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One may observe, not 30 miles from but seldom rise above a few patcht London, that the shepherds liave their boards to keep out the duft, and per. houses on wheels where the ground is haps tempt an arch urchin now and unoccupied by any others except their then to lay his tail over them; and theep, and it is no uncommon thing whenever the water at the bottom is for a poor cotiager to encroach on the evaporated and exhausted the mud at waste for a few poles for cabbages or the bottom makes excellent manure. potatoes, and then to be made to at It must not be omitted that the water forn to the Lorci of the Manor, and is drawn out of thefe wells by various pay an exorbitant sum for what he has machines, such as chains, ropes, &c. enclosed within his mud walls or dead and in pails, pitchers, piggons, ketbulhes.
tles, mugs, bottles *, and sometimes You need not be told that formerly in chamber-pots, by persons of every our considerable farmers kept a good sex and age. All these minutiæ are many servants either by the day or expreft with the ttrictest adherence to year; but lonce the defiruction of cinall
coltume by landscape painters, from farms has become a fashion, this me Teniers tó Smith of Chichetter; and thod of providing for the poor has you will find artists who know nothing declined.
of Greek or Latin, and can hardly We have many poor cottagers that talk English, paint a beggar. boy or can keep a cow, an ass, or a wheep: gypsey-girl with all the propriety of the latter take place, even on their na Pouflin or Reubens. tive mountains, of goats or hogs The dress of the English peasantry are substituted as more useful to the is just what the anniverfary flop shops, support of a family when their flesh is
commonly called fairs, or the purlieus falted and dried for winter store; horses of Goodman's Fields and Monmouth run wild on every common, which, Street, furnish of ready-made cloathis thank God, affords more provender in in constant colour, cut, and fashion. a single English parihi than the whole And first with regard to that of the wilderness of Kadeth Barnea. It is men : It is as certain that the neck and no uncommon thing to lee the gypsies arms are covered, as it is that those or pedlars, or even chimney sweepers, parts of Eastern bodies were naked. trotting on their own hacknies from One riced not in proof of this say that one end of the pariin to another, and here and there a parish-clerk, or an oid. as much further as ihey can go and find fashioned John Trot, wears a pair of fresh grass or thitles.
black or white gloves with ftiff tops Almost every cottager round London up to his elbows ; or that when the has the inexpreffible convenience of a
Esquire gives fome principal tenani a well within ditance, and no man in burial.ring for his father, he is not a his fenfes would build a house, or little proud of wearing it. Black hobs, make a lettlenieni, without the conve.
or natural grey locks, or rats tails and vience of water. i here are also dif.
tallow.candle strait hair, are the only ferent kinds of wells: some brick, ornaments of the head among thele fome ttone, some bare clay and earth : people, and differ in different lanks and there is this further difference between them, that some have an ebullia It is not easy to state the comparison tion of water from their bottom, which between the veil and any part of the in plain English would be called a female head-dress. The infection of spring ; in others the water enters at fashion has lo disconcerted the modelt the lide or near the top ; into others it straw. hat, or the humbler and welldrops from the heavens ; and some are worn and ragged bonnet, that, as we so artificial as to be contrived of wood have no disguite for impudence, we have and set to catch the droppings of eaves. scarce a decent covering for modesty ; We have in almost every parish a pond and the man that should expect to pick fit to water the cattle, and to boil a
upa forward hussey in a village church tea. kettle. You must have seen seve. ral wells in England defcended into by * I always underload that the book of Ateps, whose broken edges gave them Genehs was written in Hebrew; and that a truly patriarchal and antique air ; the Seventy Interpreters knew what and you must also have seen watering they were about when they translated it troughs at every ale-houle door round into Greek, and so it is a sign if they London. The coverings of these wells make Hagar carry water in a bottle of are as various as the wells themselves,
sard, must not look for her under Ta I do not undertake to vouch for the trar's veil, however the enamoured absurd cultum of a grandfather holdhind may expect to meet the comple ing his grandaughter on his knees tion of his wifhes in a clean shift as while she is delivered of a child, 100 mart as possible.
having penetrated to deeply into vulgar The English peasant is not alhamed antiquity; and as I never was out of to put his hand to the plough, though my own country, still less will I take he has no objection to enjoying himtelf upon ine 10 vouch for what is donc under his tree or at his door, with his beyond sea. But from the modeft brown pipe or jugs (luxuries which practice of our antient farmers wives, Abraham, Isaac, nor Jacob, ever who will be laid only by their owir knew); and fares like a stuck pig with
sex, I threwdly conjecture they would out any uncommon ffort if a stranger not eally submit to have any male accofts him, especially if that stranger affiftants on the occation. You will gives himself greater airs, or is more
obferve I advance noihing beyond my bedaubed with lace than o dinary, and own knowledge, and that I do not prehe returns his compliments with an't tend to a grain of faith extraordinary please your worship, and jar vant fur, for fear of being thought an old woman, not to mention his hofpitable offer of a brown cruit, a hock' of bacon and The desire of having children hy greens, and a joram of nappy ale ; for hook or by crook, obtu ns universally Dutch plaice and moor game do not among the English Peasantry. Atfall to his share; and if a diover wants tempts to prevent procreation are held a night's feed for his beaks, or a stage in abhorrence; though someimes incoachman a Araw yard for his over teren prompts the fatal drug, or the work d cattle, 'tis at his fervice-on unnatural suffocation. Teasonable terms.
Parental authority and parental The farmer's fons and servants look blefling bave not wanted their due after his catile, and are accountable for weight, nor is the authority of a hura lofies or accidents, though it is no un band over bis wife leffined: we have usual thing for a wealthy farmer to instances of men, who sell their wives keep a bailiff.
to their betters, and even to their Their servants are either boys er equals, for a trife; and the only regirls of the fame parih, or hired for dreis my countrywomen have is to be a year and a day at some neighbour beforehand with their spouses, cuckold ing statute; and if they get one an them with full evidence, and obtain a other with child, or the matter takes a change of bedfellow by act of parlialiking to a freck girl, and engraf's a
In this we fairly beat the Pachild on her, he either marries her, triarchs hollow. or sends both her and the iftue of her That we may follow the comparison body to the work house, especially if to the last stage of life: the fame atbis wife exerts her prerogative jealousy, feétavion of family vaults obtains and in its on it. Il is not uncominon among our Pauiarchs; tlie same mode for a farmer to get his maid with of conveyance by bargain and sale, or child. A wife's filter has been known by faculty, secures the fee fomple of a to have come in for as hearty a Mare few funeral feet of earth; and if the of the brother-in-law's carelles as ever party dying forgets to give a charge fell to the lor of Leah. This last cir in his will, the survivors inviolably cumftance however is more confined to him the last civility to pack him the great.
into the family vault fo foon as he is No less natural is it that the pin gone
of all ferh. basket of the lawful wife fould have I wih to oblige you by pursuing the the greatek Mare of the father's affec. comparison further; but the opportutions, or that in all civilized countries niliis for enquiry are ro few among adultery with a lawful wife should be the purse proud, the miserable, and dermed criminal.
the ignorant of our common people, Oaths are common among our pea their re'pect for antiquities to little, fantry, and you thall hear a hearty the inilestones fo often defaced ry idle God'd-on you accompanied with a Jouts, and the very fellows who live Tap of the haod or she ianie (no proof by the river lide know so little about the of dimfightedness) in token of earneit tide and navigation, that one fears to asseverations. Ods lije and other oaths trut one's self to their discretion or are also in uri,
fkill; and to li:tle reg rd do they pay to GENT. Mag. Feb. 1780.
the king's leave, that they would almost war with Rome, mentions without hea. drive over his person if they met him fitation rupem qui fregit aceto ;
and in the narrow lanes between Kew and his old scholiast confirms the fact, add. Brentford. Till, therefore, I have ta ing that he used the barpejl vinegar. ken a few more rides, and read a few Pliny, Nat. Hift. xxiii. c. 27, among more news papers, you must excuse the properties of vinegar, reckons that my trespassing on your time with any of breaking stones which could not be more particulars.
broken by fire; and, xxxiii. 21, he sayo,
that the miners digging for gold break Mr. URBAN, Dec. 3, 1779:
the large flints that come in their way YOUR friend I. Baldwin, at the with fire and vinegar. Galen ascribes
Britannia Printing office, Fleet. to vinegar a power of diffolving and street, is under great obligations to separating stones and metals like fire. your useful Miscellany for furnishing (B. i. de fimp. med. c. 22.) It was him with half a column, at least, once applied to this purpose by some persons a month. But though I do all I can who betrayed Eleutheræ, a city of to encourage his impartial paper, by Crete, to Metellus 150 years after. taking it in and filing it with care, he They moistened with vinegar, several will never indulge me with a corner as nights together, a large brick tower, a correspondent. As I flatter myself so that it could be broken through. this can be for no other reason, than (Dio Caffius xxxvi. princ.) See also that Messrs. Van Butchell, Hoyle, Apollodori Poliorcetica, p. 21. & SchoCentlıvre, Penistone, Slake, Peto, lialt on Juven. x. 153. These, it may Wood, Higgins, Daffy, and a long, be said, are all doubtful facts, because &c. pas, better than a transient piece of their distance from our time, and of news, joke, or criticism; I shall because they rest each on the evidence by your means answer a challenge one of a single writer. of his correspondents some time ago Let us come then a little nearer our threw out, * and leave him to determine own time. Francis Duke of Guise, in whether his two other correspondents his expedition into the kingdom of give a more satisfactory folution of the Naples 1557, made use of vinegar to preblem than
PINCO. overthrow a wall. See his Commen
taries. Lover of Hißory at Bridlington
Boxhornius, in his “Quæstiones Ro. vishes to know if any other Au
manze, was the first who itarted an obthor besides Livy mentions the won jection to the credibility of this fact. derful story of Hannibal's making his
Mons. Rollin, who seems as loth as way through the Alps by pouring vi Dr. Goldsmith utterly to part with the negar on the rocks, after he had heated vinegar, fupposes the objections arise them by wood fires. I beg leave to
from the difficulty of procuring such inform him, that the story of Hanni
quantities of vinegar on the spot; to bal's making his way through the
which Mr. Hooke answers, that PolyAlps by vinegar rests on the authority
bius says the summits of the Alps had of Livy. He does not introduce it not a single tree on them ; confequentwith " such an one says" or “ it is
ly there could be no materials to heat reported;" but boldly afferts, that a the rocks, previous to the pouring on huge pile of large trees was set on fire
the vinegar. when the wind served ; and when the Upoo the whole, Mr. Urban, since rock was sufficiently heated, vinegar
the antient naturalists agree in ascribing was poured on it to destroy it. Ariden to vinegar a power of diffolving redtiaque saxa infufo aceto putrefaciunt t.
hot itones, which Ruben Horsfall, the Lib. xxi. C. 37. The same story is
sacrilegious clerk of Abury, exerted told in a life of Hannibal, falsely ar on the heated druidical stones there by cribed to Plutarch, but really written by
water, I see no reason why Hannibal, to a modern Italian 1. (Juvenal x. 153) re
whom no difficulties were unsurmountciting the principal traits of Hannibal's able, might not employ a small quan
tity of a liquor which few of the an.'
tient armies were without, for experi* St. James's Chron. Nov. 14-16, 1779. No. 2924.
ment sake, and to make a beginning + So Crevier's edition. Quære if not in clearing his passage through the patefaciunt,
Alps. This is the account given by | See Dryden's life of Plutarch, Hilt. Dacier, in his life of Hannibal. The de l'Acad. dcs Insc. II. 286, 12m0. fact is not beyond the bounds of pro
ability, however the Roman writers, died there, June 27, 1725, after having who alone mention it, may have exag
diiplayed the most amazing proofs of gerated it.
intelle&ual talents. He had not com
pleted his first year of life, when he ANOTHER of Mr. B's correspon already knew and recited the principal dents, Pbilo Veritas, from N. Wal fals contained in the five books of Tham, in No. 2940, lupposes the malies Moses, with a number of verses on the of Itone cleared away by vinegar were
creation. In his 14th month, he “ such as were only sufficient to ob knew all the history of the Bible; in struct the march of a numerous army,
his 30th month, the history of the naconsisting of soldiers and elephants, tions of antiquity, geography, anahorses and baggage ;” and after fup tomy, the use of maps, and nearly porting it as he thinks by the autho 8pco Latin words : before the end of rity of Florus, Virgil, Silius Iralicus, his third year, the history of Denmark, and Q. Curtius, who, I can assure him, and the genealogy of the crowned fay nothing of it g, and admitting heads of Europe ; in his fourth year, both its probability and pollibility, he the doctrines of divinity, with their inclines to “ ascribe its origin to pure proofs from the Bible ; ecclefiaftical surmise, and the reception it has gained history; the institutions; 200 hymns, in the world to pure credulity,"
with their tunes ; 80 psalms; entire
chapters of the Old and New Tefa. Mr. URBAN,
ment; 1500 verses and sentences from T
HE admirable Clerichton was ancient Latin classics; almost the
considered as the wonder of his whole Orbis Pietus of Comenius, age ; becaule, when 20 years old, he whence he had derived all his knowwas master of 12 languages, of all Jedge of the Latin tongue; arithmesciences, and of all exercises.
tic; the history of the European em. William Crotch is in these days pires and kingdoms; could point out considered as a most extraordinary in the maps whatever place he was phænomenon ; because, at two years asked for, or pafted by in his journies, of age, he began to play (Telf-taught)
and recite all the ancient and modern on the organ:
historical anecilotes relating to it. His But what is all this to the wonder stupendous memory caught and reful learned boy of Lubeck ? He knew, tained every word he was told: his and would repeat, the principal facts ever active imagination used, at whatin the five, books of Moses before lie ever he saw or heard, inttantly to apwas one year old, and he went on ply, according to the laws of asociain the same proportion. Bui, io do tion of ideas, fome examples or fenjuftiee to the itory, it Mould be taken tences from the Bible, geography, profrom the author himníelf, who was his fane or ecclefiaftical biitory, the Orbis tutor ; I have therefore transcribed it, Pielus, or from ancient classics. At as it appears in the last Critical Re the court of Denmark, he delivered view, from a book published in Ger 12 speeches without once faultering; man, at Gottingen and Lubeck, that and underwent public examinations you may, if you please, circulate the on a variety of subjects, especially the wonderful account.
S. H. history of Denmark. He spoke GerCHRISTIAN Henry Heineken was
man, Latin, French, and Low Dutch, born at Lubeck, Feb. 6, 1721, and
and was exceedingly good nacured
and well behaved, but of a molt ten$ Virgil's words are only Alpes der and delicate bodily conftitution ; immittee apertas.” An. X. 11. Florus never ate any solid food, but chiefly " medias perfregit Alpes," ii.
fubfired on purses milk. without mentioning the means. Silius says, He was celebrated, says this ac“ Excoquitur lammis scopulus, mox pro
count, all over Europe, under the ruta ferro
name of the Learned Child of Lubeck. Dat gemitum patris refoluto pondere moes." iii, 642, 3.
He died at the age of four years, four runpit inaccefios aditus," ji: $16.
months, 20 days, and 21 hours; and I find not a syllable about Hannibal in
his death was recorded in a number of Corrius, who only describes (Lib. v. c. 6) periodical papers. Alexander's march thro' a tract of snow and ice in the northern parts of Pe: lia. Mr. UREAN, Alexander preceded Hannibal by a whole Your correspondent, Y. z. in Nocentury
yember Mag. p. 543, is scarcely
80 Benefit of Inclosures further considered.---Psalm cix. illustrated. intelligible, as E. Y. richly observes, are often made from one thing or perp. 641, a great variety of aig son to another, both in the praims and mints may b: brought to prove the oiher antient poetic writings, without advantagor disadvantage of inclo a:sy pecial noufication ;, it will be easy sures. The depopulation of the coun to suppose ne pralm in the sth verse, try occasioned thereby is much in. proceeding thus : Sut tbou an ungodly. filted on, and as ftiltly denied; but I man, íay they, to be ruler over bin, take the truth to be this, that where &c. to verse the 19th, where, by a like arable common field is inclosed, as in insertion, the whole difficulty seems to Northamptonshire, &c. depopulation be removed. Let it thus bappen unto must be the confequence, becaute it bim gromozbe Lord, fay mine enemies, will (I imagine) hardly he denied, that and ibose that speak evil against mag a large proportion of luch land is fixon Soul. This tranfion appears no way laid down to grass, and it is certain dilagreeable to the Septuagint, and I that a grafs farm wants fewer hands to am told is equally to be reconciled to manage it than an arable farın; where the Hebrew ; and it seems to me a heaths, moors, warte grounds, and strong proof of its propriety and truth, Theep-walks, are inclosed, as in Nur to observe that it may be looked folk, &c. they are converted into ara upon as but a large and poetic parable land, and of course a greater num. phrase of Shimei's cursing David, 2d. ber of labourers of all kinds are want Sam. 16.78: and that this crime of ed. If it were practicable to obtain Shimei lay with no small
ht upon a comparative view of the quantity of David's mind, is evident enough from each kind of land, which has been in hence; that though for special reaclosed for the latt 40 or 50 years, with fons he spared him during his own an account of the manner in which it life time, yet did he charge his son has been fince cultivated, it would be Solomon, not 10 juffer his boar bead 10 a matter of much curiofuy, and per go down to the grave in peace. And haps of real use. Your hook circu this charge, we find, Solomon took ocJates all over the kingdom, fuppofe cafon punctually to fulfill, not with you were to request gentlemen to favor out a very sharp and stinging reproof you with accounts of their own neigh of the wickedness of his heart, which bourhoods? To the clergy I should he could not but be conscious of, think it would be an agreeable amuse against his father David, B. A. ment.
Mr. URBAN, Mr. URBAN,
If the following Queries are thought I WOULD heartily approve, and
wortly a place in your impartial readily allow its due praise to
Magazine, the inserting them will every aitempt that is made illuftrate
A Confiflent Diffenler. any difficult pallage of Scripture, Query ist, Whether a free equal toleso as to make it appear confonant ration of all religions and fects in the and unitorm with the plain. drift known world be not an avowed and and intention of the whole, in leading principle of English Protefiant zhis light we must undoubtedly look Difenters? upon the translation of the 10gt! Query 2d, Is it not meant therepsalm, given us in your Mag. for No by, that people of every religion and vember lait. Still, however, whether feet should have free liberty to teach at he owing to my utter ignorance of publickly, and to educate their children the Hebrew tongue, or to a fixel pre according to their own principles, poffeffion (which has been long and without any legal restraint whatever ? deeply rooted), I find myself much bet and that, let their religion be what ter 'sátisfied with a folurion of this is may, while they behave morally indifficulty, which I had in convenija oftentive, they are entitled to the prorion from a noted country clergym1!1, tečiion of Government and Magittacy. ne years fince dead. He told me, Query 3d, Whether a y thing less
in the 109 paim we had a le thin.bis can be called toleration ? klida 2
riyen us, not of David's cura Query qili, Whether, if popery he icy is nie mies, but of his erenis
the only religion that is not to be toleAnd if the introduce puteri, we can with any degree of conthe psalm in ste four fint liitency blame the Church of Rome for Jered, and if it be like. her intolerance with respect to Protefviias fuuden transrions tantili
Y para Verles he con wilę obferyce