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charge the colour, by some ingenious circumftance or periphrale, some addition or diminution, or by fome of those figures, the use of which we shall Thew in our next chapter,

The book of Job is acknowleged to be iufiuitely fublime, and yet has not the father of the bathos reduced it in every page? is there a passage in all Virgil more painted up and laboured than the description o? Ætma in the third Æneid ?

Horrificis juxta tonat Ætna ruinis,
Interdumque atrum prorumpit ad æthera nubem,
Turbine fumantem piceo, et candente favilla,
Attollitque globos fiammorum, et fidera lambit :
Interdum fcopulos avulsaque viscera montis
Erigit eructans, liquefacíaque saxa sub auras
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoque exeftuat imo.

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(I beg pardon of the gentle English reader, and such of our writers as understand not Latin). Lo! how this is taken down by our British poet, by the single happy thought of throwing the mountain into a fit of the cholic.

Ætna, and all the burning mountains, find
Their kindied fores with inbred liorms of wind,
Blown up to rage ; and roaring out, complain ;
As torn with inward gripes, and tort'ring pain;
Lab'ring, they call their dreadful vomit round,
And with their melted bowels spread the ground *

Horace, in search of the sublime, struck his head against the starst; but Empedocles, to fathom the profund, threw himself into na. And who but would imagine our excellent inodern had also been there, from this description?

Imitation is of two sorts ; the first is, when we force to our own purposes the thoughts of others; the second conlists in copying the imperfections or blemishes of cele. brated authors. I have seen a play 'profefedly writ in

* Pr. Arthur, p. 75.

Sublimi feriam fidera vertice.

G 3


the file of Spakespeare; wherein the refurblance lay in oce single line,

And so good 270rrow t'ye, good mafier lieutenant.

And sundry poems, in imitation of Milton, where, with the utmost exactuels, and not so much as one exteption, nevertheless was constantly nathlefs, embroidered was broidered, hermits were here mits, dildained was 'Sdeigned, th dy umbrageous, enterprize emprize, pagan paynin, pinion pennons, tweet dulcet, orchards orchats, bridge: work pontifical; nay, her was hir, and their was thir, through the whole poem. And, in very deed, here is no other way, by which the true modern poet could read to any purpole the works of such men as Milton and Shake fpeare.

It may be expected, that, like other critics, I should next peak of the pulli0725 : but as the inain end and principal effi ct of the bathos is to produce tranquility of mind (and sure it is a better design to promote sleep than madnel), we have little to say on this subject. Nor will the Thort bounds of this discourte allow us to treat at large of the emoliients and opiates of poely; of the cool, and the mavner of producing it ; or of the me: hods uled by our authors in managing the pallions. I shall but tranfiently remark, that nothing contributes lo much to the cool, as the ule of wit in expressing pallion : the true genius rarely fails of points, conceits, ard proper dimilies on such occasions ;. This we may term the pathetic epigrani. imutical, in which even pups are made use of' with good fucculsHereby our best authors have avoided throw. ing theinfelves, or their readers, into any indecent traol. poris.

Rut, as it is sometimes needul to excite the pasions of our antagonist in the polemic way, the true students in the law have conttanily taken their methods from low life, where they obferved, that to move anger ule is made of folding and railing; to move love, of bawdry: to beget favour and friendship, of gro's flattery; and to produce feer, of calumniating an adversary with crinr es obnoxious to the state. As for shame, it is a lilly palli

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on, of which as our authors are incapable themselves, la they would not produce it in others.

C H 4 P. X.

Of tropes and figures; and first of the variegating, com

founding, and reverfing figures.


UT we proceed to the figures. We cannot too ear

nestly recommend to our authors the study of the abuse of speech. They ought to lay it down as a principle, to lay nothing in the usual way, but, if pollible, in the direct contrary. Therefore the figures inust be lo turned, as to manifelt that intricate and wonderful cast of head, which distinguishes all writers of ihis kind: or, as I may fay, to refer exactly the mold, in which they were formed, in all its inequalities, cavities, obliquities, odd erannies, and distorsions.

It would be endless, nay impossible, to enumerate all. fuch figures; but we lhall content ourlelves to range the principal, which most powerfully contribute to the bathos, under three clafles.

I. The variegating, confounding, or reversing tropes and figures.

II. The magnifying ; and,
III. The diminishing.

We capnot avoid giving to these the Greek or Roman names ; but in tenderness to our countrymen and fellowwriters, many of whom, however exquifise, are wholly ignorant of those languages, we have also explained them in our mother tongue:

Of the first fort, nothing fu much conduces to the bar thus, as the



A master of this will say,

Mow the beard,
Shave the grass,
Pin the plank,

leeve. From whence results the same kind of pleasure to the

mind, as to the eye when we bebold Harlequin trimning himfelf with a harchet, hewing down a iree with a rafor, making his tea in a cauldron, and brewing his ale in a teapot, to the incredible fatisfaction of the Britisu lpects. tor.

Another lource of the bathos is,

The METONYMY, the inversion of causes for effects, of inventors for inven. tions, &c.

Laced in her cosins* new appear’d the bride,
A bubble boy + und Tompion I at her side,
And with an air divine her colmar || piy'd,
Then oh! he cries, what slaves I round me see?
Here a bright redcoat, there a smart loupee **,


The SYNECDOCHE. which consists in the use of a part for the whole, You may call a young woman sometimes pretty-face and pig's eyes, and fometimes luotty-rose and draggle-tail. Or of acci. dents for perfons; as a lawyer is called split cause, a taya lor prick-oute, &c. Or of things belonging to a mail, for the man himself; as a, a gown-man, a t-met-d man; a whitefiaf, a turn-key, &c.

The APOSIOPESIS, an excellent figure for the ignoraut," as what shall I “ say?” when one has nothing to say: or,

16 I can do more,” when one really can no more. Expressions which the gentle reader is so good as never to take in ear. neit.

The METAPHOR. The first rule is to draw it from the lowest things, which is a certain way to sing the highest ; as when you speak of the thunder of heaven, lay,

Stays. + Tweezer-case, . # Watch.

| Fan. ** A sort of perriwig: all words in ufc at this present year 1727. Pope.


The Lords above are angry and talk big *.

Or if you would describe a rich man refunding his trea. fures, express it thus,

Though he, as faid, may riches gorge, the spoil
Painful in maíly vomit mall recoil.

sall he perish with a swift decay,
Like his own ordure, cast with scorn away t.

The fecond, that whenever you fiart a metaphor, you must be sure to run it down, and pursue it as far as it can go. If you get the scent of a state-negotiation, follow it in this manner.

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The slones and all the elements with thee
Shall ratify a firict confederacy ;
Wild beajis their favage temper fall forget,
And for a firm alliance with thee treat;
The finny tyrant of the spacious seas

send a scaly embally for peace;
His plighted faith the crocodile Mall keep,
And seeing thee, for joy fincerely weep I.
Or if you reprefent the Creator denouncing war against
the wicked, be sure not to omit one circumstance ulwal in
proclaiming and levying war,

Envous and agents, who by my command
Refide in Palefiina's land,
To whom commissions I have given
To manage there the interests of heaven
Te holy heralds, who proclaim
Or war or peace, in mine your maler's name,
Ye pioneers of hecven, prepare a road,
Make it plaini, direct and bread;
For I in person will my people head;

For the divine Deliverer

* Lee's Alex, | Job, P. 2.2.

† Blackm. Job, p. 91, 93.

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