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The reader may possibly recolle&, from our late account of Mr. Sharp's letters, that with regard to the heroism of the modern Romans, the Pretender is of the same opinion with Mr. Winckelmann.

In the next subdivision of the same fection, he treats particularly of the capacity of the English for Arts, to the following cffeet:

· The extraordinary talents of the Greeks for the fine arts now actually exist in the finest provinces of Italy. Imagination is, as it were, the element of these talents. This brilliant imagination is characteristic of the Italian, as judgement is of an Englishman. It is a just observation, that the poets beyond the Alps speak figuratively but without painting. One cannot help acknowledging that the strange and sometimes terrifying figures which constitute almost all the grandeur of Milton, are by no means the object of a noble pencil: but rather seem beyond the reach of painting. Milton's descriptions, except of the tender scenes in Paradise, are like Gorgons, strongly characterized, and always excite terror.' (The very thing which Milton intended they should, and which they certainly ought to excite.) · The figures of many other English poets fill the ear with violent noise, but present nothing to the mind.' Here again our Artif seems to have gone beyond his laft.

In page 97. in his chapter on the Arts of the Ægyptians, I cannot posibly, says our Author, avoid mentioning a mistake of Warburton's, in his Essay on Hieroglyphics, where he takes the Iliac table of bronze, fór a Roman production. He feems to have adopted this groundless opinion only because it {quared with his system. I have not indeed had an opportunity of seeing the table myself; but the hieroglyphics which are there observed, and which we do not find in any of the

works imitata ed by the Romans, prove its antiquity, and sufficiently refute every argument that may be advanced to the contrary.'

We now proceed to chap. the third, the subject of which is the consideration of Arts among the Etruscans, the fourishing state of which our author attributes chiefly to their form of government, and the liberty of the people.

· Among the exterior circumstances by which arts were favoured in Etruria (Tuscany) the constitution of its government may be considered as the chief: it is indeed a circumstance which has in all countries a great influence on arts and sciences. The liberty which this people enjoyed under their kings, fuffered the arts and Artists to emerge from barbarism and obscurity, and approach perfection. The title of king did not fignify, among the Etrurians, a sovereign or despotic monarch; but only a


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cording to the number of provinces, by the suffrages of whichi the kings were elected. These twelve regents had over them a chief, who was also elected by the whole nation. The Etrusians were so extreamly jealous of their liberty, and such enemies to royal authority, that it appeared to them odious and intolerable even in their allies.'-Liberty that best nurse of arts, together with their extensive commerce, could not fail to excité in this people, that noble emulation which is the produce of a republic, where true honour may be obtained by the artist, and talents rewarded as they deserve. Nevertheless the arts never attained in Etruria that degree of perfe&tion to which they were carried by the Greeks. Even in the works of their best times, there is an extravagance of file by which they are much diffigured. The cause of this exaggeration must be fought for in the capacity of the people, whose peculiarity of genius will throw some light upon our inquiry. The Etrurians were of a much more bilious and melancholic temperament than the Greeks, as may be gathered from their respetive religious ceremonies. Such a temperament, according to Aristotle, is generally that of the greatest men: it is adapted to profound fpeculation, and in:enle thought; but it exaggerates every sentiment. Beauty makes no impression on the minds of such men: they are proof against the soft emotions, caused by the most natural forms, in fouls of greater sensibility.

• This opinion of the character of the Etrurians is confirmed by the consideration of their having been the inventers of divination in the western world ; and hence Etruria is called the mother of superstition. Their writings on these subjects are horrible as they are numerous. One may form some idea of their priests from the fury of those who, in the year 399 of the foun: dation of Rome, armed themselves against the Romans with serpents and blazing torches, 'in the cause of the Tarquins, who had taken refuge among them; and one may judge of their humanity by the horrid spectacles exhibited to the people at their public funerals and in their amphitheatres. Such spectacles were in time adopted by the Romans; but they were the invention of the Etruscans.' The Greeks, on the contrary, held such sights in abhorrence. In modern cines, self-Aagellation began first in Tuscany. For the above reasons then, we generally find upon the Etruscan sepulchral urns, the representations of funeral combats, entirely unknown among the Greeks. The Roman urns, which were chiefly done by Greek artists, are on the contrary embellished with agreeable imagery ; such as allegorical allufions to human life, or chearful representations of death: for example, Endymiòn asleep, Bacchanalian dances, marriages, &c. It was customary among the Romans at their funerals to


dance before the corps; and Scipio Africanus ordered that his friends should drink upon his tomb.' This reminds us of a gentleman who died some years ago at Heath near Wakefield in Yorkshire.' He ordered by his will, that a half-guinea bowi of punch should be drarik, by the bearers his quondam companions, upon his coffin, at a certain public house in the road to church, which is about half a mile from the house in which he died. How irreverent soever fuch humour may appear to those in whose ideas the face of religion is overspread with a perpetual gloom, and to whom death is a king of terrors; it is most certain that those men who behold these matters in a chearful light, and who are capable of receiving his terrific majesty with good humour and complacency, are not the most unhappy of mor tals. • In chapter the fourth, we find the following passages, among many others deserving attention. • Beauty, fays our Author, the only object and center of art, would require a general definition, which I wish it were in my power to give to the fatiffaction of my Reader, and of myself: but the talk is difficult. Beauty is a secret of nature: we see it and feel its effects; nevertheless, to form a precise and clear idea of its nature is exceeding difficult. Its precious essence remains yet undiscovered. If it were capable of mathematical demonstration, the opinions of mankind concerning it, would be uniform.

The artificial formation of beauty began from the imitation of a beautiful object, even in the representation of gods and goddesses : also in the most polished ages, the statues of goddefles were copied from beautiful women, even from those who abused their beauty, 'by setting a price upon their favours. The Gymnasia, and other places where youth promiscuously exercised themselves in different games, and whither men resorted to contemplate nature without a veil, were the schools of the Greek'artists.' Hither they came to study beautiful nature, and to learn to copy her. Their imaginations were infamed by this daily contemplation of charming nudities, and beauty in time became a familiar idea!'-" The artists found in blooming youth the three essential characteristics of beauty, viz. unity, multiplicity, and harmony. The form of a beautiful body is composed of lines which continually change their central point; always curved, yet never making part of a circle. This multiplication of centers was studied and observed by the Greek artists in works of every kind, even in the construction of their vases.'- But the most beautiful forms in nature are not perfect: that is, there may be found in the most beautiful human body, some parts unequal to the rest, and which may be found fili more beautiful in others. For this reason, the idea of beauty among the Greeks was not confined to any individual,'_s


that Bernini was in the wrong to suppose the story fabulous which he relates of Zeuxis, that intending to paint a Juno, he selected at Cartona five of the most perfect beauties he could find, copying from each such features as he thought most beautiful.'

. If it were possible to convey an adequate idea of a form perfectly beautiful, such an one as hath never been beheld in human nature, I would attempt to describe a winged genius, at the Villa Borghese, which is about the stature of a well formed youth. If a lively and pure imagination, exquisitely fenfible to the impressions of beauty, and entirely abforbed in the contemplation of that beauty wbich issues from and returns again to the Deity; if such an imagination could figure to itself, in a dream, the apparition of an angel, whose radiant visage beamed divine luftre, and whose form seemed an emanation from the source of divine harmony; such would be the beautiful figure of which I am speaking. One should fay, that Art created this exquisite ftatue, with the consent of the Almighty, after the beauty of angels, in order to give us a livejy representation of their perfection.

Venus, says our Author, is more frequently represented than the other goddesses, and at very different ages. The Venus of Medicis, at Florence, may be compared to a rose gently expanding at the rising of the sun. She seems to have just past that age which is yet austere and rude, like unripe fruit. This appears from her breasts which are more full and spreading than those of a young girl. Whilst I behold her, methinks I see that Laïs whom Apelles initiated into the mysteries of Venus, and she seems just as the appeared the first time she was obliged to stand naked before the artist.'

These few passages may possibly be fufficient to give the reader an idea of the nature of this work; a work which abundantly shews the author to have studied the subject on which he writes, with infinite labour and uncommon attention. We cannot, however, take our leave of him without observing, that his manner is frequently more dictatorial than becomes a candid enquirer after truth, when writing on a subject which in its nature must be often doubtful. The opinions of former writers, though they may be sometimes erroneous, deserve, nevertheless to have been treated with less contempt. As to this French translation, it is so extremely deficient in point of language, that we are of opinion, the translator is not a native of France.


Principes du droit de la Nature et des Gens par 7. 7. Burlamaqui,

&c. Le tout confiderablement augmenté par Nr. le Profileur de Felice. That is, the Principles of the Law of Nature and Nations, by J. J. Burlamaqui, with considerable Additions by Mr. Professor de Felice. 8vo. 2 Vol. Yverdon, 1766.

S Burlamaqui's judicious and useful work concerning the

principles of natural and politic law has met with a very favourable reception from the public in general, we think it incumbent upon us to give our Readers an account of this new edition of it. It was intended, as the Author himself acquaints us, as an introduction to a larger work, or to a complete system of the law of nature and nations, which he once proposed to have published. In order to fupply the want of this larger work, Mr. Professor de Felice has greatly enlarged the Introduce licn, partly with his own remarks, and, partly, with others taken from Burlamaqui's own manuscript, and the best writers upon the subject. These remarks, which are designed to make Burlamaqui's a complete work, are not placed at the bottom of the page, but inserted in the text, with proper marks to diftinguish them.

Many of the Professor's remarks appear to us to be extremely just and pertinent. ' In some points he differs from Burlamaqui, whom he treats; however, with great respect, and proposes his objections with modesty. As the work is principally intended for young students, he seems extremely folicitous to inculcate virtuous principles, and never fails to enlarge upon such topics as have a tendency to improve the heart.

In a long preface, containing a hundred and fifty pages and upwards, he gives a short account of the principal writers upon the law of nature, hoth antient and modern, and of their reveral systems. This historical view is both entertaining and instructive ; and is introduced in the following manner.

• In the progress which has been made in arts and sciences from the beginning of the world to the present time, there are certain gradations, which shew both the degree of importance of the several objects of our enquiries, and the goodness of our Creator, who has placed them within our reach, and has rendered the discovery of them easy to us, in proportion to their influence upon our happiness.

• It was long before several arts and sciences were known to mankind, and the progress they made in them was very now. Astronomy, mathematics, the art of war, the refinements of policy, architecture, painting, music, and navigation, were not the first productions of the human mind. These branches of knowlege are not effentially necessary to men; all cannot apply themselves to them; we may all be happy, and answer the


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