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more conquers may be obtained by the fame means, and consequently, that this book may be the last bill of the mortality of British subjects in German hofpitals; fince, notwithstanding the many arguments which have been used to prove the contrary, we cannot help being firinly of opinion, that no case can potfibly arife, in which it thall be for the true interest of this island to ergage in a continental var.

Polibly it may be iinagined, after Dr. Pringle's Olfervations on the diseases of the army, that no:hing new is to be expected in a book on the same fubjiet, so immediately fucceeding that performance; but the subject is too extensive in its nature to be easily exhauftid, and of so much importance to society, that every new obfervation and experiment, murits the attention of those who are employed in preserving the lives and restoring the health of their fellow creatures : for it must be observed, that the diseases here treated, are by no means peculiar to the army.

Our Author begins his book with an account of the malignant and petechial fever. There is no circumftance in which medical writers are less agreed, than in their denominations of the different kinds of fevers. Whether by malignant fever we are to unde: stand the synochus of Galen, the typhus of Hippocrates, the febris putrida of Boerhaave, the febris nervosa of some writers, or the febris carcerum of Pringle; or whether they are all the same diitemper, seems a matter of doubt. Malignant, however, is a vague term, and petechial not much better, since these spots are by no means constant attendants upon this species of fever. We should prefer the terms pestilential, or putrid, as best indicating the nature of the disorder and method of treatment.

With regard to the symptoms of this disease, described by our Author, they are such as are generally observed and universally known. As to his method of cure, * Atter evacuations, says he, if the pulse kept up, we com nonly gave nothing but the saline draughts with the pulvis conirayerva or some tem erate medicine, for the first day or two.' If it were not for these faline draughts, and this pulvis contrayerva, the Lord knows what would become of us ! If the pulse funk, cordials (confeflio car 'iaca, no doubt) were added to the faline medicines, and wine allowed according to the degree of fever; which practice our Author found most salutary: Dr. de Haen's opinion notwithstan ting. In short, Dr. Monro's method of treating this diseale differs very little from that of Dr. Pringle, except that he gave the bark more liberally, and, before the exhibition of ihat medicine, if the pulse was quick and strong, he ventured to bleed, even after the petechiæ appeared, in the advanced state of the fever; which practice, though contrary to custo n, he found to be of great utility


The dysentery makes the subject of our Author's second chapter; in the treatment of which disease, he observes, nothing contributed more to the cure, than keeping the patients clean, and in large airy wards. If it was attended with fever and pain, in the beginning, the Dr. caused the lancet to be freely used, notwithstanding the low pulse, which frequently rose as the blood Nowed from the vein. To this operation succeeded an emetic, if the patient complained of fickness, which was also repeated in the course of the disorder, in case that symptom returned. The next day, a purge of fal catharticum amarum, with manna and oil, which was found by repeated experience, to be the best medicine for the purpose intended. This purge was generally repeated every second, third, or fourth day, as the case required. In the evening after the operation of the purge, a moderate opiate was administered; and, on the intermediate days, mindereri draughts, with mithridate, or in their place, faline draughts, with four drops of the Thebaic tincture. In the

progress of the disease, the pains being abated, half a drachm of rhubarb was preferred to the cathartic above mentioned, and fomentations or clyfters prescribed as occasion required.

required. Such, fays the Doctor, were the chief remedies we used in the first Itage of this disorder ; but after some weeks, when the fever had abated, and free evacuations had been made, and the complaint became in a manner chronic, we were obliged to try other methods; and found that the best way of treating this disorder, was to endeavour to brace and restore the tone of the intestines, by means of the corroborating and gentle aftringent medicines, mixed with opiates; while mild purges, were given at proper intervals.'

The next disease mentioned is the cholera morbus, or a sudden and violent vomiting and purging: it is, says the Doctor, of the bilious kind, and the cure principally depends upon the free use of warm, mild liquors, in the beginning, to dilute and blunt the acrimony of the bile and other fluids, and to promote their discharge ; and afterward of gentle cordials to support the strength; and warm fomentations to allay the pain when vioJent; and mild opiates to procure rest; and if the sickness or griping remains next day, after the cholera is stopt, to give a dofe of phyfic and an opiate in the evening.'

The next chapter treats of the inflammatory fever; a frequent disease at the opening of the campaign. Here we find nothing deserving our especial notice, except that the pulvis antimonialis (composed of ten parts of the pulvis e chelis, and one part of emetic tartar) given in doses of four grains every four hours, after proper evacuations, proved remarkably falutary.

In his chapter on the Pleurisy, ' Physicians, says the Doctor, formerly used to forbid bleeding after the fourth day, if it had


been omitted so long; but when no symptom of suppuration had already appeared, on whatever day of the disorder it happened, I ordered plentiful bleeding, the same as in a recent cale; and never found any disadvantage, but often great service from this practice. He informs us of two cases in which suppuration ensued, in both which the matter was discharged by incision, and the patients recovered ; an operation, which, if more frequeạtly performed, he is of opinion, might recover many, who, from its being omitted, die of consumptions.

From the chapter on coughs and consumptions, we learn, that in cases where there was no confirmed obstruction of the lungs, nor hectic symptoms, the bark, balsam capaivy, or Peru, were frequently of service; but that otherwise, nothing afforded so much relief as frequent small bleedings; a practice Atrongly recommended by Dr. Mead and others.

In treating of the rheumatism, Sometimes, says our Author, we gave 20, 30, or 40 drops of spirit of hartshorn in repeated draughts of warm barley water, or a like quantity of the antimonial wine, used in the same manner; or from 60 to 100 drops of the antimonial wine, mixed with one fourth part of the tinctura thebaica, in a large draught of some warm liquor ; which I have observed, in many cafes, to have a better effect than most other medicines.' But he observes, that in the beginning of rheumatic fevers, forced sweats increased the disorder, and that the milder diaphoretics answered beft.

The autumnal remitting fever makes the subject of the succeeding chapter; in which disorder, the Doctor tells us, that he never could observe any certain critical days, nor regular mode nor -period of termination ; but that sweat was the discharge which inost frequently proved critical, and that, when the fever took a favourable turn, the urine depofited a sediment. When the fever proved fatal, it generally became continued. Bleeding, vomiting, purging, saline draughts, and antimonial powders, were the weapons with which this disease was commonly attacked : a disease in speaking of which says a late author, nullus incertior morbus, neque unquam periculo vacat. The bark was found to answer no good purpose, unless in the decline of the fever, or where it changed into a regular ague.

The Doctor, in his chapter on the intermitting fever, informs us, that he always found the bark most effectual after bleeding and the exhibition of antiphlogistic medicines in the beginning: the alimentary canal being previously evacuated, and the apurexia perfect. He assures us allo, from repeated experiments, that the notion of the bark being prejudicial when there is an icteritious colour in the eyes and countenance, is entirely without foun. dation.


The diseases mentioned in the remaining part of this volume are, the jaundice, tumours of the breast, paralytic complaints, incontinence of urine, stoppage of urine, epilepfy, small-pox, erisypelatous swellings, scurvy, the itch; in all which we find nothing particularly deserving 'the attention of our medical Readers.' To these succeeds the Author's pharmacopoeia in ufum nosocomii militaris regii Britannici; to which is subjoined an essay 'on the means of preserving the health of soldiers on service, and conducting military hospitals. This part of the book contains many useful directions for obtaining the end proposed; but being a subject of little importance to the generality of mankind, especially in time of peace, we must beg leave to refer thole whom it may particularly concern to the book itself : a book, which, though not a very elegant, deserves nevertheless to be confidered as a very useful, performance.


For OCTOBER, 1766.

MISCELLANEOUS. Art. 9. Plutarch's Lives abridged, from the original Greek; illuf

trated with Notes and Reflections, and embellished with Copper-

plates. 7 Vols. 18mo. 145. Newbery. M

R. Newbery, ever attentive to the rational amusement and ina mental entertainment of a superior kind to the many which he has so

ikilfully suited to the taste and talents of Master Tommy and Miss Polly: an entertainment worthy the grateful acceptance of children even of • fix feet high :' many of whom may find ihemselves both wiser and better after rising from a repaft fo falutary as well as delightful.-But, to speak without a metaphor, and in the plain and fenfible language of our Editor, we know of no species of literature more useful to young readers than biography :- not only from the pleafure it affords the imagination, but from the instruction it artfully and unexpectedly conveys to the understanding. “It furnishes us with an opportunity of giving {vice freely, and without offence. It not only removes the cryness

dogmatical air of precept, but fets perfons, actions, and their con. ences before us in the most striking manner ; and by that means, is even precept into example.The perverfeness, folly, and pride of

n, seldom suffer advice given in the common manner to prove effec. cual. Nor is this to be wondered at; for, though there is no action in life that requires greater delicacy, yet few are conducted with less. The advice of parents and preceptors is generally given in an auftere and authoritative manner, which destroy the feelings of affection; and that of friends, by being frequently mixed with asperity and reproof, seems rather calculated to exalt their own wisdom, than to amend our lives : and has too much ihe appearance of a triumph over our defects. Councils, therefore, as well as compliments, are best conveyed in an

dire&t and oblique manner; and this renders biography, as well as
able, a moll convenient vehicle for instruction.—An ingenious gentle-
nan was asked what was the best lesson for a youth ? he answered, the
Eife of a good man. Being again asked, what was the next best ? replied,
the life of a bad one. The first would make him in love with virtue,
and teach him how to conduct himself through life, so as to become an
ornament to society, and a blessing to his family and friends; and the
!aft would point out the hateful and horrid consequences of vice, and
make him careful to avoid those actions which appeared so detestable in
others.'--Such are the advantages of biography, beheld in a moral view;
and there are few biographical works better adapted to answer these va-
luable purposes, than the exemplary lives written by the wise and virtuous
Plutarch, in whom there is scarce a single defect to be found, except
his proneness to superstition: a weakness which, in this instance, strongly
marks the inconsistency and imperfection of human nature, even in its
most exalted characters !-We shall only add the testimony of the late
Dr. Sam. Chandler to the worth of this learned phi ofopher : • Biogra,
phy, says he, is of the greatest service to mankind, when the subjects
are well cholen, and the characters represented with truth and judg-
menti In this kind of writing Plutarch hath excelled. Those great
men of whom he hath transmitted to us an account, are rendered im-
mortal by his pen, and their virtues and vices ftand upon everlasting
record, either for the imitation or abhorrence of all succeeding ages."
Pref. to Rowe's Supplement.
Art. 10. The Antiquities of Arundel; the peculiar Privilege of its

Castle and Lordship; with an Abstract of the Lives of the
Earls of Arundel, from the Conquest to this Time. By the
Master of the Grammar-school at Arundel. 8vo. 55. few'd,
Robinson and Roberts.

The antiquities of Arundel employ but few of the pages of this voJume; which is chiefly filled with memoirs of the Earls of Arundel, from the famous Roger de Montgomery, who came into England with the conqueror; but what could the Author do more, with so unfruitful a subject before him? We suppose it was convenient for him to write a book; and accordingly a book has been written, and published, by subfcription.---As to the Author's qualifications for a work of this kind, he himself, modestly, estimates them at a low rate, -conscious of his inability, yet presuming on the indulgence of the public.'--The public, no doubt

, is very indulgent, on these occasions ; but then it is apt to be fomewhat negligent at the same time: and to leave these moderate performances, together with their authors, entirely to the mercy of that isfatiate monster, OBLIVION.

It is a droll argument which many of our compilers have handed from one to another, and taken up with amazing humility: thus our Author: • Though this attempt should prove abortive, if it ftimulates fome abler pen, he will not think his time wholly ill-employed.' But what kind of a fimulus will the miscarriage of one writer give to another, to undertake a work on the same subject? yet this nonsense we fee, in half the prefaces to ondern

compilements! With rell

work before us, however, it may afford amusement to the ing fome acquaintance with the town and calle


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