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In 2 Timothy he [the redactor of the pastoral epistles] denounces at considerable length and with great vehemence the doctrine of certain false teachers, and the practices of certain libertines. In the epistle to Titus he is also concerned to do away with false doctrine and corrupt practice, but he takes a somewhat different course, emphasising the need of proper officers who shall guard the churches against such evils. There is less denunciation of heresy in Titus than in 2 Timothy, but much more emphasis is laid upon church organisation and upon the practical duties of the Christian life.—McGiffert.

11-4 Greeting

15-16 Rules: for elders and bishops in Crete :

in view of current errors,

and immorality.

21–311 Ethical: the moral obligations of the Christian truth, upon

different ages, sexes, conditions:
to one another, to outsiders :
the necessity of good conduct,

in Christianity. 38-11

a résumé: the conduct of Titus.

ó lóyos. . . . 38.

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312-14 Personal.

315 Farewell.


1 1 Paul, a slave of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith

of God's chosen ones and the full knowledge of the truth which is 2 according to piety ; in hope of life eternal, which God (who is no liar) 3 promised before times eternal-and in due season he disclosed his word

in the message with which I myself was entrusted according to the

command of our Saviour, God,
4 to Titus, my genuine child in virtue of a common faith:

grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our

Saviour. 5 I left thee behind in Crete for the purpose of settling what still

remained to be set in order, and of appointing elders in every city, as I 6 gave thee instructions—namely, any man who is irreproachable, the

husband of one wife, with children who believe and are neither accused 7 of profligacy nor insubordinate. For a bishop must be blameless, as

God's steward, not self-willed, not irascible, not drunken or quarrelsome, 8 not greedy for base gain ; but hospitable, a lover of good, sober-minded, 9 just, holy, self-controlled, holding to the sure word which is in accordance

with the doctrine, so that he may be able to give exhortation in the 10 sound doctrine, and also to refute objectors.] For there are many insubor

dinate persons, chatterers and cheats, especially those who have come 11 from the Circumcision—their mouths must be stopped, for they are sub

verting whole households by teaching improper doctrine for the sake of 12 base gain. One of their own nation, a prophet of their own, said,

“Cretans are liars at all times, evil monsters, lazy gluttons.” 13 This testimony is true. So reprove them with severity, that they 14 may be sound in the faith, instead of devoting themselves to Jewish 15 myths and commandments of men who turn away from the truth. All

things are pure to the pure; but to the polluted and unbelieving nothing

is pure. Nay, both their mind and their conscience have been polluted. 16 They publicly confess that they know God; but they renounce him by

their deeds, abominable as they are, and disobedient, and useless for any

good deed. 21, 2 But speak thou as befits the sound doctrine : teaching that aged men

are to be temperate, serious, sober-minded, sound in faith, in love, in 3 patience.

That aged women likewise are to be reverent in demeanour, not slanderous or enslaved to much wine; they are to give good in4 struction, so as to educate the younger women to love their husbands, to love 5 their children, to be sober-minded, chaste, domestic, kind, subject to their

own husbands—that the word of God may not be maligned. 6, 7 Likewise exhort the younger men to be sober in all respects; and show

thyself a pattern of good deeds with nothing corrupt in thy teaching, with 8 seriousness, with sound speech that is not open to condemnation ; so that

he who is on the opposite side may be put to shame, since he has no ill to 9 say of us.

Exhort slaves to be subject to their own masters, 10 ready to please in everything, not refractory, not embezzling, but showing

all true fidelity, that in all respects they may adorn the doctrine of our 11 Saviour, God.

For the grace of God has appeared with its saving 12 power for all mankind, training us to renounce impiety and wordly lusts, 13 and to live soberly and uprightly and piously in this present world, as we

wait for the blessed hope, even for the appearing of the majesty of the great 14 God and of our Saviour Christ Jesus, who gave himself for us that he

might redeem us from all iniquity and cleanse for himself a people to be his 15 own possession, bent upon good deeds.

Speak thus and exhort and 3 1 reprove with all manner of authority. Let no one despise thee. Remind

them to be subject to rulers--to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready 2 for every good deed, to abuse no man, to be no wranglers, to be forbearing, 3 showing all gentleness to all men. For once we too were senseless, foolish,

disobedient, seduced, slaves to manifold lusts and pleasures, living in 4 malice and envy, detestable, hating one another. But when the humane 5 kindness of our Saviour God appeared, then, not by deeds which we had

accomplished by our own uprightness, but according to his mercy, he saved us through a bath which wrought regeneration and renewal by the 6 holy Spirit, which he poured out richly upon us through Jesus Christ 7 our Saviour ; that “justified by his grace we might become heirs of life 8 eternal according to hope." THE SAYING IS SURE. And I desire thee to

insist strongly with regard to these matters, that those who have believed God may be careful to take the lead in good deeds. They are good and 9 profitable to men. But avoid foolish controversies and genealogies and

quarrelling and wrangles about the law; for they are useless and futile. 10 After a first and a second admonition, have nothing to do with a factious 11 man; be sure a man like that is perverted, and sins against his own

conscience. 12 When I send Artemas to thee, or Tychicus, make haste and come to me 13 at Nikopolis ; for I have decided to winter there. Speed eagerly upon

their journey Zenas the lawyer and Apollos, so that they may be in lack 14 of nothing. Let our people also learn to take the lead in good deeds, as

occasion requires, that they may not be unfruitful. 15 All who are with me salute thee.

Salute those who love us 1 in the faith.
Grace be with you all.

1 Reading häs.


Church matters mainly give the Epistles before us (especially the first to Timothy) their peculiar impress, inasmuch as they show how, when in danger of heresy, the consciousness of the Church and Church organisation grew strong on the lines indicated by Paul. As far as the main dogmas are concerned, we find but few traces of the contest with Gnosticism, and those chiefly in reference to the doctrines regarding God. For the rest they are the main traditional doctrines of Paulinism, modified by the tendency of the age towards practical piety.—Pfleiderer.

11-2 Greeting.

13-20 Personal : the truth of Christianity against error :
Paul the representative of this saving truth.


ó lóyos . . . 115. 118-20

his warning and charge to Timotheus. 21-316 Rules for church-life:

general, prayer and worship.

the sexes, I 31-7

migròs o Xbyos . . . 31. deacons, s


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38-13 314-16

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47-621 Rules for the conduct and ministry of Timotheus: in relation to

ascetic errorists and their practices: TOTÒs ó lóyos . . . 49. different ages and sexes :

widows-their maintenance and ministry: 517-22a

elders—their maintenance and discipline : 5225-25

[private advice to Timotheus] slaves and their masters.

Closing advice on 63-10

the errorists—covetousness : 611-16 true Christianity, a charge :

Supplement: a word to rich people:

a word against heresy.

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1 1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the command of God our Saviour and of Christ Jesus our hope,

to Timotheus, my genuine child in faith :
grace, mercy, peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our

Lord. 3 As I appealed to thee, when I was going into Macedonia, wait on at 4 Ephesus and charge certain people not to be teachers of novelties, and not to devote themselves to myths and interminable genealogies, seeing

that these promote out of the way investigations rather than God's 5 dispensation which is in faith. The aim of the charge is love, out of 6 a pure heart and a good conscience and an unfeigned faith ; things from 7 which some have swerved and turned aside to chatter, in their desire to

be doctors of the law-though they understand neither what they say nor & what they strongly insist upon. Certainly we are aware that the law is 9 excellent, if a teacher uses it in a lawful spirit, realising that laws are laid

down not for an upright man but for the lawless and insubordinate, the

impious and sinful, the unholy and worldly, parricides and matricides, 10 manslayers, fornicators, sodomites, slave-dealers, liars, perjurers, and what11 ever else is opposed to the sound doctrine—according to the gospel of the

majesty of the blessed God with which I myself was entrusted. 12 I give thanks to Christ Jesus our Lord who strengthened me, because he 13 reckoned me trustworthy by appointing me to the ministry, although

I was formerly a blasphemer and a persecutor and outrageous. But I 14 obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief; and the grace 15 of our Lord overflowed with faith and love in Christ Jesus. THE SAYING

IS SURE and worthy of all approbation, that “Christ Jesus came into the 16 world to save sinners." And of sinners I am the chief. But I obtained

mercy for this reason, that in me first Christ Jesus might display his

utmost long-suffering, as a typical instance for those who were hereafter 17 to believe on him to life eternal. Now to the King of the ages, who is

imperishable, invisible, who alone is God, be honour and majesty for ever

and ever: Amen. 18 This charge I entrust to thee, my child Timotheus, according to the

prophecies that first led me to thee; that in their strength thou mayest 19 wage the noble warfare, possessing faith and a good conscience, which 20 certain people have thrust aside and so suffered shipwreck in the matter of

the faith; including Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I have delivered

to Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme. . 21. Well, I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, petitions, 2 thanksgivings, be offered for all men, for kings and all who are in high

authority, that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all piety and 3 respectfulness. This is good and welcome in the sight of our Saviour 4 God, who would have all men saved and arrive at a full knowledge of the 5 truth. For there is “one God,” also “one mediator between God and

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