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very great mistake. The original word, anastasis, here employed by St. John, and rendered resurrection, is derived from the verb anistemi, and which is rendered to raise, or arise from the dead. These two words are generally employed in the Scriptures to express the resurrection from the dead, especially in the New Testament. See Heb. xi., 35. Acts i., 22 ; ii., 31; iv., 33 ; xvii., 18–32; xxiv., 15—21; xxvi., 23. Mat. xvii, 9; xx., 19. John vi., 39—40, and many other passages, too numerous for reference. The simple question then is, is this the only sense in which these words are used in the Bible ? Certainly not, as every man well knows who has properly examined the subject. These words are employed to express the idea of rising up from a seat, in opposition to sitting down. “Behold their sitting down, and their anastasei, rising up ;" Lam. iii., 62. Here the same word is used in the Septuagint, which is employed by St. John. The verb anistemi, mis frequently used in this sense in the New Testament. “ And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom ; and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he, anastas, arose, and followed him ;" Mat. ix., 9. See also Mark i., 35, ii., 14, xiv., 60 ; the same original word is used in all these places; and, surely, it will not be contended that in these passages any literal resurrection from the dead is intended.
This word is also used to express a rising up, as in a civil in.' surrection. “ Therefore wait ye upon me, saith the Lord, until the day that I rise up to the prey, for my determination is to gather the nations, that I may assemble the kingdoms, to pour upon them my indignation, even all my fierce anger; Zeph. iii., 8. The verb unistemi, is frequently used in this sense, in the New Testament. ** After this man, aniste, rose up Judas, of Galilee, in the days of the taxing, and drew away much people after him; he also perished, and all, even as many as obeyed him, were dispersed ; Acts V., 37; see also verse 36. This word is also used in the following places; Acts ii., 30 ; iii., 22–26 ; vi., 9; vii., 18; xiii., 32. Mat. xix., 1 ; xxii., 24. Mark iii., 26; vii., 24 ; x., 1. Rom. xv., 12. Heb. vii., 11, 12. The verb anistemi, is used in all these places, not one of which has any reference to a literal resurrection.
But this word is employed to express a spiritual resurrection from the death of sin. “Wherefore, he saith, awake thou that sleepest, and anasta, arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light;" Eph. v., 14. That the phrase to arise from the dead, here means a resurrection from the death of sin, will appear evident, by comparing it with the following passages.“ Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live;" John V., 25. “ Even when we were dead in sins, he hath quickened us together with Christ, and hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus ;" Eph. ii., 5,6. “ If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which
are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God ;" Col. iii., 1. Surely, it will not be contended that the word is here employed to express any literal resurrection from the dead.
Nearly allied to this passage is one in St. Luke, where the same word is used; “ And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is set for the fall and anastasin, rising again of many in Israel ;” ii., 34. That part of the Jewish nation who rejected the Messiah, are said to fall, in allusion to a prophecy of Isaiah.
" And he shall be for a sanctuary ; but for a stone of stumbling, and for a, rock of offence, to both houses of Israel; for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And many among them shall stumble and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken;" viii., 14, 15. And while this part of the Jewish nation should stumble, and fall, and be scattered, those who embraced Jesus as the promised Messiah, should be raised from the death of sin, to a holy and heavenly life.
The deliverance of the people of God from a state of the lowest depression, is expressed by images plainly taken from the resurrection of the dead. In this sense we are to understand the language of Isaiah, where he says anastesontai oi nekron ; " Thy dead shall arise, and be raised out of their tombs ;" xxvi., 19. In the same language, God speaks to the Jewish nation by their prophet Ezekiel ; "I will open your graves, and cause you to come out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel ;" xxxvii., 13, 14. The prophet Hosea uses this metaphor in the same language : "In three days we exenastesometha, shall rise up again, and we shall live before him ;” v., 2. And the apostle Paul, speaking of the conversion of the Jews to the Christian faith, says, “ It shall be even to the Gentiles zoe ek nekron, as life from the dead;" Rom. xi., 10. Here, then, is a resurrection of the church of God, agreeable to that which our interpretation of this passage of the Revelation imports ; nor is there any more reason to say the words of St. John refer to the literal dead, and not to the churches, than to say the same of many of the passages cited.
St. John, in this passage, uses another word ezesan, rendered lived, of similar import to anastasis. This word zao, although sometimes employed to signify to recover to life, to raise the dead, as in Rev. ii., 8; 2 Kings, xiii., 21; Job, xiv., 14; yet this is by no means its only signification. This word is frequently employed in the Scriptures, as a strong metaphor to represent the restora. tion of the church, or people of God, from a low and affected state, to a state of prosperity and happiness. Such a change in the condition of the people of God, is frequently represented as a new life, a life from the dead, a revivification of the church and people of God. When God moved the Persian kings to let the Jewish nation return to their own land, he is said by Ezra to give them a revivification. “ And now for a little space, grace hath been showed from the Lord our God, to leave us a remnant to es
cape, and to give us a nail in his holy place, that our God may lighten our eyes, and give us a little zoopoiesin, reviving in our bondage. For we were bondmen, yet our God hath not forsaken us in our bondage, but hath extended mercy unto us in the sight of the kings of Persia, to give us a zoopoiesin, reviving, to set up the house of our God, and to repair the desolations thereof, and to give us a wall in Judea and in Jerusalem ;" ix., 8, 9. The Psalmist, speaking of the people of God, says: “ Thou, which hast shewed us great and sore troubles, shall quicken us again, and shall bring us up again from the depth of the earth.” And the church is represented as speaking thus to God; “ Thou zooseis, wilt quicken us, and we shall call upon thy name;" lxxx., 18. Again, " Thou wilt return kai zooseis emas, and revive us, and thy people shall rejoice in thee ;" luxxv., 6. See also Isa. xxvi., 19; Hosea, vi., 2, 3 ; xiv., 17. The son of Syrach says, at the coming of Elias, " zoe zesometha, we shall live again;" xlviii., 11. In the thirty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel
, we have a very striking example of this metaphor. God is here introduced as inquiring of the Jews in Babylon,“ ei zesetai, can these bones live ” and promising to put into them “pneuma zoes, the breath of life," and saying, “ I will put my spirit into you, kai zesethe, and ye shall live," and bidding the prophet blow upon
“ kai resatosan, that they may live,” and declaring that when he had done so, “ breath entered into them, kai ezesan, and they lived again, and stood upon their feet;" in all which places, the very words which St. John uses to express the first resurrection, is here employed to express the return of the church from her obscurity and thraldom, to a glorious and happy state. The same word is used twice, at least, in the same sense in the New Testament. It is applied by the father to the return of his prodigal son, in that delightful parable of our Lord : “ It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad ; for this thy brother was dead, kai anezese, and is alive again ; and was lost, and is found ;" Luke xv., 30. It is also employed by St. Paul, who declares that the conversion of the Jews to Christianity, shall be even to the Gentiles “ as zoe ek nekron, life from the dead;" Rom. xi., 15. Seeing then, that this word is employed both by the writers of the Old and New Testaments in a metaphorical sense, there can be no good Scriptural reasons why it should not bear the same sense in the passage
under consideration. The very words then, which are here employed by St. John to express the first resurrection, are used by prophets, apostles, and even by Christ himself, in a metaphorical sense, so that we have the highest possible authority for the interpretation we have given to his language.
It is generally agreed by those who believe that the prophets and apostles have foretold the conversion of the Jews to the Christian faith, that this event is not to begin to be accomplished, till after the destruction of the beast, or the downfall of 'anti-christ, mentioned in the eighteenth chapter, and, therefore, in the following
chapter he begins his discourse by saying: “ The marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready;" that is, she who was formally put away, because she was not prepared for the bridegroom's coming, was now to be married to God again. And in the twenty-first chapter, he reassumes this subject, and shows the bride the Lamb's wife, in such a discription, as will not permit us to doubt that she is the Jewish nation converted to God; for he calls her the holy, and the New Jerusalem, and tells us in the very words of the prophet Isaiah, that the “nations which shall be saved, shall walk in the light of this city;" Ixi., 10. St. John also calls her the bride to be married to the Lamb; which is the same description the prophets have given of this converted nations they represent her as “a bride adorned with her jewels, and as one that is to be married to the Lord ;" Isa. Ixi., 10; Ixii., 4, 5. St. John goes on in a continued description of this New Jerusalem, in the very words of the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel, speaking of the conversion of the Jewish nation to the Christian faith. This city coming down from heaven, is the new church of converted Jews, said to come down from heaven, agreeable to an idiom of the Hebrew language, because she is adorned with that divine wisdom, and those spiritual gifts and graces which she has received from heaven. Agreeable to this Hebrew idiom, the pouring down of these gifts and graces is represented as the opening of heaven, and letting them down upon the earth. Thus, when St. John received his prophecy, he sees a door opened in heaven, and hears a voice, saying, Come up hither, and I will show thee what shall be hereafter; iv., 1. He then heard a voice, like " the voice of a trumpet,” and probably, the same voice which he heard when he was “in the Spirit ;" Rev. i., 10. The two witnesses, when they lived again, were also “called up into heaven,” because they are represented as being filled with heavenly wisdom; xi., 11, 12. And since the spiritual gifts, imparted to the church, are said to come " from above, from the Father of lights," James i., 17, and they who were made partakers of them to have "tasted of the heavenly gift," seeing the church of Christ is the Jerusalem which is from above;" Gal. iv., 25; "the heavenly Jerusalem;" Heb. xii., 22; it is no wonder she is represented here as coming down from heaven, when she was, as it were, to have a “ new birth,” which is " from above;" John iii., 3 : and to be adorned with spiritual blessings in heavenly things in Christ Jesus ;" Eph. i., 3: and to be reinvested with her primitive luster and purity; for then shall the purity of the church return, and shine with all the luster and brightness she possessed in the times of the first martyrs, for the faith of the gospel ; and Christianity shall be professed without any anti-christian mixture, as those who oppose the beast endeavor to preserve it; and thus shall these martyrs, and opposers of the beast, live again. I understand, then, that the passage under consideration will have its accomplishment in the conversion of the Jews
to the Christian faith, and the prosperous events of Christianity at that time, and in the succeeding ages of the gospel.
II. Having shown that the language here employed by St. John may be interpreted to mean, according to Scripture analogy, a metaphorical, and not a literal resurrection, I shall now proceed to show that it is not the bodies, but the souls of them that were beheaded, who are said to live again. The word psuche, here rendered soul, occurs six times in this book, this place excepted ; and in all these places it signifies the soul in separation, or destinction from the body, or the living soul. “ And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar tas psuchas, the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held;" vi., 9. These souls not only cry with a loud voice, but they are clothed with white robes, expressions which cannot well be applied to dead bodies ; 10, 11. “ And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had psuchas, souls, died;" viii, 9. Here the ktismata echonta psuchas, evidently means the creatures having animal souls by which they lived. And they overcame him, by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not ten psuchen, their lives, unto the death;" xii., 11. Here it clarly signifies their lives; that is, the souls by which men live. “And the second angel 'poured out his vial upon the sea, and it became as the blood of a dead man, and every psuche zoso, living soul died in the sea ;" xvi., 3. Here it is expressly called the living soul; that is, the soul by which these creatures lived. " And the psuchas anthropon, souls of men;" xviii., 13. Here it signifies the lives of men. “And the fruits that epithumias tes pouches, thy soul lusted after are departed from thee;" 14. It here signifies the desire, not of the body, but of the soul. I would then ask on what grounds do our second advent friends affirm that the word psuche here does not signify the soul, but that dead body opposite it, which alone can properly be said to rise from the dead, and live again? It is a bold assumption without any shadow of authority; for a proper and literal resurrection is never in the whole Bible expressed, or represented by the living of the soul, but always by the living, raising, or the resurrection of the dead, the raising “ of the bodies of the saints, of them that slept in the dust,” or “ in their graves and sepulchres,” or who were buried in the sea,” or “ in the earth.” If the Holy Spirit, then, here meant a literal and proper resurrection, why does he vary so widely from the terms he so uniformly uses in other places, whenever he speaks of such a resurrection, and use the terms so often applied in the Scriptures to a moral and metaphorical resurrection? When St. Matthew spoke of “ the arising of some that slept," and their“ going into the holy city, and appearing unto many,” he did not say, as does St. John, that “ many souls lived,” but that polla somata, " many bodies of those that slept, arose out of their sepulchres ;' his words, therefore, must be understood of a literal and proper