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DEITY AND NATURE.
principally obtained from Cornwall. It occurs in the || and wherever they become too much so, must be empstates of an oxyd and a sulphuret, which latter is asso- tied by emigration, or some of those numerous diseases ciated with copper, and termed tin pyrites. Tin, when which ever attend on a crowded and indigent people. crystalized, assumes the form of the right square prism. Metals are subservient to the civilization of man; first, It has a color varying from brown or black, to red, gray, because the labor of obtaining the ores, separating and white and yellow, and an adamantine lustre. It also|| preparing them for use; the manufacture of them into occurs in imperfect crystalizations of numerous forms, their various forms to suit them for the purposes for but most commonly granular. Pure tin has a white which they are ultimately intended; whether for coin, color, and the metallic lustre of silver. It possesses the instruments for the use of the farmer, mechanic, phiproperty of mallability to a considerable degree, as com-losopher, or for complicated machines, which, performmon tin foil does not exceed 1.1000th of an inch. Its ing the unnumbered operations of our multiplied mantenacity and ductility are not so great as in many other ufactures, give employment and the means of subsismetals. It is soft and elastic, and when bent back-tence to a much denser population than could be wards and forwards, makes a peculiar crackling noise. otherwise supported on the same extent of earth. This ore is met with in veins traversing granite, gneiss and mica slate. When the fissures in mountains expose the veins of tin, and the action of the elements bring portions of the ore down into alluvial soil, it is termed stream tin, simply from being separated from the soil and rocky debrit by streams of water.
A second mode is by the manufacture of different kinds of articles, suitable for use and ornament. They minister to man's comfort and pleasure. Compare if you will, the wigwam of the savage chief and the civilized man. In the one you behold a few skins for his bed, a rifle, and some other offensive or defensive arms, Tin is found in Bohemia, Saxony, Galacia, Green- and a very few domestic utensils or instruments of comland, the peninsula of Malacca, Japan, and the island fort; on the other hand, metals and manufactures have of Banca in Asia, and slightly in Brazil. Cornwall in || given man many domestic comforts he could not otherEngland is however the great commercial emporium wise have enjoyed. To metals, his house, if of wood, of tin, which it has been from the remotest ages-the is indebted for the iron that secures; if of stone, to the Tyrians having in the days of Moses, 1500 years A. C., || traded to it for their metal. These mines now afford 4000 tons of tin per annum, the average value of which is $1,350,000. The purest metal is obtained from the stream ore, which often yields 70 per cent. Small quantities of tin have been found at Chesterfield, Mass., and it is said that a mine of it has recently been discovered in Maine. Copper and iron, when exposed to the action of air and water, oxydize freely; and the oxyd of copper is highly poisonous, and that of iron disagreeable. Tin, when melted, is run over the inner surfaces of vessels made of these metals, and as it does not easily oxydize, protects them from the action of the corrosive agent, and thus renders them much more valuable to man.
same, which cuts it out and shapes it. Many of the utensils used in it are either wholly or in part composed of iron, copper, tin, &c. His furniture can only be made, and must be in part held together by a metal. Nor can the ornamental part of his habitation be divested of metallic presence, from the time-piece that tells the moments as they fly, to the mirror that shows back his own form and features, as they change from manhood to the dust.
The valuable qualities possessed by the metals, show that they were intended for the use of man; or otherwise why should they have been endowed with ductility, mallability, tenacity, hardness, and the power of resisting the action of oxygen on their surfaces in proIt also, with mercury, forms the amal-portion to their quantity and consequent value? Withgam used in the construction of mirrors.
In order to a thorough comprehension of the argument in favor of benevolent design in the structure of the universe, which is furnished by metallic substances, it is necessary to take into our consideration, that man was intended to become a civilized being while an inhabitant of this world. That it was to be the school in which not only individuals, but nations collectively, and all mankind en masse, were by the controlling force of moral and physical laws, to be improved and fitted for higher states of moral and intellectual duties and enjoyments. With the immense population which even now exists on the earth, a state of civilization such as is now practiced, could not be carried into effect, unless some other means of providing for the physical wants of man were discovered than those produced by the soil or waters. There have been, and there still are nations on the earth, who derive their subsistence only from agriculture rudely practiced, pasturage, hunting and fishing; but their populations are not numerous,
out gold and silver as the medium of exchange, how could commerce extend her wings from one end of the earth to the other? No other metals possess such suitable qualities for this purpose. Copper and iron would be too heavy, not sufficiently valuable, and too liable to oxydize; similar objections might be urged against all others.
The properties of metals mentioned above, as tenacity, &c., are possessed in various degrees by different metals, so as to adapt them to the use of the human race. The difference in the amount of heat necessary for the fusion of different metals, affords several instances of this fact. Thus iron and copper both possess mallability and hardness sufficient to form a variety of useful utensils; but without great care, by the action of moisture in the atmosphere, the former rusts, and the latter forms a green oxyd on its surface, which is highly poisonous. Tin, however, being fusible at lower points of temperature, and having a disposition to unite and form an alloy with the other metals, is applied as
NIAGARA ABOVE THE FALLS.
a coating to the surface, and thus averts the threatened danger.
NIAGARA ABOVE THE FALLS.
BY REV. WM. WINANS.
HAIL, beauteous child of mighty inland seas,
Destitute of metals, it would have been impossible for man to have extended his investigations into the various departments of philosophical knowledge. What other instruments could he have constructed to supply the place of the mariner's compass, theodolite, telescope, air pump, and a variety of others of equal value, without which it would have been impossible for him to have obtained even a small fraction of his present knowledge of nature, or power over the elements? Metals possess the property of uniting together when in a state of fusion, and thus forming alloys which are frequently more valuable than the simple metals themselves. Shall we instance, as examples, brass and bell metal, which are compounds of copper and tin. Another advantage of the alloy is that it|| Each other's blood. Yet be not proud; though fair, is more readily fusible than either of the two metals, and in many cases acts as a bond of union between them, as the solders used by the jeweler, and copper and tin worker. The quantities in which the several metals are found in the crust of the earth, is also worthy of our notice. Gold, silver, mercury, are compara- || tively thinly scattered among the rocks; hence, from their scarcity, they become more valuable. Iron, copper, lead, and tin, being suited more to the manufacture|| of vessels, instruments, and articles of constant use to man, are diffused with a more liberal hand. There is hardly any country on the globe which does not contain iron sufficient for its own consumption.
Active, and strong, and doing good to man,
And thus man,
The manner in which the metals are deposited on or among the rocks, serves to strengthen the argument of benevolent design. They are not thrown without order about in the crust of the earth, but the more common and useful, as iron, lead, and copper, occur in mountain masses, beds, and veins, which are sufficient- Gay, thoughtless, eager man, runs blithely on, ly easy of access; while the precious commonly lie at Rejoicing in his strength, vain of his wit, greater depths, and require for the procuring and ex- Exulting in his worth, till stern misfortune, traction from the ore more labor. Does it not clearly Ruthless disease, or with'ring age proclaims appear to the candid inquirer after truth, that such sub- The doom that waits him in a thoughtless hour, stances, possessed of so many useful properties, placed And comes unlook'd for, e'en though long foretold in such favorable situations, and ministering so benefi- Then plunges headlong into the abyss cially to the necessities and comforts of our race, could Of darkness, whence his groans arise to tell never have been so constructed, unless by a wise and|| His ruin'd fate, forsaken of his God. benevolent designer? To the humble believer in the general and especial providence of the Almighty, an acquaintance with this, as well as every other part of nature, will impart a stronger trust and confidence in the infinite charities of him who spake this universe into existence; and while his care extends to all the unnumbered worlds that roll throughout immensity's vast range, it ever watches with a father's eye, and supplies with a bounteous hand the necessities of every creature he has formed.
If you are under obligation to many, it is prudent to postpone the recompensing of one until it be in your power to remunerate all, otherwise you will make more enemies by what you give, than by what you withhold.
BY MRS. L. H. SIGOURNEY.
A BUTTERFLY bask'd on a baby's grave,
"I was a worm till I won my wings,
HOPES AND TREASURES IN HEAVEN.
HOPES AND TREASURES IN HEAVEN.
WORDS BY WILLIAM CUTTER, ADAPTED TO MUSIC COMPOSED BY MOZART.
Life let us cherish, while yet the taper glows,
Life let us cherish, while yet the taper glows,
DOMESTIC DUTIES; or, Instructions to Young Married Ladies on the Management of their Households, and the Regulation of their Conduct in the Various Relations and Duties of Married Life. By Mrs. William Parkes. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1838.-This is the tenth American edition of a work which should be carefully consulted by matrons, and such as have the charge of households. Its general divisions are the Social Relations, Household Concerns, the Regulation of Time, and Moral and Religious Duties. It affords instructions on all points, great and small. Here the inexperienced housewife may find lessons for herself and children concerning society-on gossiping and scandal-on conduct towards relations on temper towards husband, children, and servants-on forms of visiting on economy and improvidence in dress and furniture; and on liberality, benevolence, presents, and fashions. Then comes another section on the choice and management of servants; on the example due them; on their wages and gifts from visitors; on cooks, housemaids, laundresses, &c.; on the nursery, family linen, and on marketing and provisions, such as preserves and pickles, and such littlenesses, which are all important, and the composition of home comforts and joys. Early rising, together with the avocations and pleasures suited to each part of the day, as reading, drawing, music, &c., are severally noticed; and last of all, there are some concluding remarks in favor of our holy religion.
which a reverential faith in the divine origin of the Christian code of morals enforces-such will be the paramount objects regarded in the preparation of these tales.”
In truth, this is a book of pure morals, and aims, with promise, to inspire in the American bosom a love of modest independence, of mental toil and entertainments, and of the principles and institutes of our holy and blessed Christianity. Its style, descriptions, characters, and plots are lively and taking; and from this specimen, we doubt not but the "Family Tales" will be read and talked of, even in these hard times, half over the continent. As a specimen of the author's power of description, see how the fourth chapter commences.
"The little village of Capeville in Massachusetts is well known to many, who, during the summer months, visit the celebrated promontory of Nahant, where a fresh breeze from the ocean may almost at all times be enjoyed. It is to a small cottage in Capeville, that I have now to take my readers.
"The cottage stands in a retired lane that branches from the main road, and is bordered by venerable elms, which indicate that the avenue once led to a mansion of some importance. The building is one story high, plainly constructed, with a small portico in front, with trellis-work for the honeysuckle to clamber up. A small yard inclosed by a fence intercepts the dust of the road, although, as the latter is not a thoroughfare, there is little occasion for such protection. A hill of gentle ascent rises just behind the house, as if to shield it from the bleak If you climb this hill, and pass through a grove airs of the sea. of stunted pine-trees over a sandy and barren soil, you come suddenly upon the brow of another acclivity, from which you behold the broad Atlantic breaking, flashing, and foaming upon a smooth, level beach not more than a mile distant."
Although this book contains much instructive matter, we cannot recommend it without a word of caution to the reader. "Prove all things; hold fast that which is good." Much of it is good-very good. But when it recommends games and dancing as amusements in families, we promptly demur. If any inquire what we would substitute, we unhesitatingly answer, if AN EPITOME OF THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY, translated nothing better suggests itself, turn the party into a prayer meet- from the French by C. J. Henry, D. D. Harper & Brothers: ing. Do as Martha and her sister and Lazarus did when Jesus || Family Library, No. 144.-This is an excellent work. A was their guest; and they sat with holy admiration, listening to|| glance wins it a clear verdict. It is historical and expository. the "gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth." How Scarcely a name can be found in the records of theories, true the author of this work could reconcile these trifling amuse- or false, in government, science, arts, morals, or religion, but is ments with the following remarks we cannot conceive. here noticed historically, and dwelt upon briefly in the form of philosophical or ethical inference. This is a book for daily, common, and comfortable use. It will suit the young for instruction, the mature for reference, and all sorts of readers to freshen in the mind faded recollections. It should be introduced immediately as a text-book in all our schools, academies, and colleges. It is adopted by the University of France for in
"I lament my inability to express to you, as forcibly as the subject demands, the value of habitual piety. To regard our Creator as also our benefactor and friend, to whom we refer all the blessings and pleasures we enjoy; to live under the consciousness of his omnipresence; to rely without doubting, that so long as we continue intent on well-doing, he will never utterly forsake us; and to have our hearts always prepared to wor-struction in its colleges and high schools. And we say to the ship, and our lips to praise him, will produce so pleasurable and composed a state of mind, that to neglect its attainment can only be considered as an act of self-denial worthy the character of human folly."
Surely the quadrille which she recommends would be a poor preparation for that devotion which she thinks should be habitual and unremitted. That part of the work which treats of religion is liable to very serious objections. With all these defects the work is valuable, and would be a useful directory to the duties of female domestic life.
WEALTH AND WORTH; or, Which Makes the Man? New York: Harper & Brothers.-This anonymous production is the first of a series, of forthcoming "American Family Tales." American! This is its first commendation, and we will infer thence a right frank augury; for we have too long waited on England, Scotland, and even Catholic Ireland for our supplies of food for the mind, and even traveled thence to the continent, and pressed all languages into our service, content, to our shame, with awkward translations, rather than stoop to home productions. As to tales, we have no preference for that particular form of composition, and sincerely hope the time may come when truth will attract by its own charms, and not by borrowed shades and dresses. But if we must have tales, these are like ly to be of the very best sort. The advertisement says:
reader, whoever she may be, if you propose to read any thing beyond your Bible and hymnbook, be sure you read this. Men, women, and children (if not too young) are equally suited in this Epitome. Here, they will find a plain exposition of the Hindoo, the Chinese, the Persian, the Chaldean, and the Greek philosophies, as well as of the various systems which have prevailed during the Christian era.
LETTERS TO YOUNG LADIES. By Mrs. L. H. Sigourney. New York: Harper & Brothers.-This is the sixth edition of a work prepared by its gifted and excellent author for the instruction of young ladies. She says in her preface:
"I have been requested to address a few thoughts to the youth of my own sex, on subjects of simple nature, and serious concern. The employment has been pleasant, for their interests are dear to me; and several years devoted to their instruction, have unfolded more fully their claims to regard, and the influence they might exercise in society. Should a single heart, in "life's sweet blossoming season," derive, from this little volume, aid, guidance, or consolation, tenfold satisfaction will be added to the pleasure with which it has been composed."
Mrs. Sigourney does not dwell at length on household duties, but rather aims to promote the cultivation of the mind and the heart. She writes on Religion, Knowledge, Industry, Health and Dress, Sisterly Virtues, Books, Friendship, Conversation, Benevolence, and Self-control. In her letter on Benevolence she says:
"To infuse an earnest, independent, American spirit, uncontaminated by intolerance toward other governments and nations to encourage a taste for gratifications of the intellect in "Lord Bacon, that star of the first magnitude, among the conpreference to those of the senses, without forgetting the supe-stellations of mind, says, that he early 'took all knowledge to rior importance of the inculcation of those principles of action, || be his province.' Will you not take all goodness to be your
province? It is the wiser choice, for 'knowledge puffeth up, || securities of our freedom and happiness. The authors of this but charity edifieth.' Knowledge must perish in the using, work are probably of the same opinion. They say, in their but goodness, like its Author, is eternal. preface: "Dear young friend, whose eye, undimmed by the sorrows of "Lessons in music have come to be almost necessary to comtime, is now resting upon this page, suffer me, from the experi- plete the education of a young lady. Yet, the moment she sits ence of an older and earth-worn traveler, to urge you to bind down to the piano forte, she is obliged to entertain the most light yourself an apprentice to the trade of doing good. He will be and trifling, and sometimes vulgar sentiments, incorporated in your Master, whose 'mercies are new every morning, and fresh the prescribed lessons, and commended to her lips in harmony every moment.' He will give you a tender and sustaining ex-of sweet sounds.' Parents receive their daughters from the ample, who came to 'seek and to save that which was lost.' boarding schools freighted with these light, frivolous, and often They, too, will be your teachers, those bright-winged minister-profane songs, which are to form the amusements of the parlor, ing spirits, who hold gentle guardianship over us, their weaker and must always be sung to entertain their company." brethren, lest we 'dash our foot against a stone,' whose harps are tremulous with joy when one sinner repenteth. The wise and good of all realms and nations, those who have gone to rest, and those who still labor, you may count as your companions, a vast and glorious assembly
"Resolve, therefore, this day, that you will not live exclusively for your own gratification, but that the good of others shall be an incentive to your studies, your exertions, your prayers. If you will be persuaded thus to enroll yourselves among the students of Heaven, consider attentively your own powers, situation, and opportunities of doing good."
This book should be read by all young single ladies. It would be to them what Mrs. Parkes' production is to married ladies.
GUIDE TO CHRISTIAN PERFECTION. Boston: Edited and Published by T. Merritt and D. S. King.-This most excellent monthly continues to advocate the evangelical doctrine of || entire sanctification. Its recent numbers have, if any thing, increased in interest. Mr. Mahan's reply to Dr. Woods appears in the last number, and it is, far beyond our hope, satisfactory, and, we should suppose, conclusive. We feel solicitous that the "Guide" should have an extensive circulation.
THE MOTHER'S MAGAZINE, New York, is a monthly of sterling merit. It answers its title. On the first of January it commenced its tenth volume. Mrs. A. G. Whittlesy, Editor. THE MOTHER'S ASSISTANT, and Young Lady's Friend. Boston: Edited by William C. Brown; is also contributing important aids to the formation of female character, and the execution of woman's sacred trusts. It is principally reprint, but contains some excellent original articles from well known writers.
THE PICTORIAL MAGAZINE, devoted to the Instruction and Amusement of Young People of both sexes. Edited by Miss Coxe. Cincinnati.-The first number of this new monthly was issued in January. It is designed for children, or very young persons. Neary all the articles are from the pen of the editor, and evince great skill for the duties of her station.
The Parlor Melodies are cheerfully recommended for their intended use. They are innocent, at least, and many of them contain most weighty moral and religious admonition. The piece on page 126 is selected from this work. It is from the pen of the-celebrated Mozart, and has long been a popular piece, both in Europe and America.
METHODISM IN FRANCE.-In Paris there is a respectable English congregation of Wesleyans. They worship in No. 23 brs., Rue Royale, St. Honore. The members are much united, and walk in the comfort of the Holy Ghost. A library is connected with the chapel. The donations and collections for this department, from the Parisian Wesleyans, amounted to about £300 for the year 1840.
The French Chapel, Rue Menil Montant, is also at Paris. It is a respectable chapel, and is well attended. More than 300 French and Swiss have here been born again. Here 100 poor children of indigent Roman Catholics receive day and Sabbath school instructions.
In Boulogne is an old theatre which the Wesleyans use as a chapel. Here is a good society, day and Sabbath schools, and a circulating library.
Calais is a promising station, with a small good chapel for French worshipers.
At Basseville is a good new chapel, well attended. At Lille and Roubaix the labors of the Wesleyans have been successful. Here there was recently a revival.
Caen is the oldest Wesleyan station in France. It dates from 1700. It has a commodious chapel, and prospers.
In Conde sur Noireau and its vicinity are two chapels and three preaching places.
But Methodism has prospered most in the south of France. In Nismes is a large congregation, and a pious people. At Conquinies, Vanwert, Codognan, and Montpelier, in the vicinity of Nismes, the good work prospers.
THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE OHIO LUNATIC ASYLUM. Bordeaux is the head of a flourishing circuit of 350 members. December, 1811-This shows the average number of patients, In the Alps are faithful Wesleyan missionaries, and Switzerduring the year 1811, to have been 143. Whole number admit-land is visited by the power of God through their labors. ted 343. Males 186; females 157. Of these 171 were single, and 135 married. The number discharged was 301. Of these 124 recovered, 28 were incurable, and 36 died. Per cent. of recoveries, 61.69.
PARLOR MELODIES.-This is a collection of original and selected pieces of music for the piano and the organ, adapted to a series of moral and religious songs. Arranged by Mrs. M. B. Loyd and Miss M. E. Baily. New York: Harper & Brothers. This is a neat quarto of more than one hundred pages. pleased to see that the parlor will now be accommodated with songs which can be innocently used for the entertainment of its guests. Fashionable music has contributed its share of influence towards the corruption of public morals. A reformation is as much needed in this matter as in the use of ardent spirits. There are many causes operating to produce that deepseated and wide-spread depravity, which now threatens the ruin of the republic and the destruction of all confidence between private citizens. Let Moore, and Byron, and Bulwer, be the favorites of our sons and daughters, and form their parlor and their chamber companions, and no more will be necessary to effect the overthrow of our institutions, and annihilate the
In all France the Wesleyans have twenty traveling and forty local preachers-about 1200 members and 113 on probation, 1200 children in Sabbath schools, a monthly magazine in French, and the following works are translated and read by the French, viz., Life of Wesley in 2 vols., 8vo; Life of Nelson; Wesley's Sermons in 2 vols., 8vo; Wesley on Christian Perfection; Pipe on Sanctification; Hymnbook; and several smaller works. This account is condensed from a report by Wm. Toosa, of Paris, chairman of the district.
ENCOURAGING SIGNS.-Amidst the discouragements of the times are various occasions for praise to the Giver of all good. The temperance reformation is sweeping over the land, and promises, with the divine blessing, to put an end to half the sorrows of mankind. Theatres are deserted, and in their place we have crowded halls wherever popular lectures are delivered. To crown all, revivals of religion are prevailing to an extent, and with a power unknown in modern times. As an evidence of this, we might mention that in the Scioto valley, between Portsmouth and Columbus, more than one thousand persons have been added to a single branch of the Church within three months.