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III. To do the evil that I would not, and to omit the good that I fain would do, when it is in my hand to do, what is in my heart to think, is the property of a carnal, unregenerate man. And this is the state of men in nature, and was the state of men under the 'law. For to be under the law, and not to be led by the Spirit, are all one in St. Paul's account; "For if ye be led by the Spirit, ye are not under the law," saith hes: and therefore to be under the law, being a state of not being under the Spirit, must be under the government of the flesh; that is, they were not then sanctified by the Spirit of grace and truth which came by Jesus Christ, they were not yet 'redeemed from their vain conversation.' Not that this was the state of all the sons of Israel, of them that lived before the law, or after; but that the law could do no more for them, or upon them ; God's Spirit did in many of them work his own works, but this was by the grace of Jesus Christ, who was the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world :' this was not by the works of the law, but by the same instruments and grace, by which Abraham, and all they who are his children by promise, were justified. But this is the consequent of the third proposition which I was to consider.
27. III. From this state of evil we are redeemed by Christ, and by the Spirit of his grace.
• Wretched man that I am, •quis liberabit?". who shall deliver' me from the body of this death?” He answers, “ I thank God, through Jesus Christ;" so St. Chrysostom, Theodoret, Theophylact, St. Jerome, the Greek Scholiast, and the ordinary Greek copies, do commonly read the words; in which words there is an exechis, and they are thus to be supplied, ' I thank God, through Jesus Christ we are delivered,' or there is a remedy found out for us.'—But Irenæus, Origen, St. Ambrose, St. Austin, and St. Jerome himself, at another time, and the Vulgar Latin Bibles, instead of ευχαριστώ τω θεώ, read χάρις του Θεού, “ gratia Domini Jesu Christi,' the grace of God through Jesus Christ.' That is our remedy, he is our deliverer, from him comes our redemption. For he not only gave us a better law, but also the Spirit of grace, he hath pardoned all our old sins, and by his Spirit enables us for the future, that we may obey him in all sincerity, in heartiness of endeavour, and real events,
z Gal. V. 18.
From hence I draw this argument: That state from which we are redeemed by Jesus Christ, and freed by the Spirit of his grace, is a state of carnality, of unregeneration, that is, of sin and death: but by Jesus Christ we are redeemed from that state in which we were in subjection to sin, commanded by the law of sin, and obeyed it against our reason, and against our conscience; therefore this state, which is indeed the state St. Paul here describes, is the state of carnality and unregeneration, and therefore not competent to the servants of Christ, to the elect people of God, to them who are redeemed and sanctified by the Spirit of Christ. The parts of this argument are the words of St. Paul, and proved in the foregoing periods. From hence I shall descend to something that is more immediately practical, and clothed with circumstances.
How far an unregenerate Man may go in the Ways of Pięty
and Religion. 28. To this inquiry it is necessary that this be premised :That between the regenerate and a wicked person, there is a middle state: so that it is not presently true, that if the man be not wicked, he is presently regenerate. Between the two states of so vast a distance, it is impossible but there should be many intermedial degrees; between the carnal and spiritual man there is a moral man; not that this man shall have a different event of things if he does abide there, but that he must pass from extreme to extreme by this middle state of participation. The first is a slave of sin; the second is a servant of righteousness; the third is such a one as liveth according to natural reason, so much of it as is left him, and is not abused; that is, lives a probable life, but is not renewed by the Spirit of grace: one that does something, but not all; not enough for the obtaining salvation. For a man may have gone many steps from his former baseness and degenerous practices, and yet not arrive at godliness, or the state of pardon ; like the children of Israel, who were not presently in Canaan, as soon as they were out of Egypt, but abode
ləng in the wilderness : áp xovrai Taideteo Sal, they begin to be instructed,' that is their state. “ Thou art not far from the kingdom of heaven,” said our blessed Saviour to a welldisposed person; but he was not arrived thither: 'he was not a subject of the kingdom. These are such whoin our blessed Lord calls, the weary and the heavy laden,' that is, such, who groan under the heavy pressure of their sins, whom therefore he invites to come to him to be eased. Such are those whom St. Paul here describes to be under the law;' convinced of sin, pressed, vexed, troubled with it, complaining of it, desirous to be eased. These the Holy Scripture calls τεταγμένους εις ζωήν αιώνιον, ordained, « disposed to life eternal",' but these were not yet the fideles' or believers,' but, from that fair disposition, became believers upon the preaching of the apostles.
29. In this third state of men, I account those that sin and repent, and yet repent and sin again ; for ever troubled when they have sinned, and yet for ever or most frequently sinning, when the temptation does return : auaprávovoi kai taurūv eykadowol, “ They sin, and accuse, and hate themseļves for sinning.” Now because these men mean well, and fain would be quit of their sin at their own rate, and are not scandalous and impious, they flatter themselves, and think all is well with them, that they are regenerate, and in the state of the divine favour,--and if they die so, their accounts are balanced, and they doubt not but they shall reign as kings for
ever. To reprove this state of folly and danger, we are to ob- serve, that there are a great many steps of this progression, which are to be passed through, and the end is not yet; the man is not yet arrived at the state of regeneration.
30. I. An unregeneráte man may be convinced and clearly instructed in his duty, and approve the law, and confess the obligation, and consent that it ought to be done : wbich St. Paul calls a consenting to the law that it is good,' and a being delighted in it according to the inward man ;' even the Gentiles which have not the law, yet "shew the work of the law written in their hearts : their thoughts in the meantime accusing or excusing one another b." The Jews did more; “ they did rest in the law, and glory in God, knowing his will, and approving the things that are more excellent." a Acis, xiii. 48.
+ Ron. ii, 14.
• Ver. 17.
And there are too many who, being called Christians, know their Master's will, and do it not :' and this consenting to the law and approving it, is so far from being a sign of regeneration, that the vilest and the basest of men are those who sin most against their knowledge, and against their consciences. In this world a man may have faith great enough to remove mountains, and yet be without charity: and in the world to come, some shall be rejected from the presence of God, though they shall allege for themselves, that they have prophesied in the name of Christ. This delight in the law which is in the unregenerate, is only in the understanding. The man considers what an excellent thing it is to be virtuous, the just. proportions of duty, the fitness of being subordinate to God, the rectitude of the soul, the acquiescence and appendant peace : and this delight is just like that which is in finding out proportions in arithmetic and geometry, or the rest in discovering the secrets of a mysterious proposition : -a man hath great pleasure in satisfactory notices, and the end of his disquisition. ' So also it is in moral things : a good man is beloved by every one; and there is a secret excelleney and measure, a music and proportion, between a man's mind and wise counsels, which impious and profane persons cannot perceive, because they are so full of false measures, and weak discourses, and vile appetites, and a rude inconsideration of the reasonableness and wisdom of sobriety and severe courses. But
virtus laudatur et algel, this is all that some men do, and there is in them nothing but a preparation of the understanding to the things of God, a faith seated in the rational part, a conviction of the mind; which as it was intended to lead on the will to action, and the other faculties to obedience, so now, that the effect is not acquired, it serves only to upbraid the man for a knowing and discerning criminal, he hath not now the excuse of ignorance. He that complies with a usurper out of fear and interest, in actions prejudicial to the lawful prince, and tells the honest party, that he is right in his heart, though he be forced to comply, helps the other with an argument to convince him that he is a false man. He that does it heartily, and aocording to a present conscience, hath some excuse ;. but he that confesses that he is right in his persuasion, and wrong in his
be the appre
practice, is aŭtokarákpiros, condemned by himself,' and professes himself a guilty person, a man whom interest and not conscience governs. Better is it not to know at all, than not to pursue the good we know. They that know not God, are. infinitely far from him; but they who know him, and yet do not obey him, are sometimes the nearer for their knowledge, sometimes the further off, but as yet they are not arrived whi- , ther it is intended they should go.
31. II. An unregenerate man may with his will delight in goodness, and desire it earnestly. For in an unregenerate man there is a double appetite, and there may hension of two amabilities. The things of the Spirit please his mind, and his will may consequently desire that this good were done, because it seems beauteous to the rational part, to his mind : but because he hath also relishes and gusts in the flesh, and they also seem sapid and delightful, he desires them also. So that this man fain would and he would not; and he does sin willingly and unwillingly at the same time. We see, by a sad experience, some men all their lifetime stand at gaze, and dare not enter upon that course of life, which themselves, by a constant sentence, judge to be the best, and of the most considerable advantage. But as the boy in the apologue listened to the disputes of Labour and Idleness, the one persuading him to rise, the other to lie in bed; but while he considered what to do, he still lay in bed and considered: so these men dispute and argue for virtue and the service of God, and stand beholding and admiring it, but they stand on the other side while they behold it. There is a strife between the law of the mind, and the law of the members. But this prevails over that. For the case is thus : there are in men three laws: 1. The law of the members. 2. The law of the mind. 3. The law of the Spirit. 1. The law of the members, that is, the habit and proneness to sin, the dominion of sin, giving a law to the lower man, and reigning there as in its proper seat. This law is also called by St. Paul, ppóvnua and voūs оapkòs, the mind of the flesh, the wisdom, the relish, the gust and savour, of the flesh,--that is, that deliciousness and comport, that enticing and correspondences to the appetite by which it tempts and prevails ; all its own principles and propositions which minister to sin
d Col. ii. 18. Rom. viii. 7.-Ab Hebr. VDJ anima sensitiva.