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53 swords and clubs ? When I was beside you day by day in the temple,

you did not stretch out your hands against me. But this is your hour;

this is the power of darkness !" 54 Now after arresting him, they took and brought him into the house 55 of the high priest. Peter followed at a distance; and when they kindled

a fire in the middle of the court-yard and sat down together, Peter 56 seated himself among them. Now a maidservant saw him sitting by the

firelight, and fixing her eyes on him, she said, “This fellow was with 57, 58 him too." But he denied it, saying, “Woman, I know him not.” Then

--- shortly afterwards another persona man—saw him, and said, “Thou 59 art one of them too." Said Peter, “Man, I am not." Then after an

interval of about an hour, some one else stoutly declared, “Quite true, 60 this fellow was along with him too! Why, he is a Galilean !” Said

Peter, “Man, I know not what thou meanest." Then instantly, while he 61 was still speaking, the cock crowed. And the Lord turned and looked

at Peter; then Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had

said to him, “Before the cock crows to-day, thou shalt three times deny 62 me." And he went out, and bitterly he wept. 63 And the men who held Jesus kept mocking and flogging him ; 64 and after blindfolding him they plied him with questions, saying, 65 “ Prophesy, who was it that struck thee?” And much more abuse they

uttered against him. 66 And as soon as day broke, the assembly of the elders of the people

met, both high priests and scribes, and brought 1 him before their 67 Sanhedrịn, saying, “If thou art the Christ, tell us." He said to them, 68, 69 “You will not believe, if I tell you ; nor will you answer, if I ask. But

from this time the Son of man shall be seated at the right hand of God's 70 power.And they all said, “ Art thou the Son of God, then ?" And he 71 said to them, “Certainly, I am.” So they said, “What further evidence

do we need ? We have heard it ourselves from his own lips." 23 1, 2 Then all the multitude rose up and led him to Pilate. And they began

to accuse him, saying, “We found this fellow perverting our nation, forbidding people to pay tribute to Caesar, and declaring himself to be ‘Christ,' 3 a king." Pilate asked him, “ Art thou the King of the Jews ?" And in reply 4 to him he said, “Certainly.” Said Pilate to the high priests and the 5 crowds, “I find nothing criminal in this man.” But they persisted in

alleging, “He stirs up the people by teaching throughout the whole of 6 Judaea, starting from Galilee and coming even here.” Hearing this, 7 Pilate asked them, “Is the man a Galilean ?" And when he ascertained

that he belonged to the jurisdiction of Herod, he remitted him to Herod, 8 as he too was at Jerusalem during these days. Now when Herod saw

Jesus he was exceedingly delighted, for he had long had a desire to see him, owing to what he had heard of him ; besides, he was in hopes of 9 seeing some sign performed by him. So he questioned him with many a 10 word; but he did not answer him at all. Meanwhile the high priests 11 and the scribes stood and accused him with might and main. And after

Herod, along with his troops, had scoffed at him and mocked him, he 12 arrayed him in bright raiment and sent him back to Pilate. On that

day Herod and Pilate became friends together; for previously they had 13 been at enmity with one another.

Now after Pilate had called 14 together the high priests and the rulers and the people, he said to them,

“You brought me this man as a seducer of the people ; yet here have I examined him before you, and found nothing criminal in him, for all

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15 your accusations against him. No, nor even has Herod, for he remitted 16 him to us. Behold, he has done nothing to deserve death. I will 18 chastise him then, and release him.” But one and all they shrieked, “ Off 19 with him! Release for us Bar-Abbas” (a ·man who had been thrown

into prison on account of a riot which had taken place in the city, as well 20 as on a charge of murder). Pilate once more addressed them, in his 21 desire to release Jesus; but they kept roaring out, “Crucify ! Crucify 22 him!” For the third time he said to them, “Why, what evil has this

man done? I have found nothing criminal in him-no capital offence. 23 I will chastise him then, and release him." But they loudly pressed

their demand to have him crucified; and their voices carried the day. 24, 25 So Pilate gave sentence that their request was to be granted. He released

the man they requested, who had been thrown into prison for riot and

murder; and he delivered up Jesus to their pleasure. 26 And as they led him away, they laid hold of Simon, a Cyrenian,

who was on his way from the country, and put the cross upon him to 27 bear it after Jesus. Now he was followed by a large multitude of the 28 people, and of women who beat their breasts and lamented him. But Jesus turned to them and said,

“ Daughters of Jerusalem ! weep not for me,

But weep for yourselves and for your children : 29 For behold! days are coming when it shall be said,

‘Happy the barren-the wombs that have not borne, the breasts

that have not given suck !'
Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us,'

And to the mounds, Cover us';
For if they do this in the green tree,

What shall be done in the dry ?32 There were also two other criminals led along with him to be put to 33 death. So when they came to the place which is called “The Skull,"

they crucified him there along with the criminals, one on the right hand 34 and one on the left. [[And Jesus kept saying, “Father, forgive them

they know not what they are doing."]] Then distributing his garments 35 among them, they cast lots. And the people stood and looked. Buti the rulers

sneered at him, saying, “ Others he saved ; let him save himself, if he is 36 the chosen Christ of God!” The soldiers also mocked him by coming up 37 and handing him vinegar, and saying, “If thou art the King of the Jews, 38 save thyself.” (There was also a title over him, THIS IS THE KING 39 OF THE JEWS.) And one of the criminals who had been hung, heaped

abuse on him, saying, “Art thou not the Christ? Save thyself and us." 40 But the other in reply rebuked him, saying, “Hast thou not even fear of 41 God, seeing that thou art under the same condemnation ? And we

indeed justly, for we get what our deeds deserve ; but this man has done 42 no harm.” And he said, “Remember me, Jesus, when thou comest in thy 43 royal power.” And he said to him, “I tell thee truly, thou shalt be in

paradise with me to-day.” 44 By this time it was about the sixth hour, and a darkness covered the 45 whole land till the ninth hour, owing to an eclipse of the sun ; also, the 46 veil in the middle of the sanctuary was torn. Then Jesus cried with a

loud voice, and said, “Father, into thy hands I trust my spirit." And on 47 saying this, he expired. Now when the centurion saw what had taken 48 place, he magnified God, saying, “ This man was really innocent." And when all the crowds who had collected for this spectacle, observed what

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49 had taken place, they went away back, smiting their breasts. But all his

acquaintances stood at a distance and saw this, along with the women who

had accompanied him from Galilee. 50 And behold, there was a man named Joseph, who was a councillor, 51 a good and upright man-he had not voted for their scheme and deed.

He belonged to Arimathaea, a city of the Jews; and he was waiting for 52 the reign of God. He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. 53 Then he took it down, wrapped it up in a linen cloth, and laid it in a tomb 54 cut out of stone, where no one had ever yet been buried. It was the

day of Preparation, and the sabbath-day was just dawning. 55 Now the women who had come with him from Galilee followed behind, 56 and after noting the tomb and how his body was laid, they returned and got ready spices and ointments.

And on the sabbath they did nothing, according to the command24 1 ment; but at early dawn on the first day of the week they went to the

2 tomb, bringing the spices they had got ready. They found the stone 3 rolled away from the tomb, but when they went in they did not find the 4 body [sof the Lord Jesus77. And it came to pass, while they were

puzzling over this, behold, two men came upon them in dazzling 5 raiment. And as they grew terrified and bent their faces to the ground, 6 they said to them, “Why seek the living among the dead ? [[He is not

here : he has risen.]] Remember how he spoke to you when he was 7 still in Galilee, saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the

hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day rise again.'" 8, 9 Then they remembered his words, and returning from the tomb they 10 brought word of all this to the eleven and to all the others. (It was

the Mary who belonged to Magdala, and Joanna and Mary the mother of 11 James who, with the rest of the women, told this to the apostles.) Yet

these words appeared in their view to be nonsense, and they disbelieved 12 the women. [[Peter, however, rose up and ran to the tomb; yet on

gazing in, he sees only the linen bandages. So he went away home,

wondering at what had taken place.11 13 And behold, two of them were journeying on that very day to a

village named Emmaus, six and a half miles distant from Jerusalem ; 14, 15 and they were conversing together about all these events. And it came

to pass during their converse and discussion that Jesus himself drew 16 near and journeyed along with them. (But they were prevented from 17 recognising him.) And he said to them, “What words are these that

are passing between you as you walk ?And they stood still, dejected. 18 And one of them, Cleopas by name, answered and said to him, “Art thou

the solitary inhabitant of Jerusalem-to be ignorant of what has taken 19 place in it during these days?" And he said to them, “What?” They

said to him, “All about Jesus of Nazaret, who proved himself a prophet 20 mighty in deed and word before God and all the people : and about how

the high priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to 21 death, and crucified him. Now we had hoped he was to be the redeemer

of Israel ; yet for all that, three days have passed since this took place. 22 Still, at the same time, some women of our number have amazed us. 23 They reached the tomb early and could not find his body; yet they came to

tell us that they had actually seen a vision of angels, who said he was living. 24 And some of our companions went away to the tomb. They found it was 25 exactly as the women had said ; but him they saw not.” And he said to

them,“O foolish and slow of heart in believing, after all that the 26 prophets have uttered! Was it not necessary for the Christ to suffer thus

27 and enter his majesty ?" And beginning with Moses and all the

prophets, he interpreted to them what referred to himself throughout all 28 the scriptures. And they drew near the village to which they were 29 journeying. He pretended he was going further on; but they urged

him, saying, “Stay with us, for it is towards evening, and the day has 30 now declined.” So he went in to stay with them. And it came to pass

while he was reclining at table with them he took the bread and, after the 31 blessing, broke it, and proceeded to hand it to them. So their eyes were 32 opened, and they recognised him ; but he vanished from their sight. And

they said to one another, “Did not our heart glow within us while he 33 talked to us on the road, while he opened the scriptures to us?” And

they rose up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, where they found 34 the eleven and their companions all mustered, saying, “The Lord has 35 really risen, and he has appeared to Simon!” Then they recounted what

had taken place on the road, and how they knew him by the breaking of 36 the bread.

Now as they were thus talking, he stood in the 37 midst of them [fand says to them, “ Peace to you !”]). But startled and 38 terrified, they supposed they saw a spirit. And he said to them, “Why

are you troubled, and why do questionings start up in your heart? 39 Look at my hands and my feet; it is I! Handle me and see ; for a 40 spirit has not flesh and bones, as you see that I have.” [[And saying 41 this, he showed them his hands and his feet.]] Now as they still dis

believed for joy and wondered, he said to them, “Have you any food 42, 43 here? So they handed him a piece of broiled fish. And he took and ate 44 it before them.

And he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you when I was still with you—that everything written in the

law of Moses and in the prophets and psalms concerning me, must be 45, 46 fulfilled." Then he opened their mind to understand the scriptures, and

said to them, “Thus it is written : the Christ is to suffer and rise again 47 from the dead on the third day, and repentance for the remission of sins

is to be preached in his name to all the nations—starting from Jerusalem. 48, 49 You are witnesses of these things. And lo! I send forth upon you what

my Father has promised. But do you settle in the city, until you are

clothed with power from on high.” 50 And he led them out as far as to Bethany; then lifting up his hands, 51 he blessed them. And it came to pass while he blessed them, he parted 52 from them [sand was carried up into heaven]). Then they said him 53 reverence and]] returned to Jerusalem with great joy ; and they were con

stantly within the temple, blessing God.


THE unmistakable care bestowed in the third gospel upon the association of the evangelic history with the events of the larger Empire is accentuated in its sequel, which definitely sympathises with the feelings and hopes of Christianity in its consciousness of peril under Domitian. The new faith was not yet legally proscribed. Suspicion had to be averted from it, if possible; and an implicit defence could still be offered on its behalf, by “a temperate and solemn record . . . of the real facts regarding the formation of the church, its steady and unswerving loyalty in the past, its firm resolve to accept the facts of Imperial government, its friendly reception by many Romans.” 1 Acts is thus an appeal for, because it is a series of reminiscences ? of, Imperial respect and consideration. But this feature of the book is subordinate. Its primary function is to edify the contemporary church by a true account of how Judaism had been slowly and painfully supplanted in the course of Providence by the Christian church. Besides the interest in apostolic teaching and travels, one remarkable feature of the book consists in its reflection of Christianity as constituting already an extensive pheno

1 Ramsay, SPT, pp. 22, 309, 387 f. On this “apologetic” element in Acts, cp. Zeller-Overbeck (Eng. tr.), i. p. 23 f., ii. 161 f. ; Weizsäcker, AA, ii. pp. 122–12; Renan, Les Apôtres, Introd. ; Pfleiderer, Urc.pp. 544-614; Holtzmann, HC, 11. 2, Einl.; McGiffert, AA, pp. 345–348 ; Bartlet, AA, p. 168 f., 409 f.; and especially J. Weiss, Absicht, pp. 56–60. In Luke the Roman attitude towards Christianity is exhibited in a favourable light (Lk 2311 22). In Acts, cp. the conduct of the proconsuls (1312 1812, etc.) and the Asiarchs (1931). Paul is never formally condemned by the authorities, and it is easy to understand Luke's silence upon his final condemnation, as upon the three occasions when he had been flogged by lictors (2 Co 1125). Aberle (Tüb. Theol. Quartalschr. 1863, pp. 84–134) in an exaggerated way seems to have considered Acts as a document designed to be put in at Paul's trial, with a view of vindicating his political inoffensiveness; just as he had previously (ibid. 1859, pp. 567-588) viewed Matthew as a reply to some antichristian circular letter issued by the Jewish Sanhedrin.

The activity of historical composition among the Jews of this period seems to have been concentrated upon the Roman campaign under Vespasian which culminated in the overthrow of Jerusalem. This subject was treated by numerous writers of more or less reliability (Josephus, preface to Wars of Jews). Justus of Tiberias is the best known of them.

For the guess that Acts formed the second (Ac 11) part of a historical work whose third volume was never written, cp. Ramsay, SPT, pp. 23, 27, 28, 309, and Zahn, Einl. ii. pp. 371 f., 389. The hint was originally thrown out by Bengel.

2 We have hardly any means of knowing what information the readers possessed on such matters, and how far they had the power of checking an incorrect statement in their author. But there is no reason to be suspicious of the narrative at these points; even although they are not complete, they may be true as far as they go. Tendency, either here or in the gospels, is not correlative necessarily with indifference to fact or licence of imagination. The presence of a conciliatory motive in Acts does not ipso facto throw doubts upon the historicity of the facts adduced. On the contrary, prejudice would be averted most effectively by a "plain unvarnished tale" of what really happened. The strength of the Apologia would consist largely in the indisputable and notorious evidence of facts, and so far as these are brought forward, it is likely that upon the whole they are reliable in most essential points.

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