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ADAPTED TO THE
DIFFERENT CLASSES OF LEARNERS,
RULES AND OBSERVATIONS,
FOR ASSISTING THE MORE ADVANCED STUDENTS TO WRITE WITH
PERSPICUITY AND ACCURACY.
“ They who are learning to compose and arrange their sentences with accuracy
BY LINDLEY MURRAY.
FRÓM THE EIGHTEENTH ENGLISH EDITION, ENLARGED AND
IMPROVED BY THE AUTHOR.
VIRGINIA, AND LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY.
GIT OF THE
VEL 8 1:20
ADVERTISEMENT BY THE PUBLISHERS.
AS there are many mutilated editions of Lindley Murray's Works forced before the Public, under the spacious name of “ Improvements :" the Publishers of this edition of the Grammar deem it not impertinent to observe, that they have copied from the last edition revised by the author. They doubt not, when a comparison is made, that the genuine editions of this author's Works will still maintain that superior approbation and eminent standing to which his talents and sound judgment have hitherto entitled them. And that the real views of those book-makers who attempt to prop their fabrics with the veteran name of Murray will be duly appreciated.
The publishers have been induced to offer these remarks in order to apprize those who wish the genuine editions as they came in purity from the pen of the author, to be particular in enquiring for the rtal and genuine Grammar of Lindley Murray.
WHEN the number and variety of English Grammars already published, and the ability with which some of them are written, are considered, little can be expected from a new compilation, besides a careful selection of the most useful matter, and some degree of improvement in the mode of adapting it to the understanding, and the gradual progress of learners. In these respects something, perhaps, may yet be done, for the ease and advantage of young persons.
In books designed for the instruction of youth there is a medium to be observed, between treating the subject in so extensive and minute a manner, as to embarrass and confuse their minds, by offering too much at once for their comprehension ; and, on the other hand, con. ducting it by such short and general precepts and observations, as convey to thein no clear and precise information. A distribution of the parts, which is either defective or irregular, has also a tendency to perplex the young understanding, and to retard its knowledge of the principles of literature. A distinct general view, or outline, of all the essential parts of the study in which they are engaged ; a gradual and judicious supply of this outline ; and a due arrangement of the divisions, according to their natural order and connexion, appear to be among the best means of enlightening the minds of youth, and of facilitating their acquisition of knowledge. The author of this work, at the same time that he has endeavoured to avoid a plan, which may be too concise or too extensive, defective in its parts or irregular in their disposition, has studied to render his subject sufficiently easy, intelligible, and comprehensive. He does not presume to have completely attained these objects. How far he has succeeded in the attempt, and wherein he has failed, must be referred to the determination of the judicious and candid reader.
The method which he has adopted, of exhibiting the performance in characters - of different sizes, will he trusts, be conducive to that gradual and regular procedure, which is so favourable to the business of instruction. The more important rules, definitions, and observations, and which are therefore the most proper to be committed to memory, are printed with a larger type ; whilst rules and remarks that are of less consequence, that extend or diversify the general idea, or that serve as explanations, are contained in the smaller letter : these, or the chief of them, will be perused by the student to the greatest advantage, if postponed till the general system be completed. The use of notes and observations, in the common and detached manner, at the bottom of the page, would not, it is imagined, be so likely to attract the perusal of youth, or admit of so ample and regular an illustration, as a continued and uniform order of the several subjects. In adopting this mode, care has been taken to adjust it so that the whole may be perused in a connected progress, or the part contained in the larger character read in order by itself. Many of the notes and observations are intended, not only to explain the subjects, and to illustrate them, by comparative views of the grammar of other languages, and of the various sentiments of English grammarians ; but also to invite the ingenious student to inquiry and reflection, and to prompt to a more enlarged, critical, and philosophical research.
With respect to the definitions and rules, it may not be improper more particularly to observe, that in selecting and forming them, it has been the author's aim to render them as exact and comprehensive, and, at the same time, as intelligible to young minds, as the nature of the subject, and the difficulties attending it, would admit. He presumes that they are also calculated to be readily committed to memory, and easily retaineil. For this purpose, he has been solicitous to select terms that are smooth and voluble ; to proportion the members of the sentences to one another; to avoid protracted
periods; and to give the whole definition or rule, as much harmony of expression as he could devise.
From the sentiment generally admitted, that a proper selection of faulty composition is more instructive to the young grammarian, than any rules and examples of propriety that can be given, the Compiler has been induced to pay peculiar attention to this part of the subject; and though the instances of false grammar, under the rules of Syntax, are numerous, it is hoped they will not be found too many, when their variety and usefulness are considered.
In a work which professes itself to be a compilation, and which, from the nature and design of it, must consist chiefly of materials selected from the writings of others, it is scarcely necessary to apologize for the use which the Compiler has made of his predecessors' labours; or for omitting to insert their names. From the alterations which have been frequently made in the sentiments and the language, to suit the connexion, and to adapt them to the particular purposes for which they are introduced ;and, in many instances, from the uncertainty to whom the passages originally belonged, the insertion of names could seldom be made with propriety. But if this could have been generally done, a work of this nature would derive no advantage from it, equal to the incovenience of crowding the pages with a repetition of names and references. It is however, proper to acknowledge, in general terms, that the authors to whom the grammatical part of this compilation is principally indebted for its materials, are Harris, Johnson, Lowth, Priestly, Beattie, Sheridan, Walker, and Coote.
-The Rules and Observations respecting Perspicuity, &c. contained in the Appendix, and which are, chiefly extracted from the writings of Blair and Cainpbell, will, it is presumed, form a proper addition to the Grammar. The subjects are very nearly related; and the study of perspicuity and accuracy in writing, appears naturally to follow that of Grammar. A competent acquaintance