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but he would never have reigned as an Emperor upon earth.” This indiscreet remark was heard by Louis Buonaparte, and on the next morning Kellerman received orders to join the army in Hanover, where he was put under the command of a general younger than himself. He would have been still more severely punished, had not his father the senator, General Kellerman, been in such great favour at the court of St. Cloud, and so much firotected by Duroc, who had made, in 1792, his first campaign under this officer, then commander in chief of the army of the Ardennes. When this devout assembly separated, which was, by courtesy, an hour earlier than usual, I expected every moment to hear a chorus of horse-laughs, because I clearly perceived that all of them were tired of their assumed parts; and with me inclined to be gay at the expense of their neighbours. But they all remembered also that they were watched by spies, and that an imprudent look, or an indiscreet word, gaiety instead of gravity, noise when silence was commanded, might be followed by an airing in the wilderness of Cayenne. They therefore all called out, “Coachman, to our hotel !” as much as to say, we will today, in compliment to the new-born christian zeal of our Sovereigns, finish our evening as piously as we have begun it. But no sooner were they out of sight of the palace than they hurried to scenes of dissipation; all endeavouring, in the debauchery and excesses so natural to them, to forget their unnatural affectation and hypocrisy. Well you know the standard of the faith even of the members of the Buonaparte family. Two days before this Christian circle at Madame Napoleone’s, Madame de Chateaureine, with three other ladies, visited the Princess Borghese. Not seeing a favourite parrot they had often previously admired, they inquired what was become of it. “Oh, poor creature l’” answered the Princess, “I have disposed of it as well as of my two monkeys. The Emperor has obliged me to engage an almoner and two chaplains, and it would be too extravagant in me to keep six useless animals in my hotel: I must now submit to hearing the disgusting howlings of my almoner, instead of the entertaining chat of my parrot ; and to see the awkward bows and kneelings of my chaplains, instead of the amusing capering of my monkeys. Add to this, that I am sorced

to transform into a chapel my elegant and tasty boudoir, on the ground floor, where I have passed so many fortunate moments, so many delicious tete-a-tetes. Alas! what a change —what a shocking fashion, that we are now all again to be Christians !!!”

LETTER IX.
Paris, August, 1805.
MY LORD,

NOTWITHSTANDING what was inserted in our public prints to the contrary, the reception Buonaparte experienced from the army of England in June, last year, the first time he presented himself to them as Emperor, was far from such as flattered either his vanity or views. For the first days, some few solitary voices alone accompanied the Vive l’Emfiereur ! of his generals, and of his aide-de-camps. This indifference, or, as he called it, mutinous spirit, was so much the more provoking, as it was unexpected. He did not, as usual, ascribe it to the emissaries or gold of England, but to the secret adherents of Pichegru and Moreau, amongst the brigades or divisions that had served under these unfortunate generals. He ordered, in consequence, his minister Berthier to make out a list of all these corps: having obtained this, he separated them, by ordering some to Italy, others to Holland, and the rest to the frontiers of Spain or Germany. This act of revenge or jealousy was regarded both by the officers and men as a disgrace, and as a doubt thrown out against their fidelity ; and the murmur was loud and general. In consequence of this, some men were shot, and many more arrested. Observing, however, that severity had not the desired effect, Buonaparte suddenly changed his conduct; released the imprisoned, and rewarded with the crosses of his Legion of Honour every member of the so lately suspected troops, who had ever performed any brilliant or valorous exploits under the proscribed generals. He even incorporated among his own bodyguards and guides, men who had served in the same capacity under these rival commanders ; and numbers of their children were received in the prytanees and military free schools. The enthusiastic exclamation that soon greeted his ears convinced him that he had struck upon the right string of his soldiers’ hearts. Men, who some few days before, wanted only the signal of a leader to cut an Emperor they hated to pieces, would now have contended, who should be foremost to shed their last drop of blood for a chief they adored. This affected liberality towards the troops, who had served under his rivals, roused some slight discontent among those to whom he was chiefly indebted for his own laurels. But if he knew the danger of reducing to despair slighted men with arms in their hands, he also was well aware of the equal danger of enduring licentiousness or audacity, among troops who had, on all occasions, experienced his preference and partiality; and he gave a sanguinary proof of his opinion on this subject, at the grand parade of the 12th July, 1804, preparatory to the grand fete of the 14th. A grenadier of the 21st regiment, (which was known in Italy under the name of the Terrible) in presenting arms to him, said: “Sire | I have served under you four campaigns, fought under you in ten battles or engagements; have received in your service seven wounds, and am not a member of your Legion of Honour ; whilst many, who served under Moreau, and are not able to show a scratch from an enemy, have that distinction.” Buonaparte instantly ordered this man to be shot by his own comrades, in the front of the regiment. The six grenadiers selected to fire seeming to hesitate, he commanded the whole corps to lay down their arms; and, after being disbanded, to be sent to the colonial depots. To humiliate them still more, the mutinous grenadier was shot by the gens-d'armes. When the review was over, Vive l’Emfiereur ! resounded from all parts, and his popularity among the troops has since rather increased than diminished. Nobody can deny that Buonaparte possesses a great presence of mind, an undaunted firmness, and a perfect knowledge of the character of the people over whom he reigns. Could but justice and humanity be added to his other qualities but, unfortunately for my nation, I fear that the answer of General Mortier to a remark of a friend of mine on this subject, is not problematical: “Had,” said this imperial favourite, “Napoleone Buonaparte been just and humane, he would neither have vanquished nor reigned,”

All these scenes occurred before Buonaparte, seated on a throne, received the homage, as a Sovereign, of one hundred and fifty thousand warriors, who now bowed as subjects, after having for years fought for liberty and equality, and sworn hatred to all monarchical institutions; and who hitherto had saluted and obeyed him only as the first among equals. What an inconsistency —The splendour and show that accompanied him every where, the pageantry and courtly pomp that surrounded him, and the decorations of the stars and ribands of the Legion of Honour, which he distributed with bombastic speeches among troops, to whom those political impositions and social cajoleries were novelties, made such an impression upon them, that had a bridge been fixed between Calais and Dover, brave as your countrymen are, I should have trembled for the liberty and independence of your country. The heads and imaginations of the soldiers, I know from the best authority, were then so exalted, that though they might have been cut to pieces, they could never have been defeated or routed.—I pity our children, when I reflect, that their tranquillity and happiness will perhaps depend upon such a corrupt and unprincipled people of soldiers; easy tools in the hands of every impostor or mountebank.

The lively satisfaction which Buonaparte must have felt at the pinnacle of grandeur, where fortune had placed him, was not, however, entirely unmixed with uneasiness and vexation. Except at Berlin, in all the other great courts, the Emperor of the French was still Monsieur Buonaparte; and your country, of the subjugation of which he had spoken with such lightness and such inconsideration, instead of dreading, despised his boasts and defied his threats. Indeed, never before did the cabinet of St. James more opportunely expose the reality of his impotency, the impertinence of his menaces, and the folly of his parade, for the invasion of your country, than by declaring all the ports containing his invincible armada, in a state of blockade. I have heard from an officer who witnessed his fury, when, in May, 1799, he was compelled to retreat from before St. Jean d’Acre, and who was by his side in the camp of Boulogne, when a dispatch informed him of this circumstance, that it was nothing compared to the violent rage into which he flew upon reading it. For an hour

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afterwards, not even his brother Joseph dared approach him ;
and his passion got so far the better of his policy, that what
might still have long been concealed from the troops was known
within the evening to the whole camp. He dictated to his secre-
tary orders for his ministers at Vienna, Berlin, Lisbon, and Mad-
rid, and couriers were sent away with them; but half an hour
afterwards other couriers were dispatched after them, with other
orders; which were revoked in their turn, when at last Joseph
had succeeded in calming him a little. He passed, however, the
whole following night full dressed and agitated ; laying down on-
ly for an instant, but having always in his room Joseph and Du-
roc, and deliberating on a thousand methods of destroying the
insolent islanders; all equally violent, but all equally impracti-
cable.
The next morning, when, as usual, he went to see the manoeu-
vres of his flotilla, and the embarkation and landing of his troops,
he looked so pale, that he almost excited pity. Your cruizers, how-
ever, as if they had been informed of the situation of our hero, ap-
proached unusually near, to evince, as it were, their contempt and
derision. He ordered instantly all the batteries to fire, and went him-
self to that which carried its shot farthest ; but that moment six
of your vessels, after taking in their sails, cast anchor, with the
greatest sang froid, just without the reach of our shot. In una-
vailing anger he broke upon the spot six officers of artillery, and
pushed one Captain d'Ablincourt down the precipice, under the
battery, where he narrowly escaped breaking his neck as well as
his legs; for which injury he was compensated by being made
an officer of the Legion of Honour. Buonaparte then convoked up-
upon the spot, a council of his generals of artillery and of the engi-
neers, and, within an hour's time, some guns and mortars, of
still heavier metal and greater calibre, were carried up to replace
the others; but, fortunately for the generals, before a trial copla
be made of them, the tide changed, and your cruizers sailed.
In returning to breakfast, at General Soult's, he observed the
countenances of his soldiers rather inclined to laughter than to
wrath; and be heard some jests, significant enough in the vo-

cabulary of encampments, and which informed him that contempt

was not the sentiment with which your navy had inspired his

troops. The occurrences of these two days hastened his deparE

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