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duced him to the Pope, and to the Emperor's mother ; from whom he had received twelve thousand livres, 500l. for part of the jaw-bone of a whale, which he had sold her for the shoulder bone of a saint. As the police believes the certificates he had produced to be also forged, he is detained in prison, until an answer arrives from our consul in Syria. , Madame Latitia did not resign without tears the relic he had sold her; and there is reason to believe that many other pieces of her collections, worshipped by her as remains of saints, are equally genuine as this shoulder bone of St. John.

LETTER XXI.

Paris, August, 1805, My Lord,

THAT the population of this capital has, since the Revolution, decreased near two hundred thousand souls, is not to be lamented. This focus of corruption and profligacy is still too populous, though the inhabitants do not amount to six hundred thousand; for I am well persuaded that more crimes and excesses of every description are committed here in one year, than are perpetrated in the same period of time in all other European capitals put together. From not reading in our newspapers, as we do in yours, of the robberies, murders and frauds, discovered and punished, you may perhaps be inclined to suppose my assertion erroneous, or exaggerated ; but it is the o of our present government to labour as much as fossible in the dark ; that is to say, to prevent, where it can be done, all publicity of any thing directly or indirectly tending to inculpate it, of oppression, tyranny, or even negligence; and to conceal the immorality of the people so nearly connected with its own immoral power. It is true, that many vices and crimes here, as well as every where else, are unavoidable, and the natural consequences of corruption ; and might be promulgated therefore, without attaching any reproach to our rulers; but they are so accustomed to the mystery adherent to tyranny, that even the most unimportant law-suit, uninteresting intrigue, elopement, or divorce, is never allowed to be mentioned in our journals, without a previous permission from

the prefect of police, who very seldom grants it.

Most of the enormities now deplored in this country, are the consequence of moral and religious licentiousness, that has succeeded to political anarchy, or rather were produced by it, and survive it. Add to this the numerous examples of the impunity of guilt, prosperity of infamy, misery of honesty, and sufferings of virtue; and you will not think it surprising that, notwithstanding half a million of spies, our roads and streets are covered with robbers and assassins, and our scaffolds with victims. The undeniable tRuth, that this city alone is watched by one hundred thousand spies, (so that when in company with six persons, one has reason to dread the presence of one spy) proclaims at once the morality of the governors and that of the governed : were the former just, and the latter good, this mass of vileness would never be employed, or, if employed, wickedness would expire for want of fuel, and the hydra of tyranny perish by its own pestilential breath. According to the official registers published by Manuel, in 1792, the number of spies all over France, during the reign of Louis XVI. were nineteen thousand three hundred (five thousand less than under Louis XV.) and of this number six thousand were distributed in Paris, and in a circle of four leagues around it, including Versailles. You will undoubtedly ask me, even allowing for our extension of territory, what can be the cause of this disproportionate increase of mistrust and depravity ? I will explain it, as far as my abilities admit, according to the opinion of others, compared with my own remarks. When factions usurped the supremacy of the kings, vigilance augmented with insecurity; and almost every body who was not an opposer, who refused being an accomplice, or feared to be a victim, was obliged to serve as an informer, and vilify himself by becoming a spy. The rapidity with which parties followed and destroyed each other, made the criminals as numerous, as the sufferings of honour and loyalty innumerable; and I am sorry to say, few persons exist in my degraded country, whose firmness and constancy were proofs against repeated torments and trials, and who, to preserve their lives, did not renounce their principles and probity. Under the reign of Robespierre and of the Committee of Public Safety, every member of government, of the clubs, of the tribunals, and of the communes, had his private spies; but no regular register was kept of their exact number. Under the Directory, a police minister was nominated, and a police office established. According to the declaration of the police minister, Cochon, in 1797, the spies, who were then regularly paid, amounted to one hundred and fifty thousand; and of these, thirty thousand did duty in this capital. How many they were in 1799, when Fouche, for the first time, was appointed a chief of the department of police, is not known; but suppose them doubled within two years; their increase since, is nevertheless immense, considering that France has enjoyed upwards of four years uninterrupted continental peace, and has not been exposed to any internal convulsions, during the same period. You may, perhaps, object that France is not rich enough to keep up as numerous an army of spies as of soldiers; because the expense of the former must be triple the amount of the latter. Were all these spies, now called police agents, or agents of the secret police, paid regular salaries, your objection would stand ; but most of them have no other reward than the protection of the police; being employed in gambling-houses, in coffeehouses, in taverns, at the theatres, in the public gardens, in lottery-offices, at pawn-brokers, in brothels, and in bathing-houses, where the proprietors or masters of these establishments pay them. They receive nothing from the police, but when they are enabled to make any great discoveries; those who have been robbed or defrauded, and to whom they have been serviceable, are indeed obliged to present them with some douceur, fixed by the police at the rate of the value recovered; but such occurrences are merely accidental. To these are to be added all individuals of either sex, who by the law are obliged to obtain from the police licenses to exercise their trade ; as pedlars, tinkers, masters of puppet-shows, wild beasts, &c. These, on receiving their passes, inscribe themselves, and take the oaths as spies; and are forced to send in their regular reports of what they hear or see. Prostitutes, who, all over this country, are under the necessity of paying for regular licenses, are obliged also to give information, from time to time, to the nearest police commissary of what they observe, or what they know, respecting their visit

ors, neighbours, &c. The number of unfortunate women of I - - - --- this description, who had taken out licenses during the year 12, or from September, 1803, to September, 1804, is officially known to have amounted to two hundred and twenty thousand, of whom forty thousand were employed by the armies. It is no secret that Napoleone Buonaparte has his secret spies upon his wife, his brothers, his sisters, his ministers, senators, and other public functionaries, and also upon his public spies. These are all under his own immediate control, and that of Duroc, who does the duty of his private police minister, and in whom he confides more than even in the members of his own family. In imitation of their master, each of the other Buonapartes, and each of the ministers, have their individual spies, and are watched in their turn by the spies of their secretaries, clerks, &c. This infamous custom of espionage goes ad infinitum, and appertains almost to the establishment and to the suite of each man in place ; who does not think himself secure a moment, if he remains in ignorance of the transactions of his rivals, as well as those of his equals and superiors. Fouche and Talleyrand are reported to have disagreed before Buonaparte, on some subject or other, which is frequently the case. The former, offended at some doubts thrown out about his intelligence, said to the latter—“I am so well served, that I can tell you the name of every man or woman you have conversed with, both yesterday and to-day; where you saw them, and how long you remained with them, or they with you.”—“If such common-place espionage evinces any merit,” retorted Talleyrand, “I am even here your superior; because I know, not only what has already passed with you, and in your house, but what is to pass hereafter. I can inform you of every dish you had for your dinners this week; who provided those dinners, and who is expected to provide your meats to-morrow, and the day after. I can whisper you, in confidence, who slept with Madame Fouche last night, and who has an appointment with her tonight.”—Here Buonaparte interrupted them, in his usual digni- . fied language : “Hold both your tongues; you are both great rogues—but I am at a loss to decide which is the greatest.” Without uttering a single syllable, Talleyrand made a profound reverence to Fouche. Buonaparte smiled, and advised them to

live upon good terms, if they were desirous of keeping their places. *

A man of the name of Ducroux, who, under Robespierre, had from a barber been made general, and afterwards broken for his ignorance, was engaged by Buonaparte, as a private spy upon Fouche, who employed him in the same capacity upon Buonaparte. His reports were always written, and delivered in person into the hands both of the Emperor and of his minister. One morning, he by mistake gave to Buonapatte the report of him, instead of that intended for him. Buonaparte began to read : “Yesterday, at nine o'clock, the Emperor acted the complete part of a madman ; he swore, he stamped, kicked, foamed, roared ;”—here poor Ducroux threw himself at Buonaparte's feet, and called for mercy, for the terrible blunder he had committed. “For whom,” asked Buonaparte, “ did you intend this treasonable correspondence —I suppose it is composed for some English or Russian agent, for Pitt or for Marcoff. How long have you conspired with my enemies, and where are your accomplices * “For God's sake hear me, Sire,” prayed Ducroux. “Your Majesty’s enemies have always been mine. The report is for one of your best friends; but were I to mention his name, he will ruin me.”—“Speak out or you die " vociferated Buonaparte. “Well, Sire, it is for Fouche—for nobody else but Fouche.” Buonaparte then rang the beii for Duroc, whom he ordered to see Ducroux shut up in a dungeon, and afterwards to send for Fouche. The minister denied all knowledge of Ducroux, who, after undergoing several tortures, expiated his blunder upon the rack.

LETTER XXII.
Paris, August, 1805,
MY LORD,

THE Pope, during his stay here, rose regularly every morning at five o’clock, and went to bed every night before ten. The first hours of the day he passed in prayer, breakfasted after the mass was over, transacted business till one, and dined at two.

etween three or four he took his siesta, or nap ; afterwards he

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