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vided at the alteration of the style, to the invention of the mariner's comprevent the error which made that al pass, and the art of printing, and they teration necessary; which is, that only equally confirm the truth of this poone year out of four, which consists of fition. The first, which gave us a new even hundreds, is to be accounted a hemisphere, aided by the capacious geleap-year : thus the year 1800 will be nius of Columbus, seem peculiarly only a common year. The throwing calculated to promote the general good out a day in that year will therefore of mankind : but avarice and injufrectify the anticipation 84 years before tice have tarnished the glory of the its time, on which account there will Neapolitan discovery ", which, while beno occasion to alter the golden num

it doubled the whole globe in magni. bers till the year 1900, when another tude, in proportion multiplied rapine, day is to be thrown out. This will and diminished the inhabitants of both occasion the true astronomical changes

the old and the new hemispheres. of the moon to fall one day later than It is not, however, my design the ecclefiaftical. Therefore, to make to dwell upon this subject, but to them agree as near as possible, it will turn my attention to that of printthen be necessary to remove all the ing, whose effects are obvious, and golden numbers (except 17 and 6 *) immediately interest all ranks of the one day lower in the calendar, and community, as upon thole principles this (as may be seen in the table which which literary productions impress on points out the paschal full moon from the mind, the manners and conduct of - 1900 to the year 2199) is done by the individuals are in a great ineasure compilers of the New Calendar: how formed. In such an important influever, after all, it is impossible to make ence on society, it becomes the duty of them always agree, or to prevent their its members to use every endeavour to varying sometimes a day, after Fe. prevent the abuse, and secure the bebruary, in leap years, as happened in nefits. Whilft we abhor and withthis present year. Notwithstanding stand the cruel and bloody edicts of which, Easter was observed this lime power and bigotry, which in a fingle more conformably to the design of the page consign thousands to death, or Council of Nice than if it had been a rob them of those rights and privileges month later ; for, by “ the 21t of that are dearer even than life ; let us March," they meant the day of the not be indifferent to the flow, infidi. vernal equinox, which this year hap ous, but not lefs dangerous influence pened on the 19th, and the full moon that flows from the pollutions of the about 14 hours after, consequently press, in publications either immethis was the moon which they intended diately or ultimately unfriendly to for the Pafchal, and therefore Easter virtue. Day being kept on the Sunday fol. When we reflect upon the immense lowing was according to their design, obligations which the community owe and even on true altronomical princi. to useful authors, we cannot but feel a ples rightly obferved by the church. painful regret that great talents should Canterbury, April 19. T. R. ever be walted in unprofitable at least,

if not pernicious compositions, and a Hints for establishing A Society with to have them vigorously applied

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL LITE. to the most beneficial purposes. The RATURE.

prostituted pen is doubtless impelled by THE benefits that result from the want, for ihere cannot be any plea

mult important discoveries, as well fure in writing on the side of vice; as the inconveniences to which they and were the pecuniary advantages are liable, depend chiefly upon the equal, no author surely could with. application of them to the purposes of hold his support froni the cause of Society. There is scarcely a blesling

virrue. that may not be perverted, and, instead On this subject I have frequently of being cultivated for the happiness turned my thoughts, and as often of mankind, may be rendered a source wished that a remedy adequate to the of misery and injustice.

evil could be adopted, where, probably In the history of modern discoveries, it might be done, by exciting the puh. none appear of more importance than lic io the establishment of A SOCIETY By the way. I should be glad to see a

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL LITEreason assigned whythese two numbers are Flavio Givia, a native of Amalfi, Rot removed as well as the others,

made this discovery, anno 1702.

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RATURE, a plan of which I fall here might expect to enumerate the rival of after communicate,

Livy in the author of the histories of In France, literary patronage is fa Scotland, Charles the Fifth, and North Thionable amo a the great; but in this America; the learned Bryant, whose country we boait of no Mecanas, the Analysis has fo happily developed the patronage of affluence being principal chaos of antient mythology; the moly devoted to a political line : the lin dern Pliny in the claffical Melmoth; gle prosection indoed of the greatest in the biographical Johnson ; the elegant dividual would avail but little, and author of the Rise and Fall of the Roat belt would expire with the patron ; man Empire ; and many other useful but could a popular patronage be ex and accomplished writers of the precited, its permanency would be cer sent period. tain, its extent ample, and the means Were such a Society properly equal to the necessary end.

established and liberally supported, its When an author, by much expence encouragement might be itill more amof labour and time, informs and im ply extended, and its objects multiproves the community by his publica- plied : its resources I doubt net would tions, its patronage is undoubtedly foon enable it to propose prize quefdue to him; the members of it are his tions for the exercise and encouragedebtors, for the instruction he has spon ment of genius and abilities. The taneously diffuted ; and what a plea widows and orphans of those who have sure must it afford a generous public, laboured usefully in literature, would united in A SOCIETY FOR PRO likewise appear suitable objects for parMOTING USEFUL LITERATURE, to ticipating the liberality of such a ro. encourage, by some suitable gratuity, ciety; and the memory of departed gethe ingenious labours of an indigent nius be revived in marble, or other but useful . writer! Had such a system monuments of grateful respect. Thougli been adopted, the amiable but diftrefied these might not outlive their literary author, whole travels through North productions, or preserve their names to America afforded a large and enter more diftant posterity; yet an honotaining extract in your Magazine for rary testimony to departed merit is a February last, had not miferably fpe pleasing excitement to the living canrished through want t, in the metro didate for fame, and cherishes a noble polis of a literary nation.

emulation to survive temporary exiftWhere the fiuation of the author is above the want of a pecuniary gra A SOCIETY thus calculated to pro. tuity; the Society might evince mote literature, in proportion as it their approbation of his labours, by promoted truth and virtue, would not honorary rewards. In such a lift we only be enabled in time to accomplich

the desirable end of its institution, but i + Though the publication of Capt. likewife to raise a structure for its ac. Carver's Travels through North Ame

commodation, with a library for rica justly obtained the approbation of the public, yet the previous expences de.

general use : and by thus opening an celfürily incurred by his family were

agreeable and easy road to useful 1carc<ly liquidated by the rapid falé of his

knowledge, it would afford the pleapublication. This compelled him to seek

fing satisfaction of gradually introini oher sources of rubrience; and

ducing a national taste for Literature, during the lare lottery he was employed and rendering it subfervient to the best in an office, whici: forded some trin po

interells of virtue and religion. rary relief; love a dyin'ery under which JOHN COAKLEY LETTSOM. be labouree, ouravailj by wani, gradu. London, sprié 10, 1780. ally undermined his coulturion, and brouhe roastrid lever chat Pron put Mr. URRAN a period to his life,

hili humanis, ho vever, lamen's the untimely lidi olio

VOUR corresponent asks : Did Mr.

Chalmers ever read or hear of one valuable a nember of the communicv, There remains fonne convid on ito ptilin

nation or state making laws for ano. inz, that an opportuni: y ot paving a uni

ther since the beginning of time? No. buto foliis niemory still exifts; for as

Mir. Cilmer's probably never read or he lived in diftress, so in till greater

heard of the abfurdity implied in the Stress lie left a widow and two voning

question, because no man ever did. ch idren, whore aggravated mikry can

Independent men never receive comoriy be alleviated by the liberality of

mands from ech other : and lovereign a generous public.

States, composed of great assemblages



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of individuals, never abey the laws the inhabitants of all these are subjects which are made for them by other of the same king; but the Provincia itates equally sovereign. When we als are at once ruled by the political perceive, therefore, one community in administration of Spain, the principal fact obeying the rules prescribed by establishment, and by the commands another community, we pronounce of of a Viceroy, exercising delegated pow the former, that it is no longer love.

And it is this circumftance which reign, that it has ceased to be a nation, forms their dependence. The British Unce it no more governs itself: for Empire is composed of the kingdoms it is the authority to command, and of Great Britain, of Ireland, and of the obligation to obey, which form de Mann; of settlements on the African pendence. When the servant refuses Coast: of the Welt. India islands and to submit to the master, the fervitude colonies; and of the Bengalian prom of the former expires. When a de. vinces. The various inhabitants are pendent territory withdraws its obedi fellow subjects of the same king, coence, its independence begins; and, members of the same ftate, who are thould it have the good fortune to esta entitled to the same equal rights; and blish the right to disobey, either by the unity of the whole is preserved by convention or force, it is admitted into the obedience which all owe to one fothe association of nations as a co-ordi. vereign legillature, though the distant nate ftate. Such are the eternal prin provinces enjoy a Provincial legillative ciples of Nature, which must have al power for Provincial uses,: when, howways exifted, and must for ever en ever, they refuse obedience to the Sudure.

preme Authority the general union is The queftions of your correspondent broken, and independence begins. We seem to have arisen from his not dir. here discover the use and the policy of tinguithing between a state which ad a two-fold legiflation. mits of no superior, and a dominion But againit " a double legislature" that acknowledges subjection, and o your correspondent revolts, and seems beys the rules of a legislature over to write as if fiich powers had never which it has no controul. It is not existed, but in the speculations of the the limits prescribed by Nature, a ri. theoriit; yet within this very realm there ver, a mountain, or a desert, which are as inany such as there are corporaform a itate, because it is an incorporeul tions. The City of London, more ibing. This is always composed of an populous and wealthy than any of the aggregate of individuals, who alloci colonies, may be said to be ruled by a ate for mutual protection, for the hap threefold legislation; by acts of parpiness which it produces; who derive liament, by the bye-laws of the cortheir rights from the same source, who poration, by the regulations of the vaenjoy together the fame government rious companies, which every livery- . and laws: and, as it allows no lupe man is bound to obey; and by all rior, it is received into the great com

there the Citizens are taxed, for the munity of nations, and admitted to general benefit, for the uses of the co-ordinate rank. But a territory or corporation, and for the special purdominion is never blessed with ibere polos of every company. There obhonours : though it may be flattered servations are equally applicable to the with a government and legillature of various territories of the Empire, how its own fur territorial purposes, both ever distant and however leparated : are subordinate to a sovereign power, they are, in the same manner, subject the regulations of which they mult al to a treble legislature; to acts of parways obey ; and their avowal of diso. liainent, to acts of assembly, and to bedience is an asertion of independ the bye laws of Boston and Newence. The Russian Empire is composed York, of Philadelphin and Charlesof several provinces and kingioms, in Town.

The Bengalian provinces, habited by people of diffimilar man. more populous and rich than Great ners, religion and language ; and the Britain and Ireland, are in the saine voity of the whole seems to result manner lubject to acts of parliament, from tbeir being the subjects of the to the bye laws of the East India Com. same prince, and deriving the blellings pany, to the edias of government from the faine fource. and council, for is this policy conThe Spanish Empire confifts of one fined to Great Britain, the constitu. lovereign kingdom and a great variety tion of which is happily composed of of diftant and dependent territories : a mixture of monarchy, ariitocracy,


of the governor

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