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SKETCHES OF TRAVEL IN BRAZIL.
upon the life and character of St. Paul, not particular- At 5 o'clock, P. M., the procession issued from the ly distinguished for elegance of diction, or energetic Cathedral, and marched through the principal streets delivery. The speaker, as usual in the Brazilian pul- || under the heavy chiming of bells. The whole town pit, recited his discourse memoriter. In some instances, I have witnessed a most impassioned delivery, but on the present occasion the good canon must have been sadly pushed for want of time to commit, or else have been afflicted with a treacherous memory; at least he required a second person to stand near him with the manuscript in his hand. A curtain had been placed before the last named gentleman, to shield him from the vulgar gaze; but as his services came into requisition, more light was needed-the curtain was thrown aside the prompter stood forth in all the importance of his office.
was on the alert to witness the expected parade, and every window and veranda was thronged with eager spectators; while from the mansions of the wealthy, curtains of damask were suspended in honor of the passers by. Two brotherhoods, the first colored, the second white, composed the train; each individual bearing a lighted wax candle of sufficient length to serve for a staff, and having upon his shoulder a white, red, or yellow scarf, (capa,) indicating the order to which he belonged.
The images were much fewer in number than ordinarily. There were only three; the first designed to represent the Virgin Mary with her infant; the second, St. Peter and his keys; the third, St. Paul. In rear of the last walked the bishop, sustained on either hand by aged priests, who, next to the prelate, were clad in the richest ornaments of their sacristy. Smoking incense preceded this venerable diocesan, already bowed down
The style of construction in this, as well as the Brazilian churches generally, has no reference to the convenience of a speaker or his auditory. The pulpit is upon one side, the rear of the church being invariably devoted to the chief altar. There are no seats, save the earth, wood or marble floor, which may be severally || with the weight of years. Gold and diamonds sparkled found, according to the sumptuousness of the edifice. The floor is sometimes strewed with leaves, sometimes covered with clean boards, and in a few cases I have seen temporary seats carried in. On the present occasion, the large area within the railing that protected the side altars was filled with females closely seated a la Turque; and having become thus arranged, in attention to the mass which was celebrated in front of them, they were unable to face the speaker, although he took care to place himself on the right side of them.
The appearance of this portion of the assembly was truly imposing; nearly all the females being covered with their dark and graceful mantillas, serving at once as hat and scarf. My Parisian friends were peculiarly impressed with this part of the scene, and were not a little disposed to murmur when subsequently they discerned, under the folds of the mantillas, so large a proportion of colored faces. As good Catholics they felt bound to remonstrate, that a considerable share of the music performed as sacred during the solemnities, was known in France as licentious and profane; but even this was not laid to heart like their disappointment respecting the complexion of the ladies. It should be here remarked, that the Paulistanas are not rivalled in respect to beauty or accomplishments by their sex in any portion of the empire, while the purity and illustrious character of their descent is a common boast. But it is not in a promiscuous assembly like that referred to, where a fair representation of the above qualities can be expected. Moreover, elegance of dress is by no means an index of condition or character in Brazil. The lower classes exhaust the avails of their industry in holyday ornaments, and mistresses take pride in adorning their slaves. In certain instances the gold and jewelry purchased to shine in the drawing-room, are seen glittering in the streets, in curious contrast with the ebony skin of domestics, who are the humble, though temporary representatives of the wealth of the family.
on his mitre, and a silken canopy was borne along over his head; while he held before his face a small crucifix containing the host, to which he appeared devoutly praying. The procession was closed by a band of martial music, and about a hundred apologies for soldiers, in the uniform of National Guards.
Among the excursions we made in the vicinity of S. Paulo, not the least interesting was that to the ancient gold mines of Jaragua. These are situated about three leagues distant, at the foot of a mountain, from which the locality is named, and which can be plainly seen from the city in a northwesterly direction. These mines, or washings of gold, were the first discovered in Brazil. They were very productive in the early part of the 17th century, and the large amount of the precious metal sent from thence to Europe secured for the region the name of a second Peru; while it promoted exploration in the interior, and ultimately resulted in the discovery of the various localities of gold in Minas Geraes. They have long since ceased to be regularly wrought, and are now the private property of a widow lady, being situated upon a plantation embracing not less than a league square of territory.
Senhora Donna Gertendes was not only proprietress of this immense Fazenda, but also of six others of nearly equal value; two of which were situated still nearer the city, and all stocked with the requisite proportion of slaves, horses, mules, &c. She resided in one of the most splendid establishments of the city; and being distinguished for a disposition to contribute to the entertainment of visitors to the province, had favored our company with a kind invitation to spend a little time at the Fazenda de Jaragua, whither she would temporarily remove her household. Mules were provided for the expected guests, but having the offer of a horse from another friend, and being detained from going with the company on the evening appointed, I made my appearance by means of an early ride the following morning, in ample time for breakfast. That
repast was enjoyed by about twenty persons, seated on|| direction, he judges of his relative position, and of his benches, at a long table, permanently fixed in the remoteness from the city. dining-room. It was a matter of peculiar pride to the The prospect here enjoyed was varied and beautiful Donna, that every thing partaken at her table was the beyond description, repaying a hundred fold the toil of produce of her own soil: the tea, the coffec, the sugar, ascent. At no great distance in the rear were several the milk, the rice, the fruits and vegetables, the meats, lavradas, or gold washings, which having been extenand, in fact, every thing except what she overlooked—|sively wrought in former times, left the soil broken and the wheaten flour, the wines, and the salt, which latter naked. In the opposite direction lay the capital of the had made the voyage of the Atlantic.
Knowing my fondness for rural adventure, Mons. G. had proposed to me an especial distinction-the privilege of accompanying him and his botanical assistant to the summit of the Jaragua mountain, which stood frowning above our head. Soon after breakfast we were under march, accompanied by a guide, a Portuguese lad, and several blacks. The route was altogether unfrequented, and, in fact, had to be sought out in a winding course over a high hill, by which we approached the rear of the mountain, the only part where ascent was possible. Several hours were spent in cutting and trampling our way through dense jungle and high weeds. Long before we began the ascent proper, my companions came to the conclusion that it would be much better for them to botanize below, rather than persevere in such exploits. No persuasion could induce them to go forward; but abandoning the enterprise to me they turned back, and as they afterward informed me, missing their way, lost nearly all the time it took me to accomplish the ascent. Several motives induced me to go on; retaining in my company the guide, the bearer of my port-folio, and the Portuguese boy. We soon found the walking more expeditious, although the ascent was exceedingly steep, and the surface rocky. Fearful stories had been told me about the rattle-snakes and other serpents, that would render the excursion perilous, but I encountered none of them. Here and there we found a resting-place, and at length placed our feet upon the very summit of the peak.
province spread out upon the declivity, originally denominated the plain of Piritininga. The localities of Campinas, Itu, Sorocaba, Santo Amaro, and Mogi das Cruzes, were discernible. The general aspect of the country bore some resemblance to scenes I had beheld in the northern hemisphere; and, owing to my distance from any distinguishing object, save a few plants on the neighboring precipices, I might, for once in Brazil, have easily imagined the scene a part of our own United States. Such associations at such a time make an impression not soon to be forgotten. I had now wandered to the farther extremity of the torrid zone; and from the Equator downward, could scarcely gaze upon an object calculated to remind me, otherwise than by contrast, of the land of my nativity. But here my proximity to the temperate regions of the south, and still more my momentary abstraction, from contact with things as they were below me, called up in vivid recollection the days and scenes of other years. But the illusion had soon to be broken by the necessity of hastening down the mountain. Another look showed me the vast circle of vision skirted with mountain ridges disappearing in the blue distance, while the intervening surface undulated between every variety of hill and valley. Here and there could be observed the angular encroachments of the cultivator upon the forests-the richness and romance of the whole view being greatly augmented by the winding courses and occasionally glittering waters of the Tieté and the River of Pines.
I TWIN'D me a wreath of the rosiest flowers
I sought them again at the close of the day,
The rock was granitic, approaching to gneiss; but from long exposure to the atmosphere, its exterior was so much decayed as to resemble decrepitated limestone. It was chiefly overgrown with a species of thin grass, in the midst of which I found several rare and interesting plants. Precisely in the centre of the small area upon the summit, was an excavation several feet deep. This I inferred to have been an essay of the ancient gold hunters in search of treasure; although I was subsequently informed of a tradition, stating it to be a burial place of the aboriginal inhabitants, who sought out the highest eminences as places of repose for their dead. On reaching this elevation my attendants set up a deafening shout, making at the same time a demand on me for handkerchiefs to wave to the dwellers below, as a signal of triumph. The peak of Jaragua is the highest in the whole region, being the southern extremity of the serra do Mantiqueira. It is called the barom-And, methought, it was thus to the desolate heart, eter of S. Paulo; for when its summit is clear the weather is uniformly good, but when its head is capped with clouds, then all look out for storms. Moreover, it is the land-mark of the traveler, by which, from any
Yet sweet as the breath of their flourishing hours,
That virtue a fragance and balm can impart;
W. P. SPARKS.
Extract from President Mahan's sermon on "This is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent."
continued flow of the benevolent affections, the blessedness of the soul can be measured only by the extent of its capacities. Christian, "this is life eternal."
3. Those deep and tender emotions which a fixed contemplation of the glory of God as it "shines in the
THE attention of the reader is invited to a consider- face of Jesus Christ" excites, render the blessedness ation of the following propositions:
I. To all who love God, a knowledge of the "only living and true God, and of Jesus Christ, whom he hath || sent, is eternal life."
of the soul as great as its capacities permit. The emotions excited by a continued contemplation of objects beautiful, grand, or sublime, are of the most happifying nature which the mind experiences. Men will cross the
II. The conditions on which Christ will impart this ocean, they will circle the earth, to enjoy those deep knowledge and consequent blessedness to us.
I. To all who love God the possession of this knowledge will be eternal life. In other words, it will in-|| duce a state of blessedness as great as the capacities of the subject will permit, and endless in duration.
1. It transforms the whole moral character into a perfect resemblance to that of Christ. The infinite and perfect blessedness of God results from the conscious possession of infinite and perfect holiness. Just so far as the believer enters into a conscious possession of a character like that of God as revealed in the plan of redemption, so far, to the extent of his capacities, he possesses the pure and perfect blessedness which God himself enjoys. Now the possession of the knowledge here referred to, results in the full and conscious possession of such a character. "We all with open face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." Let Christ lift the vail, Christian, and show you his glory, as he is able and willing to do by his Spirit, and you would be like him. Your whole moral character would be transformed into his likeness. The natural result would be, that his "joy would be fulfilled in you." The blessedness which he enjoys would be yours to the full extent of your capacities. And this would be "life eternal." This would be the life eternal which God enjoys, and which the pure spirits around his throne possess.
and expanding emotions, which a perception and contemplation of the sublime scenery of nature awakens. Men have often expended fortunes to secure the enjoyment of the emotions awakened by a contemplation of the sublime objects of the different continents. But the emotions of delight awakened by the contemplation of finite objects, however beautiful, grand, or sublime, in themselves, when compared to those awakened by the contemplation of the infinite, such as the infinite and boundless love and glory of God, are almost as finite to infinite. Take one or two examples in illustration.
Mr. Tennent had occasion to take a journey which would occupy a whole day. Before he started, he entered his closet and besought the Lord to "manifest himself to him" on the way. As he mounted his horse the vail was lifted, and he "beheld with open face the glory of the Lord." He had those full and distinct apprehensions of the love and glory of God, which filled the whole sphere of moral and intellectual vision. In these divine contemplations, his mind was occupied during the entire day in a state of such entire fixedness, that he was wholly insensible to all things else around him. At length his horse stopped at the place of his destination, without the exertion of any conscious direction on the part of the rider. So wrapt was he in the visions of the divine glory, that it required much effort on the part of the people in the house to recall him to a consciousness of the scenes around him.
Now I suppose, that during that day, the emotions awakened by such contemplations rendered the mind of that man of God as blessed as his capacities permitted. Nor could his powers long have endured such a crushing weight of glory. Take another example.
A man of God, of a similar spirit to Tennent, on retiring, one morning, to his place of private devotion gave directions to a domestic to call him down at the expiration of three hours, as he was then to receive a visit from some friends. At the specified time, the domestic found him in such fixed contemplations of the
2. Such knowledge of God, such apprehensions of the infinite glory and love of Christ, induce the continued exercise of that perfect love which is the consummation of blessedness. The highest happiness of which we are susceptible arises from the strong and continued exercise of the benevolent affections. Any object that can call forth these affections and induce their strong and continued exercise, will render us in the highest degree blessed. Now there is but one object in existence that is capable of doing this. It is a "revelation of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ." Let the Spirit of God "take of the things of Christ and show them to the believer;" let him impart to him a full and distinct apprehension of his glory-divine glory that he returned without disturbing him. let the Most High "cause all his goodness to pass before him"-and the result is, that the "fountains of the great deep" of feeling and affection in the soul "are broken up." The tide of love rolls on with a power perpetually increasing. The heart's purest, strongest, and best affections for ever roll around one blissful centre. This "perfect love casteth out fear," and in the
At the end of three hours more he returned and found his master in the same state as before. So perfectly absorbed was his whole mind in those visions of "the breadth, and depth, and length, and height, of the love of Christ which passeth knowledge," as to render him wholly unconscious of the presence of any other object. Again, he retired, and after three hours, returned
II. The conditions on which Christ will communicate this knowledge, and consequent blessedness to us. 1. We must set our heart supremely upon its attainment. "My son, if thou wilt receive my words, and hide my commandments with thee; so that thou incline thine ear unto wisdom, and apply thine heart to understanding; yea, if thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding; if thou seekest
once more, and found the man of God in the same || relations existing between him and God, he is brought fixed contemplations as formerly. God was "causing into such relations to the arrangements of universal all his goodness to pass before him." On being then providence, that not an event will ever transpire througharoused, his first inquiry was, whether it were possible, out the universe, which will not "work together for his that the time had come for the arrival of his friends? good," in short, that "all things are his," whether Paul, He had been so fixed with those spiritual apprehen- or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or sions as to be entirely unconscious of the lapse of time. things present, or things to come: all are his; and he Many persons, such as Mrs. Edwards, and Dr. Pay- is Christ's; and Christ is God's." To know God with son, near the close of life, have had similar manifesta- the consciousness of sustaining such relations to him tions of the divine love and glory. Now while the as these, this surely must be life eternal. soul is borne upward and onward in the tide of emotion awakened by such contemplations, nothing but an increase of capacity can render its happiness greater. And as a revelation to the mind, of the "light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ," is adapted to hold all the powers of our being in a state of perpetual fixedness, in which the tide of blissful emotion shall rise and swell for ever, with constantly accumulating power, how true the declaration ||her as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures; of our Savior is-"this is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." It is not to be expected, that Christians shall, at all times, and under all circumstances, have these overwhelming visions of the divine glory. Our present capacities do not permit it. But, Christian, we would impress this truth deeply upon your mind, that it is your privilege, as well as your duty, to have those perpetual apprehensions of the divine glory which shall render your blessedness, at all times and under all circumstances full. Let Christ once lift the vail and show you his glory, and the deep emotions of love and delight which would swell your bosom, would render the "life eternal" referred to in the text, a bles-ceived such apprehensions of the great mysteries of resed reality in your experience. Christian, Christ is able and willing, yea, infinitely desirous, to do this for you. If you will "seek him with all your heart," he will thus be found of you. He will "bring you out of darkness into God's marvelous light." "God himself shall walk in you and dwell in you," and with "open face, you shall behold, as in a glass, his glory." And thus, "the sun shall be no more thy light by day; neith-As she came from her closet one Sabbath morning to er for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God, thy glory. Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for the Lord shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended."
then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and find the knowledge of God. Then shalt thou understand righteousness, and judgment, and equity; yea, every good path." "Then shall ye seek me and find me, when ye shall search for me with all your heart." The great mass of professing Christians walk on in darkness without finding God, simply because they never set their hearts upon finding him. A friend of ||mine, speaking of a certain sister in Christ, said, that sister knows what it is to have fellowship with God, and I doubt not you will find her prepared to sympathize with you in reference to your views of the infinite and boundless love of Christ. Years ago she re
demption, as few obtain in this life. She became fully sensible, he said, that it was her privilege to know God as she never had known him, and to enjoy him as she never had enjoyed him. She then fixed her whole heart upon attaining this state. She besought the Lord night and day, "with strong crying and tears," to manifest himself unto her, by "showing her his glory."
accompany her family to church, an accident occurred, which she saw would occasion a delay of two or three minutes. She felt that that interval was too precious to be lost. She hastened to her closet and spent the time in the most fervent prayer, that God would manifest himself to her soul. As she entered the house of
of glory and blessedness that pressed upon her. Since that, while I knew her, she seemed to be continually sitting at the feet of Christ, with a full realization, in her own experience, of the truth of the declaration, "this is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." Those who thus seek God find him, and none others do find him.
4. The fact that the knowledge under consideration God, he did manifest himself to her, to such an extent, must be eternal life, may be shown also by a reference||that her mind was almost overpowered with the weight to the relations which the individual thus knowing God, recognizes as existing between him and God. Let us suppose, that while an individual has a full and distinct apprehension of the infinite perfections and glory of God, such as the Spirit only can impart, he becomes perfectly conscious that every attribute of Divinity stands pledged to secure and advance his eternal blessedness, that throughout eternity, God is to employ the resources of his own infinity to render him in the highest degree holy and happy; let him also become as fully sensible of the fact, that in consequence of the
Think of the African alluded to in a former number of the Evangelist, who, as Mr. Buck, in his religious anecdotes, informs us, crossed the ocean to hear about
3. You must seek this knowledge with the most perfect assurance, that its possession will in fact be "life eternal." Do you believe, that if Christ should admit you as it were into the holy of holies of his sacred presence, and permit you to behold with unvailed face, the glory of the Lord, your blessedness would be full? Can you seek such a knowledge as such a good? If so, be assured, that in seeking you will find him, and that in finding him, your joy will be "unspeakable and full of glory."
"the Christian's God that paid the debt." In his own || set your heart supremely upon the object for which country he became sensible of his condition as a sin- Christ imparts it to you. If Christ should give you to ner. At the same time the thick and impenetrable "behold as with open face, the glory of the Lord," it gloom of despair settled down upon his mind, because would be that you might be "changed into the same he was in total darkness in respect to the way of par- image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the don and eternal life. In this state he was accustomed Lord," in other words, that you might be free from sin, to sit under the shade of a particular tree, and weep and rendered pure and holy, like God. Would you aloud in view of his lost and hopeless condition. A above all things prize this state together with the bleswicked sailor who heard his cries one day told him to sedness that results from its possession? If so, you "go to England, and there hear about the Christian's may seek the Lord with the assurance, that you will God that paid the debt." Without a moment's delay, find him, and that in finding him, you will find eternal he sought the nearest port, and took the first ship he life. could find, that was bound for London. On the voyage, he continually besought the sailors and all on board to tell a poor negro about "the Christian's God that paid the debt." But none could unfold the mystery. On his arrival at London, he passed up and down the streets beseeching the multitude that passed, to "tell a poor negro about the Christian's God that paid the debt." Some gave him money, others heaped abuse upon him; but none pointed him to the "Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world." At length he gave it up in despair, and as the shades of 4. Seek this knowledge with the profoundest humilevening came on, he sat down on one of the publicity and teachableness. A philosopher of Germany begreens, and began to utter the same mournful cries that came sensible of his condition as a sinner, and set himhe had been wont to utter amid the deep moral mid-self to study the Bible for the purpose of understandnight of his native land. His cries attracted the no-ing the way of life, there revealed. But impenetrable tice of an evangelical clergyman who was on his way || darkness hung over the sacred page. At length he reto a public lecture. "Do," he cried, as the man of quested a poor peasant, whom he knew as a very igGod inquired the cause of his grief, "do tell a poor ne-norant, but highly spiritual man, to sit down with him gro about the Christian's God that paid the debt." and teach him the way of life as revealed in the Bible. "Go with me," said the minister, "and I will tell you." Thus humble and teachable must you become, if you He took the inquirer into the church, and gave a histo- would find God. Is this, reader, the spirit which you ry of the plan of redemption, representing sin as the breathe? Are you ready to be taught and led by any debt, and Christ, by his incarnation and atonement, as one, even a child, or a beggar, if he can only lead you paying the debt. "I have found it,” cried the African, || to Christ? as the mystery was unfolded to him. As the minister came down from the pulpit, after the congregation had retired, he found the stranger entirely unconscious of visible objects, so perfectly absorbed was his whole soul in the mystery of mysteries which had dawned upon his mental vision. He had sought the Lord "with all his heart," and was "found of him," and now his cup
5. Seek the counsel, and secure an interest in the prayers of those who have the most full and rich experience of that knowledge of the "only living and true God, and Jesus Christ, whom he hath sent," the possession of which is "life eternal." Lay open to them your whole heart, and having received their counsel, engage them to "bow the knee unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in Now, reader, if you do not know God in such a heaven and earth is named, that he would grant you, sense, that your blessedness in him is also full, you are according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened as really in darkness, and as utterly dependent upon with might by his Spirit in the inner man; that Christ divine teaching for the light of life, as that African may dwell in your heart by faith; that you, being rootwas. If you will seek God as he sought him, "heed and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend will be found of you," too. If you do not thus seek with all saints, what is the breadth, and length, and him, you will never see the light. You will wander on depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ, in darkness, without "knowing at what you stumble." | which passeth knowledge, that you might be filled with If you continue to walk in darkness, without "seeking all the fullness of God." Brother, take this course, God with all your heart," when you know that you while you also yourself seek the Lord with all your may enjoy his marvelous light, what else can you ex-heart, and he will do for you "exceeding abundantly pect, but that the darkness around you shall thicken above all that you ask or think." into the gloom of eternal midnight? Reader, will you "seek the Lord with all your heart," until "he is found of you?"
6. Seek this knowledge, in devout dependence upon the teachings of the Holy Spirit. Seek and expect his teachings with a humble confession of your darkness
2. If you would attain this knowledge, Christian, and ignorance, in the most prayerful study of the Bi