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to us, whether the words and even the sentiments are the great man's own, or only his historian's, seems then hardly to have occurred either to writer or readers. Now the pastoral epistles are undoubtedly so ancient and so like St. Paul, that their author may be presumed to have known well the events and the sentiments of the close of his life. If we have in them not the apostle's own utterances, but only the record of a disciple, we need not doubt that that disciple was aided in recording them, after the fashion of his time, by the same divine Spirit that dwelt in the apostle himself” (The Writers of the New Testament, 1890, p. 38).

These three letters, then, which form the weightiest part of the postJohannine literature, reflect two parallel tendencies in the age : (a) the growing emphasis laid on apostolic tradition as the guarantee of doctrine and the basis of organisation, and (b) the special reverence still paid to Paul in certain circles of the church. The former might explain the composition of a note like that of Judas; it certainly is the key to 2 Peter. The latter is quite obvious in Justin Martyr and earlier in Clem. Rom. The three “ pastoral” letters, however, express not only a warm attachment to Paul and Paulinism, but more broadly the spirit and character of the neo-catholic church. The atmosphere of error is fairly uniform, although it includes different aspects and elements. The church, troubled and not untainted, is being driven to consolidate her constitution and discipline, as well as to develop special functions of office as safeguards against heresy. The approach is felt of what may be called, from the stand point of primitive Christianity, the heresy of ecclesiasticism. Institutions are coming to be more than ever the condition of orthodoxy (2 Tim 215). A guarantee for the soundness of the dogmatic principle is being shifted from the individual faith and consciousness to officialism (Tit 19). Under the exigencies of the time and place, the Ouédios, which initially was Christ (í Co 311) and later the apostles and prophets (Eph 220), is now defined simply and solely as the church (2 Ti 219) visible. Errorists are denounced, as already in Apoc 2–3, and confronted with the fixed “sound” faith of the church, which is a crystallised and objective entity, involving a confession and the germs of a creed. Parallel to this identification of Christianity with didao kalía goes the einphasis put upon practical piety as obligatory for the members of the church. The timely aspect of the faith is, to the writer's mind, its moral discipline (Tit 212); his writings are unique and frequent in their use of the term evo éßeld and its compounds. In all these directions the letters represent gernis of Paulinism developed under a new climate, the elements of which are the elements of the second century—the Hellenistic emphasis upon ethics, the impetus received by Christianity from the example as well as the policy of Empire towards the shaping of her institutions, and also the manifold antagonistic forces which were beginning even at that time to force the church into the crystallisation of her doctrine and constitution. A future is before her in this world (11. 43 31, 1. 215). The outlook now is to a period of effort and advance rather than to an apocalyptic manifestation of God's reign.

Here the riddle of the Epistles is unveiled ; they are the first specimens of a literature of church organisation which afterwards produced the didax Tv årootblwy and the Apostolic Constitutions. A man belonging to the Pauline circle of churches, who had a thorough knowledge of the life of the apostle to the Gentiles, undertook to combat the growing Gnosticism, in the spirit of the apostle, by urging a simple, practical, and apostolic Christianity, and a moral and vigorous Christian organisation. Here, therefore, we have a memorable picture of the average form of church doctrine and church life, as both were developed on the basis of Paul's activity, perhaps about fifty years after his death-a picture, that is, of the transition of the Pauline into the old Catholic Christianity. The epistles probably originated by degrees; the earliest is the | second, which may be based on a genuine letter of Paul to Timothy, from which the many personal references are taken ; the latest is the first epistle to Timothy, which frequently suggests improved conditions and which has the air of a later work, repeating and supplementing the earlier. --Beyschlag.

11-9 Greeting.


Thanksgiving for faith of Timotheus :
Counsel for his life and work—against false shame.

from Paul's own life and teaching.

personal notices. Need and reward of endurance- against weakness. TLOTOS

Móyos. . . . 211.

1 15-18 21-13

214-48 Against the errorists :
214-26 Timotheus' conduct toward them :

his attitude and efforts. 31-9 An exposure of their principles

and methods. Charge to Timotheus of: obedience to principles of Paul, in spite

of suffering.

adherence to scriptures. 41-8

résumé: Paul's final charge and confession.


49-22 Personal : personal notices.

greetings : farewell.


1 1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, according to the promise of the life that is in Christ Jesus,

to Timotheus, my beloved child :
grace, mercy, peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our

I give thanks to God, whom I serve from my ancestors with a pure
conscience, at every mention of thee in my prayers; and I mention thee
4 unceasingly–for when I remember thy tears, I long night and day to see
5 thee, that I may be filled with joy, since I am reminded of that unfeigned

faith in thee, which dwelt first of all in thy grandmother Lois and thy 6 mother Eunicē, and dwells, I am persuaded, in thyself as well. Where

fore I remind thee to rekindle the Divine talent which is in thee through 7 the laying on of my hands. For God gave us a spirit not of cowardice 8 but of power and love and self-discipline. Be not ashamed then of the

testimony of our Lord, or of me his prisoner ; but take thy share of 9 hardship for the gospel's sake, by the power of God who saved us and

called us with a holy calling, not by virtue of our deeds, but by virtue

of a purpose and grace of his own, granted us in Christ Jesus before 10 times eternal, but now disclosed through the appearing of our Saviour

Christ Jesus, who put down death, but brought life and the imperishable 11 to light through the gospel, for which I was myself appointed a herald 12 and apostle and teacher. This also is the reason why I suffer thus.

But I am not ashamed. I know whom I have believed, and I am 13 persuaded that he is able to guard my trust until that Day. Hold as a

model of sound words those which thou hast heard from me, in the faith 14 and love that are in Christ Jesus. Guard thy noble trust through the 15 holy Spirit, who dwells within us.

Thou art aware that all who are now in Asia turned away from me, among them Phygelus and 16 Hermogenes. The Lord grant mercy to the household of Onesiphorus, for 17 many a time he revived me; nor was he ashamed of my chain, but on 18 coming to Rome he sought eagerly for me, and found me. The Lord

grant he may find mercy from the Lord in that Day! and thou knowest

quite well all the services he did me in Ephesus. 21, 2 Be strong then, my child, in the grace that is in Christ Jesus ; and

entrust what thou hast learned from me-confirmed by many witnesses

-to faithful men ; for they shall be qualified to teach others as well. 3, 4 Take thy share of hardship, like an able soldier of Christ Jesus. A

soldier on active service refuses to entangle himself in occupations for a 5 livelihood, in order that he may please him who enlisted him. Again,

if a man competes in the games, he is not crowned unless he keeps the 6 rules of the game. The first to partake of the fruits must be the 7 husbandman who labours. Ponder what I am saying ; for the Lord 8 shall grant thee intelligence in everything. Remember Jesus Christ “risen from the dead, belonging to the offspring of David,” according

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9 to my gospel-through which I suffer hardship, even to the extent of

imprisonment as a criminal. But the word of God has not been fettered ; 10 therefore I endure everything for the sake of the chosen, that they too

may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus and also majesty 11 eternal. THE SAYING IS SURE :

“If with him we died, then with him shall we live ; 12

If we endure, then with him shall we reign :
If we disown him, then he will disown us :

If we are faithless, faithful he remains," 14 for to himself he cannot be untrue.

Remind them of these things, and charge them solemnly in the sight of the Lord I not to

wrangle over words—there is no gain in that, it means the ruin of the 15 hearers. Make every effort to present thyself genuine to God, a workman 16 with no cause for shame, handling the word of the truth aright. But

avoid men of worldly babble ; for such people will proceed still further in 17 impiety, and their talk will spread like a gangrene. Among them are 18 Hymenaeus and Philetus, men who have swerved in the matter of the

truth, by alleging that the resurrection has taken place already. They 19 are indeed subverting some people's faith. Nevertheless, the solid foundation of God stands firm, with this inscription,

Known to the Lord are those who are his :" and

“Let every one who names the name of the Lord depart from iniquity.” 20 Now in a large house there are vessels not only of gold and silver but

also of wood and clay; and while some are for honour, others are for 21 dishonour. If a man then purge himself from these things, he shall be

a vessel for honour, sanctified, serviceable to the Master, prepared for 22 every good deed. So flee from youthful lusts, and pursue uprightness,

faith, love, peace, in company with those who from a pure heart call 23 upon the Lord. But have nothing to do with foolish and fatuous 24 controversies, knowing that they engender wrangles. And a slave of the

Lord must not wrangle; he must be kindly towards all, a skilful 25 teacher, meek, correcting with gentleness those who set themselves in

opposition-possibly God may grant them to repent and gain full 26 knowledge of the truth, and so they may get back to their sober senses

from the snare of the devil, who has captured them to do that devil's

will. 31,2 But know this : in the last days hard times shall be imminent. Men

shall be lovers of self, lovers of money, braggarts, haughty, abusive, 3 disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy, without natural

affection, implacable, slanderous, self-indulgent, fierce, no lovers of 4 good, traitors, reckless, besotted, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers 5 of God, maintaining a semblance of piety but having renounced its 6 power; from these men turn thou away. For to them belong those who

creep into households and captivate poor womankind overwhelmed with 7 sins, led away by manifold lusts, ever learning and never able to arrive 8 at a full knowledge of the truth. Now just as Jannes and Jambres

opposed Moses, so also do these men oppose the truth, men corrupted in 9 mind, reprobate as regards the faith. Still, they shall not proceed any

further; for their folly shall be quite evident to all men, as the folly of 10 those magicians also became quite evident.

But thou hast followed the course of my life in doctrine, conduct, purpose, faith, 11 endurance, love, patience, persecutions, sufferings, all that befell me at

1 Reading xupiov.

Antioch, at Ikonium, at Lystra, all the persecutions that I bore ; yet out of 12 them all the Lord rescued me. Yea, and all who would live piously in Christ 13 Jesus shall be persecuted. Evil men and impostors shall proceed to what 14 is worse and worse, seducing and seduced. But remain thou in what

thou hast learned and been convinced of, as thou knowest those from 15 whom thou hast learned it, and as thou hast known from infancy the

sacred writings, which are able to instruct thee for salvation through the 16 faith which is in Christ Jesus. Every scripture is inspired by God and

good for teaching, for reproof, for amendment, for education in upright17 ness ; in order that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly fitted 4 1 for every good deed.

In the sight of God and of Christ Jesus who is to judge living and dead, by his appearing and also by his reign, I 2 solemnly charge thee : proclaim the word, opportunely or inopportunely 1

be urgent, refute, rebuke, exhort, with all manner of long-suffering and 3 instruction. For there will be a time when people will not put up with

the sound doctrine, but will follow their own fancies and amass teacher 4 after teacher in their itching to hear; and as they turn away from 5 listening to the truth, they will turn aside to myths. But be thou sober

in all things, suffer hardship, do the work of an evangelist, fulfil thy 6 ministry. As for me, I am already being poured out as an offering; my 7 time for departure is at hand. I have played my part in the noble 8 contest. I have finished the course. I have kept the faith. Hence there

is laid up for me the wreath of uprightness with which the Lord—the upright judge—will reward me on that Day; and not me alone, but also

all who have loved his appearing. 9, 10 Make haste and come to me soon; for Demas, in love with the present

world, has forsaken me and gone to Thessalonika ; Crescens has gone to 11 Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. Luke alone is with me. Pick up Mark and

bring him along with thee, for he is serviceable to me in the way of 12, 13 ministry. (I sent Tychicus to Ephesus.) When thou comest, bring the

mantle that I left with Karpus at Troas, and the books—especially the 14 parchments. Alexander the blacksmith has displayed great malice 15 towards me; the Lord will render to him according to his deeds (do thou 16 eschew him also), for he stoutly opposed our words. At my first defence

no one came to stand by me; all forsook me. May it not be laid to their 17 charge! But the Lord stood at my side and strengthened me, that by

means of me the message might be fully proclaimed, and that all the 18 Gentiles might hear; and I was rescued from the lion's jaws. From every

wicked deed will the Lord rescue me and save me for his heavenly reign :

to whom be the majesty for ever and ever. Amen. 19, 20 Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus. Erastus 21 remained at Corinth; but I left Trophimus at Miletus, as he was ill. Make

haste and come before the winter. Eubulus salutes thee, and so do

Pudens and Linus and Claudia and all the brothers. 22 The Lord be with thy spirit.

Grace be with you.

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