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AMERICAN AFFAIRS.

Congress consider the return of the Mare been published by authority of Conë kis command in the army, as a fresh proof gress; and what has appeared in the papers of the disinterested zeal and perfevering afhas eithet been {purions or misrepresented. cachment which have juftly recommended What follows is authentic 1

him to the public confidence and applause; In Congress, May 22: Ordered, that and that they receive with pleasure a the letter of the 13th of May from Gen. tender of the farther Services of fo gallans Walhington, and the letter of the 16th and meritorioas an officer. Published by from the Marquis de la Fayette, with the order of Congress, tesolution paffed in confequence thereof, be

CHA. THOMPSON, sec. published.

His Excellency Gen. Washington is apHead Quarters, Morristown, May 13,1780. pointed lieut. general of his Moft Chriftian

The Marquis de la Fayette will have the Majesty's troops in America, and vice-ad. honour to deliver you this.

miral of the white flag. I am persuaded Congress will participate On the oth of June martial law was proin the joy I feel at the return of a Gen. claimed throughout the whole province of tleman who has diftinguithed himself in Pennsylvania, for the purpose of supplying the service of his country so fignally; who the army, and apprehending suspicious has given so many and to decilive proofs of persons. And his attachment to its interests, and who In the Itaie of Massachuset, à proclama. ought to be dear to it by every motive. tion was issued on the 12th of July, res The warm friendship I have for him con- quiring in the most peremptory manner all spires with confiderations of publick utility officers, &c. to cause their respective corps to afford me a double satisfaction in his to march with the utmost expedition to the seturn.

places of rendezyous, to be in readiness to During the time he has been in France, co-operate with the forces of their illustrihe has uniforoily manifefted the same zeal ous ally. And all persons of whatever dein our affairs, which animated his conduct nominátion are required to be aiding and while he was among us, and has been, assisting in furnishing supplies, in order, as upon all occafions, an effential friend to it is said, that the present opportunity may America.

be improved to free the United States froin Hc merits, and I doubt not Congress the horrors of war. will give him, every mark of confideration In the Boston Gazette an account is given and regard in their power. I have the ho- by authority of Congress, of an unsuccessful pour to be, with perfect respect, your Ex- attempt, under the command of Gen. Knip cellency's most obedient and humble servant, hausen, to surprize the advanced posts of

GEORGE WASHINGTON. Washington's army, under the command of His Excellency the President of Congress. Gen. Greene. By this account the British

SIR, Philadelphia, May 18. troops remained quiet at their post of ElizaAfter so many favours, which on every beth Town Poini in Jersey till the 230 of occafion, and particularly at my obtaining June, when they moved out in force 7000 leave of absence, Congress were pleased trong, and advanced very rapidly towards moft gracioully to bestow on me, I dare Springfield, meeting very little oppoftion presume myself intitled to impart to them till they came to the bridge, which was dethe private feelings which I now so hapo fended by 170 continena! troops for 15 mipily experience.

nutes against 1500 British ; but finding it in an early epoch in our noble conrest, I impossible any longer to furtain so unequal a gloried in the name of an American Solo Coefid, they retired with the loss of i ferdier, and heartily enjoyed the honour I jeant and s privates killed; 1 captain, 3 lubo have of serving the United States: my lae alterns, and 25 rank and file wounded, and tisfaction is, at this long withed-for mo 3 milling the enemy, adds this account, ment, entirely complete; when, puering after gaining the pass, marched into the an cad to my furlough, I have been able town, and in their usual way set fire to every again to join my colours, under which I house except four; they then retired in great hope for opportunities of indulging the are bafte; and in ihe night quitted their poft ac dent scal, the unbounded gratitude, the Elizabeth Town Point, and went to Staten warm, and I may fay, the patriotic love, and York 10 ands.--The Americans boast of by which I an for ever bound to America. this miscarriage as if they had obtained

In begging, Sir, you will present Cone victory; and by the blence of the New York gress with a new assurance of my profound papers, which barely mention Gen. Knipe respect, and my grateful affectionate fenti haufen's taking port #t Elizabeth Town peats; I have the honour to be, with the Point with 8000 men on the 16ch of June, Lighest regard, your Excellency's moft obc. and his return, without effecting any thing dient humble kervant, LA FAYETTE. material about the beginning of July, there

In Congress, May 16. Resolved, That is reason to believe he gained no laurels. GENT. MAQ. Sepa 1980

The

The following are the letters referred to this intended election, or to make us in. in our last, see p. 392.

different about it. But we confess that Letrertromthe Élector of Cologne to the K. chefe arguments are of such a nature, that of Prutia, dated Augsburg, June 9,1783. we cannot forbear to lay before your Eleco

“ The court of Vienna has, without coral Grace che following condential de doubt, notified to your majesty the with of clarations and remonftrances. We, at the our beloved, the Archduke Maximilian, same time, most earnestly and fincerely rehitherto coadiutor of the Teutonic order, to commend to your enlightened and patriotic be eitablithed in a principality or electorate confideration, fome observations, which des of the empire, and has amicably entreated serve your whole attention. your majesty to lend him your powerful " In the first place, the court of Vienna alliance,

has not, as your Electoral Grace supposes, • The various fteps which have been given us the leaft intimation of its intentaken on this account, and which have tions respecting the coadjutory of Cologne been represented to me; my figoere with and Munster, though it has been done to to ettablith,, as much as in my power, the other courts and Gates that are less intewelfare of my subjects; the kind and equi. rested in it.. We have no objection to the table request made to me by the Imperial cleation, but we cannot be blamed if we Court, in regard to Prince Maximilian; are not indifferent about the person in together with the particular confidence whose hands, and under whose government which I place in this prince, who is cna there bilaopricks are. dowed with so many eminent qualities, and « We are well acquainted with the co which, to my great fatisfaction, even iny minent and illustrious qualifications of the chapters and territories seem to place in Archduke Maximilian; we also do dot him, have induced me to realve upon hay. envy either him, or the illuftrious House ing a coadjutor. Your Majesty, in your of Austria, any advantages which are cong great judgement, will eally perceive, that sittent with the welfare and the confiitathe election of this princt, which I, upoi tion of the German empire : But it cannot mature deliberation, have resolved upon cfcape the penetration of your Electoral (and which will take place, according to Grace, how dangerous the consequences The stricteft rules of a free election, to might be for the Germanic conftitution to which I and the b;shopricks are entitledo have the dignities of two electorates united agreeably to the constitution of cho Roman in the House of Austria, and an archbis einpire), will not be attended with the poprick and a bishop's see in the person of Jeait détriment to the peace and happiness one of its princes. It would influence the of his empire : On the contrary, I am per- affairs of the empire, and make these big fuaded, from frequent instances recorded thopricks too much dependenti for they in history, that princes, descended from would be entirely governed by the measures high and illustrious ancettors, when they of the Imperial Court, and their intercit have been chosen sovereigns of ccclefiaftical would be blended at all times with the principalities, have always promoted the views of the court of Vienna ; they would peace and interest of their dominions ; and be drawn into every feud and war, and inte I hope that mine, under such a succeilor, every political dispute in which the House will derive the fame advantages ; especi- of Autria might take a part; they would ally as it is well known, that the chapter be concerned in all the broils of the Gerand the states are always contulied on mata manic body, as well as of al! Europe; and ters of fo great importance.

they would lose all the cootidence of the - I therefore hope your majesty, accorde Deighbouring states, being considered as a ing to your wonted magnanimity and e. province dependent on, and clofely. cong quity, which are known to all the world, nected with, the House of Austria. will honour with your approbation my in. The true welfare, liberty, and inde. entions, which in regard to the couiticu- pendence of German eriscopal secs, on ion of the empire, and the connections whole prefervation the conftitution of the with the neighbouring respectable powers, German empire partly depends, require, are inoffenfi.c and indifferent, and do juf that they should be governed by prelates, tice to timore sentiments of reipectiul re who for themselves have no particular gard, with which I am, &c.

power or intereft but what is derived from MaximilLAN FREDERICK, Elector." Their Withopricks. We cav appeal more to His Prulñan Mujefty's Aniwer to the Elec facts than to your Electoral Grace's real tor of Cologne.

fons, that these bißopricks have been «* Your Elc&oral Grace has communi more benefited by tbore princes who were cated to us, in your letter, dated June 9; chosen from among their own capisulars, some reasons, which have determined you from powerful and illustrious families. for an election of a .coadjutor in your bio “ It is this which we, in the present in Mopricks, in favour of the Archduke Max- ftance, with, expect, and think conducive im lian, and which, in your opinion, are towards the welfare of these bithopricks, wwch, as wall procurë, either our assent to and the whole Roman empire,

Que

Letter of the King of Prusia-King of Denmark's Declaration. [ 59 « Our intentions and our views, in this to continue, as hitherto, in our friendly, respect, are pure and sincere; we are far and neighbourly intercourse,

In hopes from recommending to the chapters a can that you will approve of these sentiments, didate, or to force one upon them. Who we remain, &c.

FREDERIC." ever they thall choose out of their own Berlin, July 20, 1780. body, thall be acceptable to us; and if they choose none, it will be equally agree Declaration of the King of Denmark and able; indeed it appears to us as if there was Norway, to the Courts of London, Ver. no necelüty for such an election, since your, sailles,' and Madrid. Electoral Grace is not yet so far advanced “ If the most exact and perfe& neutras įn years. In thert, we have not the least lity, with the moft regular navigation, and intention of limicing the liberty of elec- the most inviolable respect to treaties, could tion; but if others should think proper to have kept free the commerce of the suba do it, we fhall protect the chapters against jeets of the King of Denmark and Norway, intrusions, thinking ourlelves in duty bound from the inroads of the powers with whom to act in this manner as one of the electors he is at peace, free and independent, ic and princes of the empire, and being juftly would not be neceliary to take measures to entitled to take such a fep, as one of the insure to his Aubjects that liberty to which presidents of the Circles of the Lower they have the most incontrovertible right, Rhine apd Westphalia.. ,

The King of Denmark has always founded “ As far as we know, it is against the his glory and his grandeur upon the esteem canonical, law, the statutes of the chapters, and confidence of the neighbouring people. and episcopal capitulation, as well as 4 It has been bis rule, from the beginning gainst our constitution in church and Itasc; of his reign, to testify to all the powers, Chat a secular, or any other power, thould his friends, a conduct the most capable of prescribe or recommend, and thus,obtrude convincing them of his pacific intentions, a candidate; or that votes thould be pro and of his defire to contribute to the geneçured by means that are diametrically op ral happinels » Europe. His proceedings posite to the laws of the church ; or that a have always been conformable to these question, Whether an election of a coad- principles, againtt which nothing can be jutor ought to take place thould be de- alledged: he has not, till now, addressed cided without previoully alienabling the himself but to the powers at war, to obtaiu chapter. The decision of the Pope, in the a redress of his griefs; and he has never year 1763, relating to the contented cleca wanted moderation in his demands, nor ace cion of a bishop of Liege, thews very clear- knowledgements wheu they have received ly, that unlawful means of procuring voiesthe succeis they deserved; but the neutral make an election void.

navigation has been too often molested, $* Whenever a trespass against the con and the moft innocent commeree of his ftitution of che church or chapter is com tubjects too frequently troubled, so that the mitted, and an election is procured by a king finds himself obliged to take proper pretopded majority, tuch an election would measures to allure to himself and his allies, be, in itself, irregular and void, and those the lafety of commerce and navigation, Ehat votcu on the contrary lide, would be and the inaintenance of the inseparable intitled to the alistance and interpotition rights of liberty and independence. If the of the empire and every patriotic prince duties of acutrality, are sacred, the law of that belongs to it. And what disagreeable nations has also its rights avowed by all consequences would not arise from all this impartial powers, ettablished by custom to your Electoral Grace, and to the bi and founded upon equity and reason. A fropricks and their subjects, which are in nation independent and neuter docs not trusted to your carey, and about whose wel lose, by the war of others, the rights

fo

very juftly seem concerned ! which The had before the war, because « Wetherefore repeat it once more, and peace exists between her and all the belli, your Electoral Grace cannot blame us for gerent powers. Without receiving, or bes, W, that, conhidering the situation of our ing obliged to follow the laws of either of kingdom, and particularly of our territo. them, inc. is allowed to follow, in all ries in the circle of Westphalia, we can, places (contraband excepted) the traffic by no means, be indifferent about the elec- which the would have a right to do, if tion of a prince of so powerful a house as peace existed with all Europe as it exifts that of Austria. We therefore, once more with her. The king pretends to nothing intreat you most carnefily and sincerely, beyond what the neutrality allows him. not to be in too great a halte in maiters of This is his rule, and that of his people, fo much concern, and rather to reconlider and che king carpot accord to the principle, the business and prefer the welfare of the that a power at war has a right to interrupt empire, and of your circle and birhopricks, the commerce of his subjects. He thinks to all other considerations whatever, to it due to himself and his subjects, fait iful quier che minds of us, and of other princes observers of hese rules, and to the powers who are of the same opinion with us, and at war themselves, to declare to form the

following

fare you

following principles, which he has always thorize and require you to receive into held, and which he will always avow and your custody the body of the Right Homaintain, in concerë with the Empress of nourable George Gordoa, efq; commonly all the Ruffias, whose sentiments he finds called Lord George Gordon, herewith entirely conformable with his own.

fene you for high treason; and you are 1. That neutral vefsels have a right to to keep himi rafe and close until he fall navigate freely from port to port, even on be delivered by due course of law. And the coasts of the powers at war.

for fo doing this shall be soar warrast. II. That the effects of the fubjeéts of the Given at Whitehall the oth of June, 1780.. powers at war shall be free in neutral vei To the Liect. of the SŚronsont, fels, except such as are deemed contraband. Tower of London, or { HILLSBOROUCH.

III. That nothing is to be understood his Deputy. under the denomination of contraband, that Copy of the orders to the gaoler and the two is not expressly mentioned as fuck in the Wardens appointed to attend his loruthip. third article of his treaty of commerce Firtt, The warders appointed to keep a with Great Britain in the year 1670, and closc prisoner, Thall not presume to leave the 26th and 29th articles of his treaty of him for a moment alonc, either night of commerce with France in the year 1941; day, or to change their dury with other and the king will equally maintain there warders, but by order of the contable, rules with those powers with whom he has licutenant, deputy-lieutenant, or major of no treaty.

the Tower. IV. That he will look upon that as a Second, There muft be no pen, ink, or fort blocked up, into which no veffel can paper, brought in to the prifoner, nor he cnter without eviden: danger, on account facred to use any; or receive any paper of veftels of war Aationed there, which or books of any kind, until they are exaform an effectual blockade.

mined by some one of the officers above• V. That these principles serve for rules mentioned. in procedure, and that justice Hall be eso Third, They are to permit nio person to peditiously rendered, after the rules of the have admittance into the room he' is consea, conformable to treaty and usage re fined in, or to speak to him; nor any ceived.

cloaths, linen, or woollen, or any other VI. His majesty does not hesitate to de- thing whatsoever, to be carried out or clare, that he will maintain these princi- brought into the prisoner, until they are ples, with the honour of his fag, and the examined by the warders, before she gen. liberty and independence of the commerce elemen gaolers, who are carefully to fee and navigation of his subjects; and that it that no armis, money, or writing whatfois for this purpose he has armed a part of ever, be concealed in them. If any fuch his navy, although he is desirous to pre are found, a report to be immediately made serve, with all the powers at war, not only of it, as also of any other thing that may a good underftanding, but all the friend happen extraordinary, to fuch of the Tower thip which the neutrality can admit of. officers as shall at that time command withThe king will never recede from these in the Tower. principles, unless he is forced to it; he Fourch, The warders must not suffer the knows the duties and the obligations, he prisoner to walk in any other apartment of respects them as he does his treatics, and the house, or to come out of his room; defires no other than to maintain them. and if any person or persons fhall attempt His majesty is persuaded that the bellige- to speak to the prisoner, either at the win. rent powers will acknowledge the justice dow or any other way, the warders thall of his motives, that they will be as averle immediately call the guard to apprehead as himself to doing any ihing that may op- them, until further orders from the officer press the liberties of mankind, and that commanding in the Tower. they will give orders to their admiralty, Fifth, If the gentleman gaoler shall nege and to their officers, conformable to the lc&t to see the prisoner, either when hå principles above recited, which tend to the locks up at night, or when he unlocks in general happiness and intereft of all Europe. the morning, the warders shall be obliged Copenhagen, July 8, 1580."

to make a report of such neglect to such of The Declaracion of the King of Sweden the Tower officers as thail then command to the fame Courts was to the fame cffect. in the Towers

Sixth, The warders therefore, with the The following copy of the commitment gentleman gaoler, are every night and af Ld George Gordon, with the orders to morning to examine all parts of the prisothe gaoler for his fafe custody, make an ner's room, to see that no alterations are effential part of the hiftory of the rise and made at the windows, or door, or locks, or 'progress of the late riots, and is therefore bolts within-fide, or bars forced, or walls thought proper to be added :

broken down, or any thing else attempted Copy of the Commitment. that might favour an escape, or look like s THESE are, in his Majefty's name, to ac. correspondence abroad. Of all which they 3

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fall immediately give notice to the officer re-establishment of legal order; under'which commanding in the Towce.

alone.chey can be secured." Tower, June 9, 1789.

They wercall receitedvery graciously,and An order has however been hace sent to had the honour to kits his Majesty's hand. the Tower, by the cabinet council, to al

Aug. so low Lord George che Lberty of the Tower, Was apprehended at Stafford, the soldier and to relax jo all the severities prescribed who fume time ago murdered one old Sectby his Majesty's two principal lecretaries ley, a Shoemaker a: Penbury in Keni, as of state, as well in the warrant of commit- mentioned in the papers, by testing out his ment, as the directions delivered to the brains with a hammer. This villain has conftable, and all the other subordinate and defravded several people in the neigliboura inferior officers..

hood of Sraford, and for those critt.es. was HISTORICAL CHRONICLE. apprehended'; but on his examination he July 28.

was discovered to be the murderer of the The corporation of London waited upon old man just mentioned, who lived by himhis Majesty at St. James's, and presented felf, and was reputed richa the following addreis ;

Ar the allizes for the county of Lincoln « Most Gracious Sovereign,

was tried a cause betviecă the hon. Joha We, your Majetty's most dutiful and Manners and Alderman Sayser, for pulling loyal subjects, the lord mayor, aldermen, down the market-cross at Grantham, and and commons, of the City of Lona, converting the same to his own use. It apo don, in Common Council afiembled, beg' pearcd that this cross had food beyond meyour Majesty's permission humbly to rape mory, and was claimed as part of the maproach the throne, to express our detefta nor of Grantham by the plaintiff

. The des tion and abhorrence of those dreadful acts fendant set up his right to take it down by of violence and outrage which have lately a pretended grant from Charles I. or II. been committed by a set of abandoned and which gave to the corporation a market desperate men, who, in the prosecution of and three fairs; but the jury, which was their wicked purposes, assembled in such special, found for the plaintiff, with 4ol. numbers, as to overwhelm all civil autho- damages. This verdiet' is as celebrated at rity, and render the exertions of the ma Grantham with ringing of bells and other gikrates ineffectual. Thus circumstanced, demonftrations of joy. noching less than that armed force, with

Aug: 9. the direction of which your Majcity is con A most dreadful Ttorm of thunder and itirutionally entrusted, could have rescued lightning killed ,a' man making hay near us from the horrors with which we were Swansea in Glamorganshire, and let fire to surrounded; that force your Majesty in the hay on which he was found. The twie your great goodness was most graciously .vel of his watch was melted, and a round pleased to send to our protection; and by its hole made in the outer case, which fixed it happy interposition our properties have been to the inner care, but no mark appeared on secured from further depredation, and peace his body, and only a black spot on his shirt and tranquillity again restored. -For shis near to the hole made in his watch. your Majesty's paternal care shewn to your Oo the same day a horse and 18 sheep ancient and loyal city of London, we beg were struck dead near Urk in Monmouth 80 prefent our most sincere and grateful Thire. They had all got together under a. thanks; and at the same time, we affure pear-treo to avoid the violence of the remyour Majelly; that every event which can peft. Two horses were also killed by the possibly add to the happiness of any branch Lightning:in a stable ncar Pontypool. of your anguít family, or give additional

Aug. 10. luftre and dignicy to your crown, will ever The liverymen, frecmen, and in habitants be received by us with the most heartfelt of London, presented an address of thanks fa:isfaction."

to his Majelty for the seaforable prulection To which address his Majesty was pleased afforded them during the incontrages, and

to return the following mul giacious were gracioufy received. answer.

Aug. 12. “' I thank you for shis dutiful and loyal A duperare affray happened a? Plymouth address. Yourdeteftation of the late re between the Brecknock reg. of militia, bellious tumuits, and the gratitude you exo joined by the y7ih res of foot, and the press for the measures taken to toppress Hercbid

reg. of militas aided by the sothem, and to reilore the public tranquila merce reg. At first they fought with their licy, are highly agreeable to me.

fide-arms, but ac length had recourte to * My coaceru for the welfare and prof firelocks, when Gen. Gray inter afing put perity of the great metropolis of my kinga a ftop to their proceedings, but not before dom, makes me feel a particular fatisfac some were killed, and many wounded. tion in the prevention of thar destruction

Aug. 15 that there. Iered your properties, and in the A most daring rubbery was committed at Gox1.Magi Sept. 1780.

the

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