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the external forms of goods and truths, and constitute a ground on which all interior ones rest. They are to the natural man what goods and truths are to the spiritual man; and which, when filled with life from within, become natural goods and truths; and thero are no other receptacles of conscious life in the natural man. It is said in the above that Remains are such goods and truths as a man has learnt from the Word; yet in another place it is said, they are such as have been received from parents and masters; and in another place, that they are not learned at all. Thus, as quoted above,—

"These states, with their goods and truths, impressed on the memory, are called remains; and are stored up unconsciously to himself in his internal man."

And that Remains, or goods and truths, are from parents and masters, we read as follows :—

"A man from infancy, even to childhood, and in some cases to early youth, imbibes goods and truths by instruction from parents and masters."—Arcana Calestia, 5135.

In this case the knowledges of good and truth are to be understood;— children receiving nothing from parents and masters as instruction but knowledges, which enter the memory chiefly by the senses of seeing and hearing, and which, when in the mind, and animated by life from within, are received as goods and truths respectively, according to their forms and natures. And though it is said these are from parents and masters, yet they are from them only as instruments,—what is in them being from the Word; so that, properly speaking, it is from the Word through them ;—the Word is the origin, and they (parents, &c.) are the mediums through which Remains are conveyed, or they are the instruments by which Remains are administered. Similarly it is said that goods and truths are from heaven, whereas the reality is, they are from the Lord through heaven.

Knowledges are Remains only in the most external sense; goods and truths, with their states, are the Remains proper, and are what are emphatically called Remains in the above number, viz., 561, where it is stated—" These states, with their goods and truths, impressed on the memory, are what are called Remains." The memory here named appears to be the internal; because in it Remains are stored unconsciously to the individual himself, which is not the case with what enters the external memory. This memory appears to be referred to in the former part of the number, where it is said Remains are goods and truths which man has learnt from the Word,, and which are impressed on the memory. This appears to be the case, because the


external memory is that which receives what is learned, and of which man is conscious; but the internal memory receives what is not learned, and that of which he is not conscious: and what is there stored is that which is properly signified by Remains. It may be supposed that the goods and truths of the internal memory have been learned, from the circumstance of their being implanted simultaneously with the reception of instruction, and from their entering by the same way; for all the forms which occupy even the internal memory have been received through the medium of the bodily senses. Nevertheless, it cannot with propriety be said that the goods and truths of the internal memory are learned, because there is no voluntary effort made respecting them, nor is man conscious of his reception of them; and it is quite certain he cannot learn unconsciously,—this being equal to learning what is not perceived, and consequently what is not known.

It may appear that there is a discrepancy between what is stated in 661 and what we have asserted previously, but it is only an appearance. We have said that Remains as goods and truths are in themselves only formal, and, as introduced, are void of life; but in 561 they are said to be not only goods and truths which have been learnt out of the Word, but that they are also all the states thence derived, as states of innocence of infancy, &c. The goods and truths named in this instance are formal, and are distinct from the states mentioned as rising out of them; yet, though distinct from them, they are not separate, their states being their conditions consequent upon their reception of life. The forms of goods and truths are indeed in themselves void of life, nothing entering from without but what is in itself dead. The case is thus, all forms enter man from without, and all life from within, but states do not enter either from within or from without, they being only assumed conditions of the forms which have been received, effected by the influx of life. Hence life and form are essential to the existence of state; state does not flow into man, nor has it any origin out of him, but it originates in the conjunction of life with a recipient form. There could be no conscious reception of life if there were no mental forms introduced, and there could be no states without both forms and life; both are included in a full sense by Remains, yet in a general sense sometimes one is named and sometimes the other; and though they are at one time named separately, and at another unitedly, there is not any discrepancy between the statements.

By the implantation of Remains in the human soul, there is not any increase of substance effected; the introduction of forms not implying REMAINS. 268

an introduction of substance, as will be evident from the circumstance of their entering through the medium of the bodily senses, through which no substance is admitted. The forms which enter man as Remains are mental, and have no other substance than that of his organization; they are as it is with the forms which enter the eye, each sensation, or form seen, not being substantial in itself, separate from the substance of the eye, but is simply an impression on the organ itself, its substance being that of the organ. Hence it may be seen that Remains are not substantial introductions into man's constitution, but only impressions effected, chiefly by impingements in various ways.

Inasmuch as Remains enter through the medium of the senses, in their origins they are sensations; and when implanted in the spiritual degrees of man's constitution, they are internal sensations, effected by the introduction of permanent mental forms, which are the only receptacles of consciousness.

There are various degrees of Remains stored 'up in the mind, but they are manifestly perceived only in the external or natural. In the interiors and in the inmost they are not perceived, but only affections and thoughts thence are perceived in the natural. But more on this point in the Fourth Part. That Remains are the goods and truths stored in the interiors of the mind, together with the states grounded therein, is the teaching of Swedenborg; and though at times, when presenting the most extended view of them, he includes the knowledges of good and truth, still this is not the general tenor of his teaching. Those knowledges are not usually included by Swedenborg in his category of Remains, because these reside in the natural man, and are liable to be made subservient to his evils, and are, generally, partially in such a state of subserviency; nevertheless, in their unperverted condition, they are Remains, being the lowest forms of good and truth in the human mind, and they are also received from the Lord, either directly or indirectly from the Word. The knowledges of good and truth in the external memory correspond exactly to the goods and^truths themselves in the internal memory, these having been conveyed thither by the instrumentality of those. The goods and truths in the internal memory, to which the knowledges in the external correspond, cannot be made subservient to evils, they being above them, and altogether beyond their sphere; these are Remains, and they are above that region of the mind • in which man is conscious, and are therefore secure; on which account it is said, they are preserved by the Lord.

The goods and truths which are spoken of by Swedenborg as Remains 264 REMAINS.

are, as said previously, orderly forms stored up in the superior degrees of the human constitution; and though called goods and truths, they are only formal recipients, having in themselves no life or activity, but are like the knowledges in the external memory, or the forms which are photographed upon the retina; they are recipients of life, which, entering them from within, quickens them, and produces that consciousness which is perceived as affections and thoughts, and which are meant by their states. That goods and truths are in themselves dead and merely formal, may be to some a startling statement, since our author sometimes says that they constitute the church, and also that they are the very life of man. But when he thus speaks of goods and truths, he does not mean them as implanted or impressed upon the internal memory, but as they exist when infilled with life from God. What Swedenborg teaches concerning goods and truths as implanted in the mind, may be seen from the following words :—

"Good and truth, considered in themselves, are without life; but they derive life from love or affection."—Arcana Ccelestia, 1904.

And what is said of goods and truths is said also of scientifics and knowledges, which may be seen as follows:—

"Scientifics and knowledges are in themselves merely dead things, or instrumental causes, which are vivified by the'life of affection."—Arcana Ccelestia, 1895.

It is of the utmost importance that the nature of what is received by an external way be clearly seen, in order that the origin, nature, and use of Remains may be understood. All forms whatever by which the mind is furnished, and by virtue of which it becomes a conscious recipient of life, enter by the way of the senses, and nothing whatever enters by an internal way but life; the former are those things which are arranged into aggregates; the latter is that which effects those arrangements;—life being the only active and formative principle. When this is seen to be the principle on which the human mind is formed, and the order in which it exists, we may perceive the beauty, and application of many portions of the Divine Word; for instance— "Truth shall spring out of the earth, and righteousness shall look down from heaven;" (Psalm lxxxv. 11.) truth being the form of good, and righteousness good in its form and order.

The implantation of Remains as receptacles of life, is effected by the same process as that by which sight is produced, it being only an introduction of forms into the soul, by the instrumentality of external things, through the medium of the senses, which process is continued into the


superior regions of the soul, in successive order, even to the highest conscious degree. But how Remains are implanted will be stated more fully in the Third Part.

All the degrees in man's spiritual constitution, answering to the three heavens, are furnished with Remains; and it is by reason of this Divine provision that man is capable of being regenerated to the highest degree of his constitution,—Remains being those things by virtue of which the superior degrees are rendered conscious, and by means of which they can be developed. S. S.


Blest Charity! What art thou? Alms,

The mite, the crust, we often give,
To drive away fell Want's alarms

From those who find it hard to live;
Or gifts of clothing to the poor,

Who almost naked else might be;—
Is this thy meaning, and no more?

Oh, tell me, blessed Charity!

I feel thou'rt something more than this;—

A Spirit of a heavenly birth,
Whose presence bringeth blessedness,

And joy, and gladness to the earth,—
Kind, faithful, earnest, tender love,

Pity, the most sincere and true,
Whose chidings, gentle as the dove,

The erring one doth comfort, too.

No sense of scorn doth fill the breast

Towards those who stray from Virtue's side;
Where thou dost come, fair, beauteous guest,

Thy influence dethrones all pride,—
Shows us our weakness, not our strength,

Our daily need for daily prayer,
To guard us safe, lest we at length,

Unheeding, fall into a snare.

S. L, M.

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