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xli. 14; nature of the vegetable food of the Egyptians,
Num. xi. 5; fish a principal portion of the food of
the ancient Egyptians, hence the severity of the pu
nishment when "the fish that was in the river died,"
Exod. vii. 21; Egyptian fishing with nets and an-
gling, Hab. i. 15; Egyptian bird-catching, Ezek.
xvii. 20; group of culinary vessels, Ezek. xxv. 3;
customs of embalming and mourning, Gen. 1. 2, 3;
an Egyptian bier, from a bas-relief, 2 Sam. iii. 31;
manufactures of Egypt, Ps. xlv. 13; inquiry as to the
"fine linen of Egypt." Prov. vii. 16; figure exhibit
ing a specimen of ancient Egyptian embroidery, and
illustration showing modern embroiderers at work,
Ezek. xvi. 10; figure of an Egyptian tunic, and de-
scription of it, 1 Sam. ii. 18; figures, exhibiting an-
cient Egyptian female ornaments, Exod. iv. 22; an-
other illustration, showing the ancient female state
dresses, Cant. vii. 1; ancient and modern dress and
ornaments, exhibited by a variety of figures, Isaiah
iii. 18-24; an Egyptian entertainment, from a
painting in the British Museum, 1 Sam. iv. 18; an
Egyptian concert, Ps. xxxiii. 2; Egyptian lyres, Ps.
xliii; triangular stringed instruments, Ps. xcii; a
harper, from a painting found in a tomb at Thebes,
with other figures, Ps. cviii.
Temples and worship.-Did temples exist in Egypt be-
fore the departure of the Israelites? Deut. xii. 2;
view and ground-plan of the great temple at Ed-
fou. 1 Kings vi. 2; interior of the portico of the
great temple of Denderah, in illustration of the

chambers of imagery," Ezek. viii. 10; the "worship
of Isis," as represented, after an ancient painting
found at Portici, showing the analogies and differ-
ences between the Egyptian and Hebrew modes of
worship, Exek. xlvi. 3; animal worship of the Egyp-
tians, Exod. viii. 26; the first defection of the Israel-
ites was probably to the worship of Apis, with which
the "golden calf" may be identified, Exod. xxxii. 4;
and so, also, may the "calves of gold," erected, long
afterwards, by Jeroboam, 1 Kings xii. 28; general
view of the Egyptian system of idolatry, with illus-
trative figures of gods and sacred symbols, Deut.
iv. 16.

Ehud, his left handedness, and actions, Judges iii. 15.
Ekron, seems to have been the prime seat of the worship
of Baalzebub, 1 Sam. vi. 17.

Elath (Akaba), description and view, Deut. ii. 8; view of
the fortress of Akaba, with the arrival of a caravan of
pilgrims, 2 Chron. ii. 1.

Eli, the priest, his death, 1 Sam. iv. 18; deposition of his
house from the priesthood, 1 Kings ii. 27.
Elihu, conjectures respecting, Job xxxii. 2.

Elijah, his birth-place, 1 Kings xvii. 1; Jewish notions
respecting his reappearance, Mark ix. 12.
Emmaus, where situated, with an illustration of "the dis-
ciples at Emmaus," from Guercino, Luke xxiv. 13.
Enchanter, etymology of, Deut. xviii. 10.

Endor, witch of, did she actually raise Samuel? 1 Sam.
xxviii. 7.

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Euphrates, the river, called in the original "Phrat," by
which it is still locally distinguished, Gen. ii. 14; view
of its course, Gen. xv. 18; the Euphrates an extreme

eastern boundary to the Promised Land, 1 Chron v. 9;
overflows, like the Nile, Isaiah viii. 7; view of the river
overflowing its banks, Jer. 1.
Excommunication, different kinds amongst the Jews, John
ix. 22; the word cherem applied by the Jews to the se-
cond form of excommunication [Devoted], and anathema
used as its equivalent; maranatha means, in Syriac, "the
Lord will come," 1 Cor. xvi. 22.
Exodus, book of, Exod. i. 1.
Eyes, painting the, was a fashion in the time of Job, xlii.
14; and see 2 Kings x. 30.

Ezekiel, his period, prophecies, and style, Ezek. i. 1;
alleged tomb of the prophet; Ezek. conclusion.
Ezra, four books which pass under his name, Ezra i. 1;
what he did in settling the canon of the Old Testament,
and view of his tomb, to which both Jews and Moham-
medans make pilgrimages, Ezra, conclusion.

F.

Falsehood, the imputation of, not considered offensive in
the East, 2 Kings ix. 12.

Fasts. Enumeration of the different Hebrew fasts, Zech.
vii. 5; fasting, on occasions of mourning, extended to
animals, though not amongst the Hebrews, Jonah iii. 7.
Feast. rapidity of the preparation of a, in ancient times,
illustrated by existing Arabian usages, Gen. xviii. 7;
etiquette of a Persian feast, Gen. xliii. 34; wedding
feast lasted a week, Gen. xxix. 27, and Judges xiv. 10;
Persian usages adduced, to illustrate the parable of the
wedding feast in Matt. xxii. 9; and also respecting the
contention for the chief seats, in the injunction in Luke
xiv. 16; duties of the governor of a feast, John ii. 8.
Feet, washing of the, grateful part of hospitality in the
East, Gen. xviii. 4; notice of the washing of the feet of
the apostles by our Saviour, John xiii. 4, 5.
Festivals of the Jews. Institution of the Passover, with
its peculiar rites, Exod. xii. 8-15; consideration of the
law which required the Jews to assemble together in
one place at the three great annual festivals, the Pass-
over, the feast of Pentecost, and the feast of Taber-
nacles, Exod. xxiii. 17; each of these festivals lasted a
week; the feast of Tabernacles was to be a memorial of
the dwelling of the Israelites in tents during their resi-
dence in the wilderness (with an illustration), Lev. xxiii.
34; the feast of weeks, better known by its Greek name
of Pentecost, Deut. xvi. 10; the festival of the new
moon, and the probable reason of its institution, Num.
xxviii. 11; and feast of trumpets, chap. xxix. 1; the
feast of the Sabbatic year, and the proclamation of the
jubilee (illustration, from Poussin, of the proclamation
of the jubilee"), Lev. xxv. 4-21; the great festival in-
stituted in the time of Esther, to commemorate the de-
liverance of the Jews, Esther x. 17; what was the
"feast of the dedication," mentioned in John x. 22.
Figs, three sorts of, Jer. xxiv. 2; consideration of the
clause, "the time of figs was not yet," in Mark xi. 13.
Fir-tree. The stone pine (Pinus pinea) with figure of
tree and cone, Hosea xiv. 8; the Scotch fir (Pinus syl-
vestris), a tree of Palestine, with figure, Zech. xi. 2.
Fire. The sacred fire of the Mosaic dispensation, its mi-
raculous origin, and preservation, Lev. ix. 24; offering
of "strange fire," and fatal consequences, Lev. x. 1. 2;
remarkable contrast, in the trial by fire, between Elijah
and the priests of Baal, 1 Kings xviii. 24.
Fires, destructive effects of, when occurring amongst the
dry herbage, Exod. xxii. 6. [Fuel.]

..

First-fruits, offerings of, their institution and meaning
Lev. xxiii. 10; baskets in which the first-fruits were pre-
sented, Deut. xxvi. 2.

Fitches, description and figure, Isa. xxviii. 25
Flocks, folding and protecting, I Chron. xviii. 7.'
Flute. [Musical Instruments.]

Food. Was animal food used before the Deluge? Gen. i.
29; grant of the use of, Gen. ix. 4; specific and minut

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regulation of the animal food of the Israelites, with a
table of birds declared unclean, Lev. xi.; prohibition
of the eating of blood, Gen. ix. 4; additional reasons
why the use of blood as food was so strictly interdicted
to the Jews. Deut. xii. 23; prohibition by the apostles,
Acts xv. 29; fish, and vegetable food, which the Israel-
ites longed for in the wilderness, Num. xi. 5 [Manna];
the "parched corn' which they enjoyed on their en-
trance into Canaan, and the cessation of the supply of
the manna, Joshua v. 11; animal food comparatively
rarely used, Prov. xv. 17, and xxiii. 20; different kinds
of cheese, 2 Sam. xvii. 29; milk a principal article of
diet amongst the Arabs, and other pastoral tribes, Gen.
xviii. 8; a sect among the Jews who abstained from all
animal food, Rom. xiv. 2; eating of food offered to idols.
1 Cor. viii. 4; number of Oriental meals, Judges xix. 8.
Fox, of our version, generally agreed to be, in most cases,
the jackal; description and figure, Judges xv. 4.
Frankincense, Gen. xxx. 34.
Fringes, why the Jews were commanded to wear to their
garments, Num. xv. 38.

Fuel, wood and dung used for, Jer. xxxvi. 22, and Ezek.
iv. 15; coals" mean "charcoal," in John xviii. 18.
Funeral rites. The mourning for Jacob, and notice of the
dis inctive fact that the body of Joseph was "put into
a colin," Gen. 1. 3, 26; elucidation of "the mourners go
about the streets," in Eccles. xii. 5; notice of the an-
cient and still subsisting custom of hiring professed
mourners to lament over the dead, which is alluded
to in Jer. ix. 17; illustration. exhibiting professional
"mourning women" in a Turkish cemetery, Amos vi.
16; description of the different funeral observances
which appear to have prevailed amongst the Hebrews,
as distinctly mentioned in Jer. xvi. 6, 7, with illustra-
tions, from Camparini's Etruscan tombs, of "laying out
and mourning over the dead," and the "cup of conso-
lation;" farther notice of mourning lamentations, Jer.
xxii. 18; inquiry on the phrase, with the burnings of
thy fathers," whether the body itself was burned, or the
spices only. Jer. xxxiv. 5, with a reference to the notice
of the burning of Saul's body, in 1 Sam. xxxi. 12, 13;
large quantity of spices used by the Jews in the later
period of their history, in explanation of, "as the man-
ner of the Jews is to bury," John xix. 40; anxiety of
the Orientals about the rites of burial, Eccles. vi. 3;
mode of eafolding the dead in grave-clothes, in illus-
tration of the raising of Lazarus, John xi. 44; modern
Jewish burial customs, Luke vii. 12. [Sepulchre.]

G.

Gadara. Notice of the apparent discrepancy of the evan-
gelists' account of the "country of the Gadarenes,"
and the "country of the Gergesanes," with an attempt
to ascertain the site of Gadara, Luke viii. 26.
Galatia, an important province of Asia Minor, Acts xvi. 6.
Galatians. For what purpose the epistle was written, and
to whom, Gal. i, 1.
Galilee, lake or "sea" of, general description of, Matt.

iv. 18.

Galilæans slain by Pilate, not easy to determine either the
individuals or their offences, Luke xiii. 1.

Gamaliel, Paul's master, the grandson of the celebrated
Hillel, and supposed to be the son of that Simeon who
took the infant Jesus in his arms, Acts v. 34.
Garlands in sacrifices, Acts xiv. 13.

Garlick, eaten like onions, and peculiarly agreeable to the
palate, Num. xi. 5.

Gate. Notice of the Orientalism, "Let thy seed possess
the gate of them that hate thee," Gen. xxiv. 60; the
"gate," a general place of public resort, for the ad-
ministration of justice, transaction of business, &c..
2 Sam. xv. 2; explanation of Scriptural references to
the "gate," 2 Sam. xviii. 24; the "king's gate" of the
Temple, probably kept constantly closed, except when

the king came to the Temple, 1 Chron. ix. 18; a prac-
tice illustrated by the still existing custom of closing up
a gate through which any great personage has passed,
Ezek. xliv. 2; strictness observed in shutting and open-
ing the gates of towns, Neh. vii. 3; explanation of the
proverb, "He that exalteth his gate seeketh destru
tion," with a view of an Oriental gate, Prov, xvii. 19.
Gath, one of the five principalities of the Philistines,
1 Sam. xxi. 10; and

Gaza, the capital of another of these principalities, Judges
xvi. 1; view of Gaza, Zeph. ii. 4.

Gazelle, images of beauty which it supplies, Prov. v. 19
Geba, an important post, 1 Sam. xiii. 3.
Gerizim, Mount, notice of, and view, Deut. xxvii. 4, 13.
Gershon, a son of Levi; the duties of his descendants

about the tabernacle, Num. iii. 17.

Gethsemane, village and garden of, John xviii. 1.
Giants. Does the phrase characteristic of the antediluvian
"giants" mean greatness of stature, or greatness in
wickedness? Gen. vi. 4; and also in Num. xiii, 33, with
a special reference to "the sons of Anak;" further no-
tice of the Anakim, Josh. xi. 21; and particular notice
of an individual "of the remnant of the giants,* Deut.
iii. 11; the "valley of giants," 1 Chron. xv 9.
Gibeon, town of, and Gibeonites, their craft in imposing
on Joshua, with an illustrative figure, adapted from
Caracci, Josh. ix. 3-14; Saul's probable object in
seeking to slay the Gibeonites, 2 Sam. xxi. 2.
Gihon, the river, Gen. ii. 13.

Gilboa, range of hills, 1 Sam. xxviii. 4.

Gilead, Mount, properly a chain of mountains, Gen.
xxxi. 25.

Giraffe, notice and figure. Deut. xiv. 5.
Gleaning. [Agriculture. ]

Goat, notice of, under Gen. xv. 9, and 1 Sam. xxiv. 2, with
figures.

Gog and Magog, great diversity of opinion respecting—
perhaps applied to the Scythians of the ancients, an-
swering to the Tartars of the moderns, Ezek. xxxvii.
2-15, and chap. xxxix.

Goshen, land of, probable situation of, Gen. xlv. 10.
Grasshopper, in Nahum iii. 17, probably the locust before
it is in
in a condition for flight.
Grecians, the, in Acts vi. 1, who they were.
Groves, in idolatrous worship, Judges iii. 7; inquiry te
specting the meaning of "hangings for the grove,” in
2 Kings xxiii. 7.

Gourd, probably the castor-oil tree, with figure, Jonah iv. 6.

H.

Habbakuk, different opinions as to the time of, Hab. i.;
illustration of the "Prayer of Habbakuk," from a paint-
ing ascribed to Carravaggio, chap. iii.
Hagar, adventures of, and birth of Ismael, Gen. xvi. 1–16;
her distress in the wilderness, after being sent away
from Abraham's house, with an illustration, from Le
Sueur, Gen. xxi. 10-14.

Haggai, his prophecies and period, Hag. i. 1.
Hailstones, extraordinary showers of, Josh. x. 11.
Hair, consecration of the, Num. vi. 5 [Nazarite]; notice
of the custom of men wearing long hair, 2 Sam. xiv. H;
sort of baldness which the Orientals consider igne
minious, 2 Kings ii. 23; plaiting and adorning the hair
by the Jewish women, 1 Pet. iii. 3.

Halo, or glory round the heads of venerated or sacred per
sonages, Exod. xxxiv. 29.

Hamath, a metropolitan city, Num. xiii. 21.
Harem. An extensive female establishment regarded as a
piece of royal state as early as the time of Moses, Deut.
xvii. 17; notice of the custom, Judges ix. 5, and 1 Kings
xi. 3; farther illustration of this, Esther ii. ¡7.
Harp. [Musical instruments.]
Hart, description and figures, Ps. xlii. 1.

Havilah, land of, Gen. ii. 11; not intended in 1 Sam. xv. 17

Head, covering of, an attempt to elucidate the allusions
to, in 1 Cor. xi.

Healing by touch, 2 Kings v. 11.

Hebrew, derivation of the word, Gen. xiv. 13. [Jews.]
Hebrews, Epistle to the, by whom written, &c., Heb. i.
Hebron, conjectures respecting its different names and
history, Gen. xiii. 18.

Heliopolis, Ezek. xxx. 17. [Egypt.]
Helmets, crowned, 2 Sam. i. 10. [Armour.]
Herbs, bitter, probably different kinds of, Exod. xii. 8;
herbs in common use, Matt. xxiii. 23.

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Hornet, zimb, or dog-fly, of Abyssinia, probably the in-
sect mentioned in Josh. xxiv. 12.
Horns of the altar, Exod. xxvii. 2.

Horse. Fine description of the horse in Job xxxix. 19,
with a head, from the Elgin marbles; conjectural ex-
planation of the command, that the Jewish kings were
not to "multiply horses." Deut. xvii. 16; remarkable
silence of Scripture as to horses, in connection with
Arabia, Josh. xi. 6; Solomon's traffic in horses,
2 Chron. i. 16; houghing of horses, 2 Sam. viii. 4;
horses and chariots of the sun; 2 Kings xxiii. 11; the
ancients did not shoe their horses by nailing iron plates
to the bottom of the hoof, Isaiah v. 28.
Hosea, character of his style, Hos. i.

Hospitality, habits of, in early times, Judges xix. 15;
feeling of, still strong in the East, 2 Sam. xii. 4;
enforced by the apostles, Rom. xii. 13.
Hours. [Day.]
Houses, men lived in, before they lived in tents, Gen. iv.
20; "houses of clay," Job iv. 19; roofs of houses used
for enjoying the air, 2 Sam. xi. 2; and for sleeping,
Deut. xxii. 8, and Prov. xxi. 9; explanation of "They
went upon the housetop, and let him down through the
tiling," Luke v. 19; Oriental houses, with view of a
"chamber on the wall," 2 Kings iv. 10; "every man
under his vine and under his fig tree," 1 Kings iv. 25;
with pictorial illustrations in Micah iv. 4; part of the
quadrangle of an Oriental house, to illustrate the acci-
dent which befel the young man while Paul was
preaching, Acts xx. 9.
Humiliation, Oriental mode of expressing, Exod. xxxiii. 4.
Husbandman, literally "a man of the ground,” Gen. ix.
21.

Husks, or pods of the Carob-tree, Luke xv. 16.
Hyperbole. Strong tendency of Orientals to hyperbolical
and exaggerated statements, Deut. iii. 11, in illustration

of, "nine cubits, after the cubit of a man ;" some speci
mens of this, Num. xiii. 33; Deut. ix. 1; 2 Sam. xvii.
13, and more particularly John xxi. 25.
Hyssop, the, of Scripture has opened a wide field of con-
jecture; figure of the Phytolacca decandra, Exod. xii. 22.

I.

Ibex, or wild goat, with figure, Deut. xiv. 5.
Iconium, the capital of the province of Lycaonia. Acts
xiv. 1.
IDOLATRY.

General view of.-The earliest form of idolatry was
doubtless the worship of "the host of heaven,"
with an illustration from the Persian sculptures
(supposed to be not later than the age of Cyrus),
representing a priest or king worshipping to-
wards the sun, Job. xxxi. 26; horses and chariots of
the sun, 2 Kings xxiii. 11; the moon worshipped
under the title of "queen of heaven," Jer. vii. 18;
what was the origin and nature of one of the most
widely diffused idolatries of the ancient world, serpent
worship? 2 Kings xix. 4; general view of the pro-
gress of idolatry, from its simplest primitive forms to
its grossest manifestations, Deut. iv. 15; progression
from altars in the open fields, or "high places," to
temples, Deut. xii. 2.
Particular idolatries of different nations.-Perhaps no
ancient nation denied that the Jehovah of the Jews
was a god, but they denied His exclusive claims,
1 Sam. iv. 8; and 2 Kings xvii. 26; this rendered
more evident by the distinction as to the "gods of the
hills," every country having its peculiar objects of
worship, 1 Kings xx. 23; Adonis, the Tammuz of Scrip-
ture, his worship, Ezek. viii. 14; Ashtaroth, or Astarte,
undoubtedly the moon, with illustrations from Phoni-
cian silver coins, 2 Chron. xv. 16; Baal, primitively a
title of honour, answering to "master," or "lord," but
the Phoenician Baal probably an incarnation of the sun,
1 Kings xvi. 31; Judges ii. 11; what god is intended
by Baal-peor? Num. xxv. 3; inquiry respecting Baal,
zebub, the god of Ekron, or the fly-god, 2 Kings i. 2;
Babylonian idols, with illustration, xxi. 9; Dagon-
the tutelary deity of the Philistines, 1 Sam. v. 2; the
Edomites probably worshipped the sun, xxv. 14;
view of the Egyptian system of idolatry, with various
figures of gods and symbols, Deut. iv.; idolatrous
processions, with illustration of the car of a Hindoo
god, Amos v. 26; the Hebrews plunged so low in
idolatry as to assign a patron god to each of their
cities, Jer. xi. 13; they worshipped the gods of Egypt,
while in Egypt, and afterwards evinced a strong pre-
dilection for Egyptian idolatry, Exod. xxxii. 4; 1 Kings
xii. 28; Ezek. viii. 10; and also addicted themselves
to the idolatries of their neighbours, Num. xxv. 3;
Judges ii. xi. 14; Jer. xi. 13.
Idolatrous practices, comparisons, and allusions.-Offering
and drinking of blood an idolatrous custom, Deut. xii.
23; votive offerings in various nations, 1 Sam. vi. 4;
belief in the power of individuals to blast or destroy
by incantations and curses, Num. xxii. 6; idolatrous
customs connected with sacrificing in gardens, and
resorting to graves, under pretence of holding com-
munion with demons or spirits, Isa. lxv. 3, 4; cus-
toms connected with the annual celebration of the
festival of Adonis, Ezek. viii. 14; what was the su-
perstition connected with the "images," or "tera-
phim," 1 Sam. xix. 13; custom of clothing idols, Jer.
x. 9; reference to the god Pan, Lev. xvii. 7; idols
contemptuously called "dead ones," Deut. xxvi. 14;
Elijah's mockery of the priests of Baal, 1 Kings
xviii. 27.

Construction of idols.-Does the prohibition of making
graven images" extend to the prohibition of all
sculpture and painting, or only of that intended for

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idolatrous purposes? Deut. v. 8, 9; description of the
process of making idols, with illustrations, Isa. xliv.
12, 13. [Sculpture.]
Incense, earliest notice of the use of, in sacrifice, Exod.
xxx. 7.

Inheritance, Hebrew law of, Num. xxvii. 7. [Land.]
Ink, eastern, nature of, Num. v. 23; and Jer. xxxvi. 18.
Investiture, ceremonies of, Gen. xl. 42; 1 Kings xix. 19.
Isaac, feast on the occasion of his being weaned. Gen. xxi.
8; contention between him and Ishmael, verse 10.
Isaiah, character of, prophecies and style, Isa. i. l.
Ishmael, his birth, and prophetic description of his cha-
racter and that of his descendants, Gen. xvi. 10-16;
his descendants, with some account of the Mohammedan
traditions respecting him, Gen. xxv. 16.

Israelites. [Jews.]

Isthmian games, 1 Cor. ix. 24.

J.

Jackals. [Fox.]

Jael's conduct towards Sisera. Judges iv. 18-21.

James, and his epistle, James i.

Jasher, book of, what it was, Josh. x. 13.

Jephthah's history, conduct, and vow, Judges xi. [Sacri-
fice, Human.]

Jeremiah, introduction to the book of, Jer. i.; book of
Lamentations written by Jeremiah, Lament. i.
ericho, plains of, Josh. v. 10; fall of the city, and curse
denounced against the man who should rebuild it,
Josh. vi. 17-26; inquiry respecting its site, 1 Kings
xvi. 34; view of it, from Forbiu, Maik x. 46.
Jerusalem. General description of the city, with view,
from Cassas, 2 Sam. v. 5; Mount Zion, with a view,
Ps. xlvii. 2; supply of the city with water by Solomon,
Eccles. ii. 6; by Hezekiah, 2 Chron. xxxii. 30; rebuild-
ing of the city after the Ca tivity. Neh. ii. 8, and iii. 1,
and xii. 27; view of the valley of Jehoshaphat, 2 Sam.
xv.; another view, with a description, Joel iii. 2; exte-
rior view and description of the tombs of the kings.
2 Chron. xxiv. 25; interior of the tombs of the kings,
Ezek. xxxii.; the Via Doloroso," John xix. 16; in-
quiry respecting the site of Mount Calvary, and whether
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre marks the place,
Heb. xiii.; the Holy Sepulchre, with a view, Mark xvi.
2; view of the interior, John xix. 40; siege and destruc-
tion of the city by the Romans, with a view of Jerusa
lem from the Mount of Olives, Matt. xxiv. 6, Luke xxi.
20; the Jews are so much attached to Jerusalem, that
large quantities of the soil are annually exported, for the
purpose of being placed in the graves of those who die
in foreign countries, 2 Kings v. 17.
Jewellers, travelling, Matt. xiii. 45.
Jews. Numbers of the Israelites on their departure from
Egypt, Exod. xii. 37, xiii. 17; they were largely in-
fected with leprosy on leaving Egypt, which led to an
ingenious misrepresentation, Lev. xiii. 3; various illus-
trations of their wanderings in the wilderness, see gene-
rally the books of Exodus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy;
division of their history into periods, Josh. i. 1; pro-
phetic view of their history, on the alternatives of their
good or evil conduct, Deut. xxviii., xxix., and xxx.
[Captivity]; Jews, in the time of Christ and before it,
were strongly addicted to proselytizing, Matt. xxiii.
15; view of the history of the Jews from the time of
our Saviour to the destruction of Jerusalem and the
nation by the Romans, and the dispersion of the sur-
vivors, Matt. xxiv. 6; Mark xiii. 14; Luke xxi. 24.
Job, his history, country, period, and probable estimate of
his wealth, chap. i.

John, the apostle, John i. 1.

Jonah, the prophet, Jonah i. 1.

Joppa (Jaffa), view and description of, Acts x. 5.
Jordan, the principal stream of Palestine, Gen. xiii. 10; a
view of the river, from Forbin, Matt. iii.; passage of the

river by the Israelites, Josh. ii. 14; illustratim ef,
from Raffaelle, Neh. ix.

Joshua, the office he was appointed to fill, Deut. xxxii. 1:
his death and character, Josh. xxxiv. 29.
Jubilee, the, Lev. xxv. 21.

Judges, book of, Judges i. 1; judges who ruled Iste'.
their character, office, and powers, chap. ii. 16.
Judicial institutions amongst the Jews, Exod xvii. 25;
2 Chron. xix. 8.

K.

Kadesh in the wilderness, inquiry respecting, Num. 11. !,
Kingly form of government, strong inclination of the
Orientals towards, Deut. xvii. 14; kingly rights, limite
tions, and powers, 1 Sam. viii. 5; 2 Sam. v. 3; 1 Kings
i. and iii. 27; various illustrations of Oriental cons
royal authority, privileges, &c., in the book of Esther.
Kings, Oriental, difficult of access, Esther iv. 11.
Kings, books of, 1 Kings i. 1.

Kishon, the brook, Judges vi. 21.

Korah, the rebellion of, with pictorial illustration, Nan.
xvi. 1.

L.

Land. Principles of the laws of property which were to
be established in the Promised Land, Lev. xxv. 24; in-
junction not to remove landmarks, Deut. xix. 14; confr
cation and restoration of land, 2 Kings viii, 3; tecures
of land in the East, Luke xvi. 5.
Language, primitive, and origin of the various languages
Gen. xi. 1-9.

Lanterns and torches, with pictorial illustrations, Jalin
xviii. 3.

Laodicea, what is "the epistle from Laodicea," mentioned
in Col. iv. 16; several cities of the name of Laodiera,
with view of the ruins of the one mentioned in Rev
iii. 14.

Law, the, as distinguished from the books of the prophes
and the Hagiographa, or "Holy Writings," Luke xx.
44; the Law to be written, Deut. xvii. 18; preservation of
the written Law, Matt. v. 18.
Law, Tables of the, Exod. xxxii. 15.

Lebanon, description and view of, Josh. xiii. 6; and de
scription and view of the cedars, Zech. xi. 1.
Leopard, appears to have been common in Palestine.
Isaiah x. 6; figure of Syrian leopards, from Ele
berg, Cant. iv. 8; the swiftness of the leopard frequently
suggested the practice of partially taming it, to be en-
ployed in hunting, Hab. i. 8.

Leprosy, its nature, and process respecting, under the
Mosaic law, Lev. xiii.; the house leprosy" has octa-
sioned much perplexity to inquirers, Lev. xiv. 34; ex-
clusion of lepers from society, Num. v. 2; leprosy of
Naaman, 2 Kings v. 27.
Leviathan, whether it is to be identified with the whale or
the crocodile, with illustrations, Job xli. 1.
Levites, institution of the, as the priestly tribe, instead of
the first-born, Num. iii. 12; consecration of the Levites
Num. viii. 7, 10; cities to be assigned to the Levites,
Num. xxxv. 2; reorganization of the Levitical body, en
the building of the Temple, 1 Chron. xxvi.
Libertines, most probable account of the, Acts vi. 9.
Lily. Is the Amaryllis lutea intended in Cant. ii. 1 ? figure
and description, Matt. vi. 28.

Lion, the, formerly abounded in Palestine. Judges xiv. 5 ;
remarks on its character, 2 Sam. xvii. 10; comparison
of the human face to that of a lion's, 1 Chron. XI. 8:
chase of the lion, from 'Antiquités d'Herculanum.
Ezek. xvii.

Locust, description, ravages, enormous multitudes, and
destruction by storms, Joel i. 4, and ii. 2-20.
Lot, dwelt in a cave after the destruction of Sodom, Gez
xix. 30; the text does not afford ground for the impr
sion that his wife became a pillar of rock-salt, verse 35

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Mark, introductory note to his gospel, Mark i.
Marriage. The marriages of near relations necessary in
early times, Gen. xx. 12; origin of the patriarchal aver-
sion to mixed marriages, or marriages with strangers,
Gen. xxiv. 4; Eastern marriage customs, Gen. xxix.
18-27; reasons of the law prohibiting the marriages of
near relations, Lev. xviii. 2; and against marriages with
idolaters, Deut. viii. 3; but provision made for the mar-
riage of female captives, Deut. xxi. 11-13; customs and
ceremonies of marriage amongst the Jews in the earlier
period of their history, Judges xiv. 10, Ruth iii. 9, and
iv. 4; Eastern nuptial processions, illustrated by a view
of the procession of a Hindoo bridegroom, and the pro-
cession of a bride in Lebanon, Matt. xxv. 1; Roman
law respecting the marriage of near relations, 1 Cor. v.
1; regulations of the marriages of the Jewish priests,
Lev. xxi. 13.

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Terchants, travelling, James iv. 13.

Ierom, waters, or lake of, Joshua xi. 5.

lesopotamia, notice of, Gen. xxviii. 5.

letals, first mention of working in, Gen. iv. 22; the pre-
cious metals early in use as a medium of exchange,
Gen. xiii. 2; conjectural view of the gradual discovery
and use of metals, Exod. xxxi. 4; early description
of the process of extracting metallic ore, as given in Job
xxviii. 1-19; the existence of iron in the mountains of
Lebanon satisfactorily ascertained, Deut. viii. 9.
fethuselah, not necessarily the oldest person that ever
lived, Gen. v. 27.

licah, prophecy of, Micah i.

lidian, what constituted the land of, Exod. ii. 15.
[idianites, the descendants of Midian, the son of Abra-
ham by Keturah, Num. xxxi. 2; total route of the Mi-
dianites by Gideon, Judges vii. and viii.
lilitary Engines. Illustration of the passage in 2 Chron.
xxvi. 15-"engines invented by cunning men to be on
the towers and bulwarks, to shoot arrows and great
stones withal"-by an inquiry whether these engines
were invented by the Jews, or borrowed, with figures of
the balista, the catapulta, and scorpion; notice of the
battering ram, with figures from the Column of Trajan
and the Arch of Severus, and the "suspended battering
ram," from Grose's Military Antiquities, Ezek. xxi. 22.
Military Force. The first mention of an organized military
force is that of the Egyptians, which pursued the Isr el-

ites, Exod. xv. 4; military arrangement of the camp of
the Israelites in the wilderness, Num. ii.; David's
formation of a royal body-guard, 1 Chron. xviii. 17;
standing military force, or militia, of the Hebrews,
1 Chron. xxvii. 1; the "captain of the guard," was the
commander of the royal life-guard, usually the only
standing military force in Oriental nations, Jer. xliii. 6.
Military Operations. The law of war, laid down for the
guidance of the Jews, accompanied by a representation
of "an Egyptian siege," from a bas relief, Deut. xx. ;
the "art" of war, as involving skill and generalship, but
little understood, Joshua viii. 4; and I Chron. xi. 1;
stratagems of war, 2 Kings viii. 12; military signals
amongst the Jews with ancient and modern analogous
usages, 1 Sam. xi. 7; specific regulations as to the divi-
sion of spoil obtained in war, with illustrations from
analogous customs in ancient nations, Num. xxxi. 27
Military Standards. History of the invention and use of
standards,, in illustration of Num. ii. 2.

Military Trophies. Usual in ancient times to erect some
memorial of a victory, 1 Sam. xv. 12; barbarous Oriental
custom, both in ancient and modern times, of forming a
trophy with the heads of the slain, 2 Kings x. 8; tro-
phies formed with arms and armour, with a view of the
military trophy erected to celebrate the victory of Trajan
over the Dacii, 1 Chron. x. 10.

Mill, grinding at the, with an illustration of "Sicilian wo-
men grinding in a mill," Matt. xxiv. 41.
Millet, the Panicum miliaceum of Linnæus, Ezek. iv. 9.
Mint, much in demand for culinary purposes, Matt. xxiii.

23.

Mirage, description of the, as alluded to in Isa. xxxv. 7.
Mirrors, metallic, used anciently, Exod. xxxviii. 8; group
of metallic mirrors, in illustration of the phrase “a mol-
ten looking-glass," in Job xxxvii. 18.
Mizpah, several places of this name in Palestine, Gen.
xxxi. 49.

Mizraim, probably Egypt, Gen. x. 6.
Moabites, descended from one of Lot's sons, their country
and character, Deut. ii. 2; prophecies of the ruin of
Moab, Isa. chapters xvi. and xvii.; ruins of the country,
Jer. xlviii.

66

Mole-rat, description and figure, Isa. ii. 20.
Money. The word translated money," in Job xlii. 11,
means, literally, a "lamb." Does this give a clue to the
origin of money as a medium of exchange? Money
sealed up in bags, Job xiv. 17.

Moriah, land of, Gen. xxii. 2.

Moses, his meekness, Num. xii. 3; magnanimity, Judges
xviii. 30; concealment of his place of burial, Deut.
xxxiv. 6.

Mulberry trees in Palestine, 2 Sam. v. 24.

Mule, first time that it is indisputably mentioned in
Scripture, 2 Sam. xiii. 29.

Mustard seed, statement of controversy which has been
raised respecting, Luke xvii. 6.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. We find musical instruments
mentioned before the Deluge, Gen. iv. 21; the subject of
the musical instruments of the Hebrews beset with diffi-
culty, Ps. xliii. 4.

Wind Instruments.-Horns of oxen, and probably of
rams, in use as instruments of sound, Lev. xxv. 9,
and Joshua vi. 4, with figures; the two trumpets of
silver were probably not unlike our own, Num. x. 2;
trumpets and cornets, with illustrative figures, Ps.
xcviii. 6; various wind instruments, the flute, single
and double, and the dulcimer, which was probably a
bagpipe, with figures, Dan. iii. 10; the "organ" of
Scripture very probably the mouth-organ, or Pandean
pipe, Ps. cl. 4.

The Lyre.-Groups of ancient lyres, introduced under
the conviction that the "harp" of our version is to be
identified with the lyre; history of the lyre, illus-
trated with figures from statues and paintings, repre-
sented as using different forms of the lyre, Ps. xliii.
The Harp.-The harp being in use among the Egyp-

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