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power of the air, of the spirit that is now active among the sons of dis3 obedience (among whom also at one time we all conducted ourselves in

the lusts of our flesh, following the inclinations of flesh and thoughts, 4 and were by nature children of wrath like the rest also)—but God,

who is rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us, dead 5 even as we were with our trespasses, made us live together with the 6 Christ (it is by grace that you are saved), and raised us with him and 7 seated us with him in the heavenly regions in Christ Jesus, that in the

future ages he might show the surpassing riches of his grace in kindness 8 towards us in Christ Jesus. For it is by grace that you are saved 9 through faith—and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God: not a 10 matter of deeds, lest any one should exult. For we are his workman

ship, created in Christ Jesus for good deeds, which God has made ready

beforehand for us to walk therein. 11 Wherefore remember that at one time you Gentiles in the flesh

called “Uncircumcision” by the so-called “Circumcision,” which is a mere

thing in the flesh12

remember that you were at that time apart from Christ,
aliens to the conmonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the cove-

nants of promise,

with no hope and with no God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who were at one time far away have been

brought near by the blood of the Christ. 14 For he is our peace,

He who made both parties one by breaking down the barrier of the

wall between, 15 Who abolished in his flesh the enmity (that is, the law of commandments which consisted of statutes),

That he might make peace by creating in himself out of the two

one new man, 16 And that he might reconcile them both in one body to God through

the cross, By slaying the enmity in himself 1 ; 17 And he came and preached the gospel of peace to you who were far off, and peace to those who were near, For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the

Well then, you are no longer strangers and sojourners;
You are fellow-citizens with the saints, you are menībers of God's

household, 20 Built up on the foundation of the apostles and prophets with Christ

Jesus himself as the chief corner stone, 21 In whom all the building is closely framed together and grows to be a

holy sanctuary in the Lord, 22 In whom you also are being built together for a dwelling of God in

the Spirit. 31 On this account I Paul, the prisoner of the Christ 2 for you Gentiles

2 seeing that you have indeed heard of the stewardship of the grace of God 3 granted me for you, namely, that the secret has been made known to me 4 by revelation ; even as I have written already in a few words, on reading 5 which you can understand my intelligence in the secret of Christ (which

in other generations was not displayed to the sons of men as it has now 6 been revealed to his [holy] apostles and prophets in the Spirit), namely, i Reading aútõ.

2 Omitting 'Inpoll.

that the Gentiles are heirs together and in the same body together and

partakers together of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel, 7 of which I was made a minister by the free gift of God's grace which he 8 granted me in virtue of the force of his power. To me, the least of all

saints, was this favour granted, that I should preach to the Gentiles the 9 gospel of the unsearchable riches of the Christ, and enlighten them on

what is the dispensation of the secret which has been hidden from the 10 ages in God who created all, in order that the most manifold wisdom of

God might now be displayed through the Community to the principalities 11 and powers in the heavenly regions, according to the purpose of the ages 12 which he executed in Christ Jesus our Lord, in whom we have our con13 fidence and access with perfect trust through faith in him. Therefore I

ask you not to lose heart over the distresses that I suffer on your behalf 14 –for these redound to your credit.

On this account I bow my 15 knees to the Father from whom every family in heaven and on earth is 16 named, that through the riches of his majesty he may grant you to be 17 made strong with power through his Spirit in the inner man, that the

Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith, so that fixed and founded 18 in love you may be well able to comprehend with all the saints what is 19 the breadth and length and height and depth, and to know the love of

Christ which surpasses knowledge, so that you may be filled up to all the 20 fulness of God.

Now to him who is able to do far beyond all that we ask or understand, in virtue of the power which is at work in 21 us, to him be the honour in the Community and in Christ Jesus to all

generations for evermore: Amen. 41 I appeal to you then, I the prisoner in the Lord, walk worthily of

2 the calling with which you were called, with all humility and gentleness, 3 with longsuffering, bearing with one another in love, endeavouring

eagerly to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. 4 One body and one Spirit

(as also you were called in one hope of your calling); 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism ; 6 one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. 7 Now to each one of us grace was granted according to the measure of the 8 free gift of the Christ. Therefore it is said,

After going up on high, he led captives captive:

He gave gifts to men. 9 Now what does the word he went up mean, except this : that he also 10 descended into the lower regions of the earth? He who descended is the

same as he who went up high above all the heavens, that he might fill all 11 things. And he gave some as apostles, others as prophets, others as evan12 gelists, others as shepherds and teachers, with the object of fitting the 13 saints for the work of ministering, that is, for building the body of the

Christ, until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the full know

ledge of the Son of God, to full-grown manhood, to the ripe maturity of 14 the fulness of the Christ : that we may no longer be children, tossed and

swept about with every wind of doctrine by the sleight of men, by crafti15 ness which works by error's artifice—but that, holding to the truth, we

may by love grow up in all points into him who is the head, even Christ, 16 from whom all the body, closely bound and knit together through every

joint with which it is supplied, according to the proportion and exercise of

each separate part, carries on its growth as a body to upbuild itself by love. 17 I say this then and charge you in the Lord, no longer walk even

i Omitting [[xci]].

18 as the Gentiles also walk with their mind befooled, darkened in their

understanding, aliens to the life of God, owing to the ignorance that is in 19 them on account of the hardening of their heart-men who in callous

indifference have given themselves up to sensuality, to traffic covetously in 20, 21 all impurity. But you, you have not thus studied the Christ--since you

have indeed been taught him and have been instructed in him (even as 22 he truly 1 is in Jesus) to put away, as regards your former conduct, the 23 old man whom the lusts of deceit destroy: to revive yourselves in the 24 spirit of your mind, and to put on the new man created after God's like25 ness in uprightness and holiness of truth.

Wherefore put away falsehood and speak the truth each of you with his neighbour; for we 26 are members one of another. Be angry, yet sin not: let not the sun set 27, 28 upon your rage, and give the devil no chance. Let the thief no longer

steal; rather let him labour with his 2 hands at honest work, that he may 29 have something to give to the needy. Let no foul speech issue from your

mouth, but only such as is good for improving the occasion, that it may 30 bring profit to the hearers. And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, with 31 whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. Let all bitterness and

passion and anger and clamour and slander be put away from you, with 32 all malice. And show yourselves kind to one another, compassionate, 5 1 forgiving each other even as God also in Christ forgave you. Be, then, 2 imitators of God, as beloved children ; and walk in love, even as Christ

also loved us and gave himself up for us as an offering and sacrifice to God 3 for an odour of fragrance.

But as for fornication and all impurity or covetousness, never let them be so much as named among you (even 4 as is becoming for saints), no, nor indecency and silly talk or ribaldry 5 (which are discreditable), but rather thanksgiving. For know and under

stand that no one who is a fornicator or impure or covetous—that is, an

idolater—has any inheritance in the reign of the Christ and God. 6 Let no man deceive you with vain words : it is for these things that the

wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience. Be not therefore of 7, 8 their company; for while once you were darkness, now you are light in

9 the Lord. Walk as children of light-for the fruit of the light consists in 10 all goodness and uprightness and integrity—testing what is well-pleasing 11 to the Lord; and have no part in the unfruitful deeds of the darkness,

on the contrary expose them. For it is disgraceful even to mention the 12, 13 things they do in secret, but when all these are exposed by the light they 14 are disclosed, (for everything that discloses is light.) Therefore it is said,

“ Sleeper, awake
And rise from the dead,

And the Christ shall shine upon thee!15 Be careful then how you walk, not like unwise people but like wise : 16, 17 making the very most of your time, because the days are evil. So do not 18 be senseless, but understand what is the will of the Lord. And do not

get drunk with wine—that means profligacy-but be filled with the 19 Spirit, speaking to each other in spiritual psalms and hymns and songs, 20 singing and praising the Lord in your heart, giving thanks at all times

for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to the God and Father. 21, 22 Be subject to one another in the fear of Christ.

Wives, be sub23 ject to your own husbands as to the Lord; because the husband is head

of the wife, even as the Christ also is head of the Community-he is the 24 saviour of the Body. Yes, as the Community is subject to the Christ, so 25 also let wives be to their husbands in everything.

Husbands, 1 Reading &agbiçe.

2 Omitting [[idicos ]].

love your wives, even as the Christ also loved the Community and gave 26 himself up for her, to sanctify her by the word-cleansing her with the 27 bath of water—to present the Community in splendour to himself with

never a spot or wrinkle or any such flaw, but that she might be holy and 28 faultless. So ought husbands 1 to love their own wives as being their own 29 bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. For no one ever hated

his own flesh: nay, it is nourished and cherished by him, even as is the Com30, 31 munity also by the Christ-for we are members of his body. Instead, a

man shall leave his father and his mother and join himself fast to his wife, 32 and the two shall become one flesh. This symbol is great : but I interpret it 33 of Christ and the Community. At any rate with you, let each individual

love his own wife as being himself, and as for the wife-let her see 6 1 that she reverence her husband.

Children, obey your parents in 2 the Lord, for this is right. Honour thy father and mother (it is the chief 3 commandment with a promise) that it may be well with thee ; and thou 4 shalt live long on the earth.

And, fathers, do not enrage your children, but nurture them in the discipline and admonition of the Lord.

Slaves, be obedient to those who are your masters after the flesh with fear and trembling, with singleness in your heart, as to the 6 Christ : not by way of eyeservice like those who court human favour, but 7 as slaves of Christ obeying the will of God right heartily, rendering 8 service with good will as to the Lord and not to men; since you know

that each shall be paid back from the Lord for whatever good he does, 9 whether he be slave or free man.

And you masters, act in the same way to them and refrain from threats; since you know that their Master

and yours is in heaven, and with him there is no respect of persons. 10 In future, be strong in the Lord and in the might of his strength. 11 Put on the full armour of God so that you may be able to stand against 12 the artifices of the devil. For ours is no wrestling against blood and

flesh! It is against the principalities, against the powers, against the

world-princes of this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil 13 in the heavenly regions. Therefore take to yourselves the full armour of

God, that on the evil day you may be able to withstand, and, after all 14 has been accomplished, to stand. Stand then, girt with truth upon your 15 loins, and clad with uprightness as your coat of mail, and your feet shod with 16 the firm footing of the gospel of peace, in all things taking to yourselves the

shield of faith, wherewith you shall be able to quench the fiery darts of 17 the evil one; take also the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit 18 (that is, God's word), praying at every season with all prayer and entreaty

in the Spirit, and attending to that with all constancy and entreaty for all 19 the saints—and on my behalf, that I may have speech given me as often

as I open my mouth to make known with confidence the secret of the 20 gospel for which I am an envoy in chains, that therein I may have confidence to declare it as I should.

Now, that you also may know my affairs and how I am, Tychicus the beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord shall give you all 22 information ; I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that you

may know how we are and that he may encourage your hearts. 23 Peace be to the brothers, and love with faith, from God the Father 24 and the Lord Jesus Christ. Grace be with all whose love to our Lord Jesus Christ is love imperishable.

1 Omitting [[zcà]].


The epistle to the Philippians has been aptly called "the love-letter” of the Pauline epistles. The love of the Philippians for their apostle shows itself practically in the gift for which Paul sends his thanks in this epistle, and the epistle itself breathes from first to last the warmest love for this congregation, which of all the congregations he had founded lay nearest to his heart. Written from the heart, the letter bears no didactic character. Even the few theological excursuses, which are introduced here and there, upon the person of Christ and justification, serve practical ends.

At the same time we get painted for us the outward situation of the apostle during his last days, imprisoned, forsaken, distressed ; and we are enabled to learn the moods and feelings which moved him as he came close to death. The soft, charitable tone of the apostle's judgment even upon his Judaistic opponents is to be easily explained by his mood at the moment; and at such a crisis in his life the invitation to rejoice, which again and again he issues to his Philippians, comes with a specially affecting power. As an expression of the apostle's final counsels and warnings, his final wishes and prayers, his final hopes and fears, the letter may be described as the testament which he left to his best-loved congregation.- Lipsius.

11. 2 Greeting.
13-11 Thanksgiving and prayer:

for present attainments and
future advance in the Christian faith

and life. 1 12-26 Personal: The situation of Paul in Rome: prospects of the gospel


His confidence and desire. 127-218 Appeal and counsel : For unity through humility :

The example and imitation of Christ

Paul's aid and anxiety. 219-31 Personal : His own movements.

The mission of Timotheus in the future.

The mission of Epaphroditus in the past. 32-41 A Warning: against errorists of Judaism :

his own experience and example :

a résumé. 42-9 Appeal and counsel : to unity,


moral effort. 410-20 Thanksgiving: for gift from Philippi. 421-23 Farewell.

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