-Bishops the Prayer for the King's majesty, was White and Seabury. changed to a prayer for the civil rulers of “The principal act of this session," says the United States, of the same tenor as that Bishop White, in his Memoirs of the Church, now entitled a Prayer for the President of “ was the preparing of the book of Common the United States, and all in civil au Prayer, as now the established Liturgy of thority.
the Church. The Journal shows that some 5. In the Communion Service, the first parts of it were drawn up by the house of collect for the King was omitted; and the clerical and lay deputies, and other parts of second altered so as to apply to the rulers it, by the house of Bishops. In the latter, of these States.
owing to the smallness of the number, and 6. In the answer, in the Catechism, to the a disposition in both of them to accommoquestion_" what is thy duty towards thy date, business was dispatched with great ceneighbour ?” Instead of the words to honour lerity; as must be seen by any one, who atand obey the King, was substituted to hon tends to the progress of the subjects recordout and obey my civil rulers, &c.
ed on the Journal. To this day, there are 7. The observation of the 5th of Novem- | recollected with satisfaction, the hours which