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are thrown away, or burnt as useless; but for the valuable oil produced from the seed, and the intoxicating drug called bhang. The usual mode of expressing the oil from the different seeds is to put them into a cylindrical trough, or large mortar ; a bullock driven round the simple inachine, keeps the pestle in action, until the oil is extracted; after which, the remainder forms a nutritious food for horned cattle. Besides the annual plants for this purpose, the mawah, and some other large ornamental trees, produce nuts and fruit, from which they obtain oil of a good quality.
Tobacco is cultivated in most parts of India; it requires a good soil, and attains the height of two or three feet. The hairy stalk is covered with large leaves, which are carefully picked off when they change colour and scent the air ; they are then dried in the shade, and preserved for use. Tobacco is an annual plant of delicate appearance; the blossoms, of a pale rose colour, and sometimes of a darker tint, grow in clusters, like the cowslip, at the top of a stately stem, abundantly enriched with leaves of varied and beautiful verdure. This plant, so common throughout India, Persia, and China, is doubtless indigenous to Asia, as well as to America.
The areca, or betel-nut tree, does not thrive in Guzerat. The betel-leaf (piper betel, Lin.) so highly esteemed by the natives, and cultivated in most of the Indian provinces, is abundantly so in this. A betel-garden, kept free from weeds, and well watered, is a beautiful object. The cooler the situation, the more luxuriant are the plants; for which
reason the gardeners often raise a clump of plaintain trees at the end of each bed, as they are known to cause additional coolness in the atmosphere. The betel requires constant care : it does not attain perfection until the fourth year; but continues to repay
the cultivator's trouble, for at least six or seven years, by a plentiful crop of leaves, which are always a staple commodity in the bazaar. The betel is produced by cuttings, planted four or five in a hole, and from the first requires great attention.
Ginger and turmeric abound in the Dhuboy purgunna : like the betel, they are planted in rows in large gardens, from cuttings of the roots, put into the earth at the commencement of the rainy season; in December and January following they are ready for taking up and drying. There are a few poppy-gardens in Guzerat; the natives are fond of mixing the seeds in cakes and confections. The opium poppy (papaver somniferum, Lin.) thrives best in Malwa, and is a great article in the commerce of Eujeen. The opium oozes from incisions made at the top of the plant, in a white milky juice; which, when congealed, is gathered for sale, and frequently adulterated. Both opium and bhang, are used as a substitute for spirituous liquors ; their intoxicating effects are very similar, and equally injurious to the constitution.
The sugar-cane grows to the height of eight or nine feet, with a spreading tuft of trees; the cane is three or four inches in circunference. Like the bamboo, and other arundinaceous plants, it is intersected by numerous joints, which do not impede the circula
tion. The stem, covered with a hard rind, contains a spongy pith, full of juice; which in Bengal, Java, and other places is manufactured into sugar; in the western provinces of India it is seldom brought to such perfection. The natives either purchase foreign sugar, or are content with jaggree, a coarse kind of molasses made from the boiled juice of the cane ; it is also cut into small pieces, and sold, like fruit, in the bazar.
The cane is planted by joints, in regular rows : when arrived at maturity, such as have escaped the depredations of wild hogs (and of elephants, where they are indigenous) are cut down, the juice expressed by a mill, constructed with great simplicity, and then boiled with jaggree.
Honey, wax, drugs, and a variety of medicinal plants, are produced, more or less, throughout Hindostan.
The lands in the Dhuboy districts are generally more enclosed than the Baroche purgunna; the hedges, frequently shaded by large mango and tamarind trees, are formed by different kinds of euphorbia, and a variety of bushes, shrubs, and creeping plants, in the rainy season profusely covered with blossoms of every mingled hue, which they more or less preserve through a few succeeding months. Their early fragrance is delicious ; the nightly dews, impregnated by the odours, exhale their short-lived sweets, and render a morning walk delightful.
Such beauties are lost on those who do not rise at an early hour in India: the heat soon becomes too powerful for rural excursions. It is late in the evening before the atmosphere becomes cool; the plants
have lost their freshness, and appear through a different medium.
My first improvement in the garden at Dhuboy, was to make a bathing-room, under an umbrageous banian-tree, close to the principal well. Early rising, the cold bath, a morning walk, temperate meals, an evening ride, and retiring soon to rest, are the best rules for preserving health in India ; and, whenever circumstances permitted, this pleasing routine was my general practice.
The villages in the Dhuboy purgunna generally consist of thatched cottages, built of mud, and a few brick houses, with tiled roofs ; a small dewāl, a mosque, and sometimes a choultree, are the only public buildings. Near the large villages there is generally a tank, or lake, where the rain is collected, for the use of the cattle in the dry season ; they are as usual generally enclosed with strong masonry, and their banks adorned by banian, mango, and tamarind-trees, to shade the weary traveller, and lessen evaporation, and constructed at the expense of government, or by an assessment on the villages ; as are also the wells and cisterns.
Mangos and tamarinds were planted near the villages, for general use, or were the property
of individuals, who enjoyed their produce, after a small deduction for government. Poor as well as rich enjoy the golden produce; birds, bats, and monkeys partake of that bounty, which “ spreads a common feast for all that live.”
Hospitality to travellers prevails throughout Guzerat; any one of consideration passing through the province, is presented at the entrance of a village, with fruit, milk, butter, firewood, and earthern-pots for cookery ; the
women and children offer him wreaths of flowers. Small bowers are constructed on convenient spots, at a distance from a well or lake, where a person is maintained by the nearest villages, to take care of the water-jars, and supply all travellers gratis. There are particular villages, where the inhabitants compel all travellers to accept of one day's provisions : whether "hey be many or few, rich or poor, European or native, they must not refuse the offered bounty.
Thus contented and happy do the peasantry live in that garden of India, when war keeps at a distance, and their pundits and collectors do not treat them with severity; even to that they habitually submit, for they have no idea of liberty, as it is felt and enjoyed by Britons. As well may you talk of colour to the blind, or the harmony of sound to the deaf, as liberty, patriotism, and the nobler virtues, to the inhabitants of Asia, under the political and religious systems to which they have hitherto been accustomed.
The mode of appropriating the land, and collecting the revenues in Guzerat, is in many respects similar to that of the ancient Germans, on their emerging from Gothic barbarism, when the property of land was invested in the tribe or nation, and a portion of corn was allotted to cvery individual, by the magistrate ; and corresponded to the number of his family, the degrees of his merit, and the importance of his services. Yet he derived no source of power, or influence, from a territorial property which he could not bequeath to his successor.
Thus it is in Hindostan : the lands appropriated to each village belong to the government; the ryots or peasants, who cultivate the fields under the orders and