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"Yet, loved of the Father, thy spirit is near
To the meek, and the lowly, and penitent here;
And the voice of thy love is the same even now
As at Bethany's tomb, or on Olivet's brow.

A teachable spirit was also a characteristic of the || may adopt the language of Whittier, in his beautiful sisters of Bethany. Mary, as before remarked, sat poem of Palestine:

at Jesus' feet, and learned of him who was meek and lowly. It was the privilege of Martha to converse with her Lord on that most interesting subject, the resurrection of the dead. "Thy brother shall rise again," is the language of our Savior. "I know," replied Martha, "that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day." Consoling thought! Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of our God-then shall kindred souls be joined in an indissoluble union, where songs and everlasting joy shall be upon the head, and sorrow and sighing shall be unknown! "The meek will he teach his way," is the promise of God; and it was a teachable spirit in the sisters of Bethany which led them to the possession of that faith which forms another prominent trait of character. The language of Martha and Mary, when period which tried men's souls. There are preserved a great The Revolution, by way of distinction, has been called the first they saw the Savior, after the death of Lazarus, number of anecdotes of heroic deeds and sufferings, which was, "Lord, if thou hadst been here my brother had prove that it well deserved that appellation. Were I attemptnot died." They believed he had power to rescue evening to picture the patriotic bearing of our fathers on that occafrom the monster, Death; and they also had some hope sion, I would ask no deeper shades for the piece than are pre

sented below.

"The wedding ceremony closed. Leander and Lavinia were seated side by side, and their friends were pressing near to salute them with friendly congratulations. The mother of the bride had inpressed an affectionate kiss on the lips of each, and stood holding the hand of her daughter. That moment the door


Faith is omnipotent. It brings consolation in the darkest hour. It lifts the vail of futurity, and reveals to us the weight of glory which shall compensate the patient endurance of all our afflictions. Martha and Mary had their faith rewarded. So may every daughter of Zion; and like them, too, show forth their gratitude. Martha ministered to our Savior and his disciples a few days before his crucifixion. We may give a cup of cold water to a disciple in the name of a disciple. We may feed the hungry and clothe the naked. We may send the word of life to the destitute, and hear it said, in the day of final reckoning, "Inasmuch as ye did it unto the least of these, my brethren, ye did it unto me." Mary anointed our Savior with costly perfume. She wiped his feet with the hair of her head. In humility it is our privilege to bow before him. Our prayers may ascend as incense, and the "heart's adoration" he will not, cannot spurn. He will regard the cry of the destitute, and will not despise their prayer, for thus in mercy hath he promised.

that he would rescue even from the dominion of the grave; for Martha adds, "but I know that even now whatsoever thou shalt ask of God, God will give it thee." "I am the resurrection and the life," the instructive reply; "he that believeth in me, though he of the apartment burst open and one of the neighboring yeowere dead, yet shall he live. Believest thou this?" men thrust himself into the midst of the circle, crying, 'To "Yes, Lord," answered Martha, "I believe thou art the arms! to arms! A moment's explanation revealed to the Christ, the anointed one, the promised, the long expected in the vicinity of Lexington. Blood was spilled. Leander happy company the fearful scene which was then being enacted Messiah." The weeping Mary and her sister were sprang from his seat, gave his fair Lavinia one hasty, fervent comforted. Lazarus was promised to their faith, and kiss, and in five minutes more his fleet horse was bearing him, the astonished Jews, who had assembled around the sword in hand, to the aid of his brave and bleeding countrysepulchre, saw Lazarus, at the command of the Savior, God, come forth, resuscitated by divine power, a living|| I Go, my love! receive my quick adieuwitness to glorify God. False to my country, I were false to you; 'Twas late I met thee with a raptured heart, The charm is broken, and we quickly partBut, parting, many a thought will linger here, And many a sigh will prove this heart sincere; Fancy shall paint the beauty of these scenes, And tread this carpet in noctural dreams. The parlor where we pass'd the short-lived days, The sofa where we sat and joined our lays, The fire-side where our evening hours have sped, While pleased and charmed on mutual thought we fed; The rich parterre, bedecked with sweetest flowers, Diversified with rural walks and bowers; The modest seat where love has held discourse, And charm'd each heart, imprisoned by its force; The listening trees which waved their gentle boughs, And heard with sympathy our solemn vows; The balmy breeze which fanned the cooling shade, And wafted up to heaven the prayers we made; The murm'ring rill which choose its winding way, To feast our sense and lead our thoughts astray; The laughing meadows dress'd in hues of green, And then thine own fair form to crown the scene; Fancy, I say, in nightly dreams shall dwell

The palm trees of Bethany still throw their "shadows of beauty," but the sisters are gone to the paradise of God. The blessed Redeemer, whom having not seen we love, has ascended on high; but in conclusion well In this parterre, and watch my love. Farewell!


O, the outward hath gone! but in glory and power
The spirit surviveth the things of an hour;
Unchanged, undecaying, its Pentecost flame
On the heart's secret altar is burning the same."
L. E. A.






rush on deck, and an outcry for the captain to put SKETCHES OF TRAVEL IN BRAZIL. back. "Arriba, Senhor Commandante, arriba! nao

esta capaz, vamos arribar!"

The captain was a large mulatto, adorned with a red

Voyage from Rio to Santos-A Coasting Steamer-Comman- woolen cap, shag overcoat, and big trowsers. The tout dante-Mangaratiba-Angra dos Reis Monasticism-Paraty-ensemble of his costume was not an indifferent caricaIsland of S. Sebastian-Arrival at Santos-Mode of Traveling ture of the Turkish. He was somewhat agitated at Inland-Transportation-Tropeiros- A Traveling Partyfirst, but had decision enough to keep his boat on her course, and afterward seemed not a little desirous to show himself piqued with the attempted infringement upon his prerogatives. He belabored his countrymen sadly for presuming to address him in such a “papagaio" style; thus comparing their cries of alarm to the screaming of parrots.

Serra do Mar.


On the 15th of January, 1839, I embarked on board a steamboat bound from Rio de Janeiro to Santos. The latter town is the principal port of the province of San Paulo. It is distant from Rio in direct course 225 miles, but the passage is lengthened to about 300 miles, in order to touch at intermediate ports. The passengers having been severally required to exhibit their passports to the visiting officer, who came on board at Fort Villegagnon, we got under way at 5 P. M.

Owing to the small power of our boat, we made but slow progress. When darkness came on, we were still in sight of the Sugar Loaf. During the night the sea became more quiet, and our headway greater.

Daylight the following morning discovered to us sevThe afternoon was one of the most rainy I had ever eral small islands on either hand, in the midst of which witnessed in Rio. I had literally waded through streams lay our course into the bay of Mangaratiba. This villa of water at the corners of the streets previous to em- lies in an angle between two mountains. It appears barking. I paid but little attention to a thorough pre- almost inaccessible from the rear, nevertheless it reliminary wetting, in anticipation of a comfortable shel-ceives from the vicinity, and ships annually to Rio, ter when once on board. My disappointment in this about four thousand bags of coffee, besides other proparticular was soon obvious. The Paquete do Norte duce. The mountains around are not very high, but was one of the best boats then belonging to the great are covered with a wild and beautiful vegetation. A commercial emporium as well as political capital of house was apparent here and there, upon the less abrupt Brazil; but she had been constructed to float on salt declivities. The villa contained one church, and about water, and not to shed rain. Her engines were of sev- fifty habitations. Eleven small craft were at anchor in enty horse power. She had been built in England for the harbor. the Nitherohy Steam Company; but in view of navigating the high seas she had neither "hurricane" nor "spar-deck." There was indeed a cabin below, furnishing twelve berths; but what were these among from thirty to forty passengers!

Getting under way duly, we came to anchor about noon in the Angra dos Reis. This name was given originally by Martin Affonso de Souza to the ample and splendid bay, at the opening of which Ilha Grande is situated. That individual known in history as the first

The truth was, that in the mild weather ordinarily | Donatory, who received a grant of land in Brazil, proenjoyed on these passages, the majority preferred to ceeded along this entire coast in 1531, as far as the spend both night and day upon deck. Only a short river La Plata, naming the places observed by him acexperience of the confined air and sweltering tempera-cording to the successive days in which he visited them. ture of the apartment below, inclined me to a similar Although several of these harbors and islands had been choice on the present occasion. Rather than run any previously discovered and probably named, yet owing hazard of suffocation, I determined to take my chance to the circumstance that Souza became an actual setfor keeping dry under a tattered awning, that extended tler, combined with the fact that in following the Roman over the quarter-deck. callendar he flattered the peculiar prejudices of his counAnother peculiarity of our fare was, that each pas-trymen, the names imposed by him have alone remainsenger was expected to "find himself" with provisions.ed to posterity. Having entered the bay of Nitherohy Luckily I had escaped much concern on this score, by on the first day of the year, and supposing from the joining the party of which the reader will learn more narrowness of the entrance that it was of course a river, by and by. In my visit below, I had found my friends he gave it the fine sounding, but geographically inaccupreparing for a grand collation in true French style. rate name of Rio de Janeiro. The sixth day of JanBut my apprehensions that their good cheer would be uary, designated in English as that of the Epiphany, is presently interrupted by sea-sickness, that unceremo- termed in Portuguese dia dos Reis Magos, day of the nious visitant of almost all landsmen who are caught Kings, or Royal Magi. This takes it for granted that afloat, led me to decline all participation. The result the wise men who visited the infant Savior in Bethleproved the correctness of my determination. hem were either kings or princes! On that day Souza

Within the harbor all had been calm; but on pas-visited the places I am describing, and hence the two sing out we encountered a head wind and a tremen-names, Ilha Grande dos Magos and Angra dos Reis. dously rolling sea. No sooner did the little boat begin The latter is now applied chiefly to the town within to feel the force of the waves, than there was a general the bay, and Ilha Grande is deemed sufficient to indi


is frequently resorted to by American whale-ships, in order to recruit their stock of wood, water, and fresh provisions.

cate the island. The island of S. Sebastian, and the || &c. It furnishes several good places of anchorage, and port of S. Vicente were named in like manner, on the 20th and 22d days of the same month. Angra dos Reis was at a very early period admitted to the denomination of a city, but its subsequent growth did not cor- Paraty was the next port at which we touched, and respond to the expectation of its founders. I judged the last belonging to the province of Rio de Janeiro. it to contain at the present time about two hundred and The villa is small, but regularly built, and beautifully fifty houses, which are arranged in a semicircular form situated at the extremity of a long arm of the sea, in upon the praya or low ground, bordered by surrounding which are sprinkled a number of diversely shaped and mountains. To illustrate the deficiency and contradic- palm crested islands. It contains three churches, each tory nature of many statements, (statistics there are dedicated to Nossa Senhora, our lady, first of the connot,) respecting the population of Brazil, I mention ception, second of grief, third of the lapa, or cliff. The the opinions of two gentlemen, apparently competent territory connected with this port embraces the fertile judges respecting Angra. One of them estimated the||plains of Bananal, Paraty - Merim, and Mambucaba; inhabitants at 4000, exclusive of slaves and colored distinguished for their luxuriant production of many people, who in any case must constitute about half. of the fruits of southern Europe, as well as coffee, rice, The other fixed upon 2000 as the entire number, which mandioca, legumes, and the choicest of sugar-cane. must have been much nearer the truth. The ecclesias- The morning of the 17th found us navigating the tical establishment of Angra appears to have been got- channel to leeward of the island of S. Sebastian, and ten up in anticipation of the future greatness of the approaching the villa of that name, which is situated place, by the same policy which has secured to the on the mainland. This island belongs to the province Church of Rome the finest localities and the most costly of S. Paulo. It is twelve or fourteen miles long, and edifices that are seen in the actual cities of Brazil. Said of nearly equal width. It is well cultivated, and someestablishment consists of three convents and three what populous. Like Ilha Grande, it is a rendezvous churches. The former belong severally to the three for vessels engaged in the slave trade. Such craft have orders of monks most prevalent in the empire; the great facilities for landing their cargoes of human beings Benedictines, the Slippered Carmelites, and the Fran- at these and contiguous points; and if they do not ciscans of St. Anthony. These monasteries were sev- choose to go into the harbor of Rio to refit, they can be erally occupied by a single friar, in the capacity of a furnished at this place with the requisite papers for ansuperintendent. A gentleman residing in the place, other voyage. For no other object could the vice coninformed me respecting them, and took occasion to ex-sulate of Portugal, which is established on shore, be press great contempt for a class of men, who, he said, possibly called for. The villa is quiet and respectable, spent their lives in surfeiting and indolence. If this is composed chiefly of mud-houses, among which is a not the general sentiment of intelligent Brazilians, it is church of the same material. It has a Professor of certainly one that is very common among them, respect-Latin, and two primary schools, one for boys and the ing monastic institutions. other for girls.

In March, 1838, the Carmelitic order presented a pe- On our egress from this roadstead we passed between tition to the Provincial Assembly of Rio de Janeiro, two rocky islands, called Os Alcatrazes. The smaller praying for the privilege of admitting thirty novices one is of curious shape, and said at some seasons to be into the convent at Angra. In the course of the dis- covered with the eggs of sea-fowl. Fishermen frecussion which ensued, one of the deputies, Senhor Ce-quently collect whole canoe-loads of them. These zar de Menezes, in an eloquent speech reported at the islands are about five leagues from S. Sebastian, and time, undertook to demonstrate that monasticism, from eight from Santos. its history in past times, and from its essential spirit, Santos is situated upon the northern portion of the could not harmonize with the ideas of the present en- island of S. Vicente, which is detached from the contilightened age, nor be adapted to the government and nent merely by the two mouths of the Cubatam river. circumstances of the country. His conclusions were The principal stream affords entrance at high water to these: "The measure is contrary to nature, unsupport-large vessels, and is usually called Rio de Santos up as ed by policy, and alike opposed to morality, to our finan- far as that town. At its mouth, upon the northern cial interests, and to the Brazilian constitution." Were bank, stands the fortress of S. Amaro. This relic of it compatible with the limits I have assigned myself to olden time is occupied by a handful of soldiers, whose translate the whole speech, I could hardly present the principal employment is alternately to go on board the reader with a better summary of practical arguments vessels as they pass up and down, as a guard against against monasticism. Suffice it to say, the privilege smuggling. The course of the river is winding, and in this case was not conceded, although similar ones its bottom muddy. Its banks are low, and covered with have recently been in other provinces.


Ilha Grande measures about fifteen miles east and Passing up, we first came in sight of a few houses west, and at its greatest breadth seven miles north and on the left, called, as the traveler in that country would south. A considerable portion of it is under cultiva- be sure to anticipate, Villa Nova. Soon after, on the tion, devoted to the production of sugar-cane, coffee, || opposite side, appeared Fort Itipema, an old fortification



much dilapidated, and whose only garrison was a single || on foot, in order to give proper attention to their anifamily. Next became visible the masts of twenty or thirty vessels lying at anchor before the town, which is upon the southern or left bank as we ascend. On arriving, we were boarded by a port officer in regimentals. His visit was one of mere ceremony, as he did not demand our passports, but seemed only concerned to get his letters. Thus favorably ended our passage, occupying about forty-eight hours, rather more than the usual time.

mals and baggage. The latter being mostly of an inconvenient form, and not easily balanced, gave them great annoyance from its propensity to get loose and fall off. The principal was a very tall and large man, apparently about thirty years of age. His features were coarse in the extreme, and a hair-lip rendered his speech indistinct. His arms, feet, and legs to his knees were bare, and soon after starting off came his shirt, exhibiting a tawny and properly yellow skin. His companion and probably younger brother, was not so large, but appeared to have equal nerve. He was better dressed, and walked with his shoulders inclined forward. His jet black hair was long, and hung in ringlets upon his neck. His eyes were dark and flashing, and his countenance not dissimilar to that of a North American Indian. These persons were a specimen of the Paulista tropeiros, who, as a class, differ very much from the Mineiros and conductors that visit Rio. They have a certain wildness in their look, which, mingled with intelligence and sometimes benignity, gives to their countenance altogether a peculiar expression. They universally wear a large pointed knife, twisted into their girdle behind. This faca de ponta is perhaps more essential to them than the knife of the sailor is to him. It serves to cut wood, to mend harnesses, to kill and dress an animal, to carve food, and in case of necessity, to defend or to assault. Its blade has a curve peculiar to itself, and in order to be approved, must have a temper that will enable it to be struck through a thick piece of copper without bending or breaking. This being a favorite companion, is often mounted with a silver handle, and sometimes encased in a silver sheath, although generally worn naked.


Deferring for the present all notice of Santos, I will undertake the task of conveying to my readers some idea of the company that next morning set out for the interior. It is necessary to premise that not only rail cars, but also stage coaches, and all other vehicles of public conveyance, are entirely unknown in the country; owing, in a great degree at least, to the unsuitable character of the roads. All who do not walk must expect to be conveyed on the backs of mules or horses, and to have their baggage transported in the same way. For long journeys, the former are generally preferred. But it frequently happens at Santos that neither can be hired in sufficient number, without sending to a considerable distance. Although scarcely a day occurs in the year in which more or less troops of mules do not leave that place for the upper country, yet the greater part of those animals are totally unfit for riding, being only accustomed to the pack-saddle, and having never worn the bit. On the present occasion, a young German and myself had been each provided with a horse, and had left our heavier luggage to be sent on subsequently. The other members of our company, rather than to suffer delay, resolved to engage the requisite portion of a troop then ready to proceed up the serra. It may be here remarked, that ordinary transportation to and from the coast is accomplished with no inconsiderable regularity and system, notwithstanding the manner. Many planters keep a sufficient number of beasts to convey their entire produce to market; others do not, but depend more or less upon professional carriers. Among these, each troop is under charge of a conductor, who superintends its movements and transacts its business. They generally load down with sugar and other agricultural products, conveying, in return, salt, flour, and every variety of imported merchandise. A gentleman who had for many years employed these conductors in the transmission of goods, told me he had seldom or never known an article fail of reaching its destination. I had been summoned by my friends to start at a very early hour; but in reply, requested the privilege of over-in the neighborhood of that city, I must be allowed to

Having not only had the pleasure of his company as companion de voyage, but also as a fellow boarder for several weeks at S. Paulo, and in repeated excursions

taking them on the road. Getting my affairs duly ar- mention several of those qualities which rendered his ranged, and proceeding to the place of rendezvous, society agreeable. His sociability was only equaled by instead of finding that they had gone, I myself had oc- his cheerfulness of disposition. His fund of enlivening casion to wait about two hours. After the busy scene anecdote was almost inexhaustible, being drawn from a of arranging saddles and cargo, and mounting and dis- strangely diversified personal history, and from extenciplining refractory animals, we at length found our-sive acquaintance with learned men. His conversation, selves all started upon the aterrado, or cast-up road always interesting, was pre-eminently so when inspired leading to Cubatam. The first characters that engaged by his enthusiasm in botanical pursuits. Hence les my attention were the two Tropeiros, or conductors of fleurs magnifiques which adorned notre belle route, imthe troop. They were not mounted, but preferred going parted a double gratification.

As to the travelers, we represented at least six different nations of the old and new worlds, presenting no small variety, both in character and costume. Mons. G., physically the greatest man among us, was mounted upon the smallest mule; and not being accustomed to riding in this style, often consoled himself with the reflection that if he fell, neither the distance nor the danger would be great, as his feet almost touched the ground. This gentleman holds a distinguished place in the botanical department of the Museum of Natural History in Paris, and was at that time sent out by the French government on a special scientific mission to Brazil.


The individual next to be noticed was Doctor I., a Brazilian physician educated in France, and extensively traveled in Europe; whose devotedness to the cause of science, equally with his noble and generous disposition, led him to make this entire journey for the sake of introducing Mons. G. at S. Paulo, and of making his sojourn in Brazil as pleasant as possible. Such attentions were the more desirable to Mons. G. as he was entirely unacquainted with the language and customs of the country, and they were amply realized in the spirited manner in which the Doctor discharged his office as general manager to the party.

Mons. B., a subject of the king of Sardinia, was a painter by profession. Senhor P., a young Fluminense, had spent several years in Paris, and was now going to take his course as a student at law in the University at S. Paulo. He, and a young Parisian associated with Mons. G., kept the road alive with their merriment, singing at the top of their voices. In addition to these might be mentioned Mynheer F., son to the secretary of the Rhenish Missionary Society at Elberfeldt; a third Brazilian, a third Frenchman, and a Portuguese. Respecting the only North American in the group, it is perhaps unnecessary to remark at present, unless that his paulista boots and other riding accoutrements must have assimilated his appearance to that of a genuine tropeiro, unprovided, of course, with either long knife or pistols.

The road was level as far as Cubatam, leading along the river, and twice crossing that stream by bridges. The principal house of the village mentioned was the Registro; where, in addition to paying a slight toll, each passer-by has his name and nation registered. A short distance beyond Cubatam we commenced ascending the Serra do Mar, or cordillera of the Sea. This range of mountains stretches along more than a thousand miles of coast, sometimes laved at its very feet by the ocean; at others branching off inland, leaving a considerably wide range of low and level interval, called by the Portuguese, Beira Mar. Its general formation is granitic, although in this region it is covered with sufficient soil to sustain a dense forest, and is destitute of those bold and barren peaks which shoot up at other points. Its height is by no means so great as has been repeatedly affirmed. Mr. Mawe gives 6000 feet as the lowest estimate: but Captain King, by actual measurement, determined its altitude to be only 2250 feet. Mr. M. made a still more palpable mistake in saying that Santos did not fall within the angle of vision from its summit. I know not how to account for the latter inaccuracy of statement, unless by supposing that the town and its vicinity were enveloped in fog, though the top of the mountain might have been clear when he enjoyed the prospect. This sometimes happens, although the reverse is much more frequently witnessed.

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P. P.


Go, servant of the liying God, bear forth

Tidings of mercy to the tribes of men;
Go, and from east to west, from south to north,
Proclaim a Savior crucified; and when
Trials assail thee, may thy Master then
Uphold thee with his everlasting arm—

And spread the mantle of His love around,
To shield thy soul from each impending harm.
See! in His hand he holds a glittering crown-
Be strong, fear not, it soon shall be thine own!

P. P.

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