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vey himself naked, divested of artificial charms, and he will find himself a forked stradling animal, with bandy legs, a short neck, a dun hide, and a pot belly. It would be yet better, if he took a strong purge once a-week, in order to contemplate himself in that condition : at which time it will be convenient to make use of the letters, dedications, &c. abovesaid. Something like this has been observed by Lucretius, and others, to be a powerful remedy in the case of women. If all this will not do, I must even leave the poor man to his destiny. Let him marry himself, and when he is condemned eternally to bimself, perhaps he may run to the next pond to get rid of himself, the fate of most violent felf-lovers.
CH A P. XII.
How Martinus endeavoured to find out the seat of the
foul, and of his correspondence with the Free-thinkers. IN IN this design of Martin, to investigate the diseases of
the mind, he thought nothing lo necessary as an en. quiry after the seat of the foul; in which, at first, he laboured under great uncertainties. Sometimes he was of opinion, that it lodged in the brain, fometimes in the stomach, and fometimes in the heart. Afterwards he thought it absurd to confine that sovereign lady to one apartment, which made him infer, that she shifted it according to the several functions of life : the brain was her study, the heart her state-room, and the stomach her kitchen. But as he saw several offices of life went on at the same time, he was forced to give up this hypothesis also.
He now conjectured it was more for the digvity of the foul to perform several operations by her little ministers, the animal Spirits, from whence it was natural to conclude, that she resides in different parts according to different inclinations, lexes, ages, and profeflions. Thus in Epicurus he feated her in the mouth of the stomach, philosophers have her in the brain, soldiers in their heart, women in their tongues, fidlers in their fingers, and rope-dancers in their toes. At length he grew fond of the glandula pinealis, diffecting many subjects to find out the different figure of
this gland, from whence he might discover the cause of the different tempers in mankind. He supposed, that in factious and restless-spirited people, he should find it sharp and pointed, allowing no room for the soul to repose herfélf; that in quiet tempers it was flat, smooth, and soft, affording to the soul, as it were, an easy cushion. He was confirmed in this by observing, that calves and phi. losophers, tygers and statesmen, foxes and sharpers, pea. cocks and fops, cock-sparrows and coquets, monkeys and players, courtiers and spaniels, moles and milers, exactly resemble on another in the conformation of the pie neal gland. He did not doubt likewise to find the same resemblance in highwaymen and conquerors : in order to satisfy himself in which, it was, that he purchased the body of one of the first species (as hath been before related) at Tyburn, hoping in time to bave the happiness of one of the latter too, under his anatomical knife.
We must not amit taking notice here, that these en. quiries into the seat of the soul gave occasion to his first correspondence with the society of Free-thinkers, who were then in their infancy in England, and so much taken with the promising endowments of Martin, that they 014 dered their secretary to write hin the following letter.
To the learned Inquisitor into nature, MARTINUS SCRT BLERUS: the society of Free-thinkers greeting.
Grecian Coffee House, May 7. T is with unspeakahle joy we have heard of your
quisitive genius, and we think it great pity that it should not be better employed, than in looking after that theological non-entity commonly called the soul: lince, after all your enquiries, it will appear you have lost your labour ia seeking the residence of such a chimera, that ne. ver had being but in the brains of some dreaming philo. sophers. Is it not demonstration to a person of your sense, that, since you cannot find it, there is 110 such thing ? In order to set lo hopeful a genius right in this matter, we bave fent you an answer to the ill-grounderl fophisms of those crack-brained fellows, and likewise an ealy mecha. nical explication of perception or thinking.
One of their chief arguments is *, that felf-consciousness cannot inhere in any system of matter, becaule all matter is made up of several distinct beings, which never can make up one individual thinkirg being.
This is easily answered by a familiar instance. In eve. ry jack there is á meatorociling quality, which neither resides in the fly, nor in the weight, nor in any particular wheel of the jack, but is the result of the whole compro sition : so in ko animal, the self conscioulness is not a real quality inherent in one being (any more than meat roastirg in a jack), but the result of several modes or qualities in the same subject. As the fly, the wheels, the chain, the weight, the cords, Gc. make one jack; fo the several parts of the body make one animal. As perception or consciousness is said to be inherent in this animal; lo is meatroasting said to be inherent in the jack. As lensation, reasoniog, volition, memory, &c. are the leveral modes of thinking; fo roasting of hecs, roasting otinutton, roafting of pullets, geele, turkeys, &c. are the several modes of meat-roasting. And as the general quantity of meat• roasting, with its several modifications as to beef, mut. ton, pullets, &c. does not inhere in any one part of the jack; fo neither does consciousness, with its several modes of sensation, intellection, volition, &c. inbere in any one, but is the relult from the mechanical composition of tbe whole animal.
Just 10, the quality or disposition in a fiddle to play tunes, with the leveral modifications of this tine-playing quality, in playing of preludes, farabands, jigs, and g.. votts, are as much real qualities in the ioftrument, as the thought or the imagination is in the mind of the person that composes them.
The parts, say they, of an animal body are perpetual. ly changed, and the fluids which seem to be the subject of consciousnels, are in a perpetual circulation ; so that the faine individual particles do not remain in the brain ; from whence it will follow, that the idea of individual consciousness must be conttantly translated from one particle of matter to another, whereby the particle A, for
* This whole chapter is an inimitable ridicule on Collins's argumenis against Clarke, to prove the soul only a quality. W. VOL. V.
example, muit not only be conscious, but conscious that it is the fame being with the particle B that went before.
We antwer; this is only a fallacy of the imagination, and is to be underltood in no other sense than that maxim of the English law, that the King never dies. This power of thinking, felf.moving, and governing the whole machine, is communicated from every particle to its immediate successor ; who, as soon as he is gone, immediately takes upon him the government, which still preserves the unity of the whole system.
They make a great noise about this individuality: how a man is conscious to himlelf that he is the same individual he was twenty years ago; notwithstanding the flux state of the particles of inatter that compoie his body. We think this is capable of a very plain aufwer, and may
be easily illustrated by a familiar example. Sir John Cutler haul a pair of black worsted stockings
, which his maid darned so often with silk, that they be. came at last a pair of silk stockings. Now, fupposing those stockings of Sir John's endued with some degree of consciousnets at every particular darning, they would have been fenfible, that they were the same individual pair of stockings both before and after the darning; and this fen. fation would have continued in them through all the fuccession of darnings: and yet, after the last of all, there was not perhaps one thread left of the first pair of stock. ings, but they were grown to be filk stockings, as was said before.
And whereas it is affirmed, that every animal is con. fcious of foine individual self-moving,' self-determining principle; it is answered, that, as in the Houle of Cor. mons all things are determined by a majority; so it is in every animal system. As that which determines the House, is said to be the reason of the whole assembly; it is no. otherwise with thinking beings, wlio are determined by the greater force of leveral particles; which, like so many unthinking members, compose one thinking system.
And whereas it is likewise objected, that punishments cannot be just that are not infiicted upon the fame individual, which cannot fublilt without the notion of a spi. ritual substance : we reply, that this is no greater difficul. ty to conceive, than that a corporation, which is likewife
a flux body, may be punished for the faults, and liable to the debts, of their predecessors.
We proceed now to explain, by the structure of tlie brain, the several modes of thinking. It is well known to anatomists, that the brain is a congeries of glands, that Separate the finer parts of the blood, called animal fpirits; that a gland is nothing but a canal of a great length, variously intorted and wound up together. From the variation and motion of the spirits in those canals, proceed all the different forts of thoughts. Siinple ideas are produced by the motion of the Spirits in oue fimple canal; when two of these canals difembogue themselres into one, they make what we call' a proposition ; and wi:en two of these propositional channels empty themfelves into a third, they form a fyllo ilin, or a ratiocination. Memory is performed in a distinct apartment of the hrain, made up of vessels fi:nilar, and like situated to the ideal, propofitional, and fyllogistical vessels, in the prima. ry parts of the brain. After the same manner, it is easy to explain the other modes of thinking; as also why some people think so wrong and perversely, which proceeds from the bad configuration of those glands. Some, for example, are born without the propositional or fyllogiftical canals ; in others, that reason ill, they are of unequal capacities ; in dull fellows, of too great a length, where. by the motion of the spirits is retarded; in trilling geni. uses, weak and Inall; in the over-refining spirits, too much intorted and winding; and so of the resti
We are so much persuaded of the truth of ļhis our hy.' pothefis, that we have crnployed one of our members, agreat virtuofo at Nuremberg, to make a fort of an hydrolic engine, in which a chenical liquor, resembling blood, is.driven through elastic channels refémbling arteries and veins, by the force of an embolus like the heart, and wrought by a pneumatic machine of the nature of the lungs, with
ropes and pullies, like the nerves, tendons, and muscles : and we are perfuaded, that this our artificial man will not only walk, and speak, and perform most of the outward actions of the animal life, but (being wound up once a-week) will perhaps realon as well as most of your country parlons. We wait with the utmost impatience for the honour of