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Chronology enters into the important parts of history as one of the main conditions under which history itself is intelligible, or under which history makes other things intelligible for any profitable purpose. Chronology either combines with the facts of history, so as to create them into a new life, and to impress upon them a moral meaning, such as nakedly and separately those facts would not possess; or else forms a machinery for recalling and facilitating the memorial conquest of historical facts in their orderly succession.-De Quincey.

It is impossible to separate the religious phenomena from the other phenomena, in the same way that you can separate a vein of silver from the rock in which it is embedded. They are as much determined by the general characteristics of the race as the fauna and flora of a geographical area are determined by its soil, its climate, and its cultivation. They are separable from the whole mass of phenomena not in fact, but only in thought. We may concentrate our attention chiefly upon them, but they still remain part of the whole complex life of the time, and they cannot be understood except in relation to that life.—Hatch.

In Sprache und in Ausdrucksweise, in Cultur und Sitte, im Denken und Empfinden, weisen die Schriften über sich hinaus und verlangen zu ihrer vollen Würdigung und zu ihrem rechten Verständnis die Heranziehung und Vergleichung des Culturbodens, auf dem sie entstanden sind, der grossen geistigen Bewegung, die in der Periode nach dem Zusammenbruch von Alexanders grossen Plänen als die geistige Frucht seines Wirkens heranwuchs. Wer darum das neue Testament fördern will, darf an den Zeugen der geistigen Cultur jener Jahrhunderte nicht vorübergehen. Jedoch bedarf das Bild auch nach einer andern Seite hin noch der Vervollkommnung. Um einer historischen Grösse völlig gerecht zu werden, ist es notwendig, sie nicht nur in ihren Voraussetzungen zu studieren, sondern auch in ihren Folgen zu begreifen. So wird es notwendig sein, auch die Frage zu erwägen, was sich aus der folgenden Entwicklung der christlichen Zeit für ihre Anfänge lernen lässt. Preuschen.

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Die Aufgabe der biblischen Theologie des Alten Testaments hat zu schildern, wie aus der Religion Israels in Folge der Predigt der Propheten und der eigentümlichen Geschichte dieses Volkes sich das Judentum bildet, und die Entwicklung dieses zum Auftreten Jesu klar zu legen. Ja soll die Darstellung einen Ruhepunkt finden, so wird als Abschluss der ganzen Entwicklung die Predigt Jesu in kurzen Umrissen zu geben sein. In dieser finden alle die Fragen ihre Beantwortung, mit denen sonst die Darstellung in unbefriedigendster Weise schliessen müsste. Wer das religiöse Leben des Judentums in der neutestamentlichen Zeit in erschöpfender Weise zeichnen will, hat so notwendig die Predigt Jesu in die Gesammtdarstellung einzuzeichnen, wie derjenige, welcher die Predigt Jesu deutlich zeichnen will, jenes als des Hintergrundes bedarf. Für die theologisches Betrachtung ist die Predigt Jesu so gut die Schlussstein der alttestamentlichen Entwicklung, wie der Ausgangspunkt für die biblische Theologie des Neuen Testaments, für die Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte.—Stade.

There was in the world much of the noble heritage of past centuries and an infinite abundance of pomp and glory, but little spirit, still less taste, and least of all true delight in life. It was indeed an old world ; and even the richlygifted patriotism of Caesar could not make it young again. The dawn does not return till after the night has fully set in and run its course. But yet with him there came to the sorely harassed peoples on the Mediterranean a tolerable evening after the sultry noon.—Mommsen.

It is a mistake to think that ages of transition, like that immediately preceding the appearance of Christianity, are simply times of decay and disintegration, when all spiritual and religious life is completely moribund. ... Where an old system decays we may be sure it is because the new truth which is to succeed it is already there ; the old would not decay if the new had not arrived, be it but in germ, and been long labouring to undermine and eat away the existing structure. --Baur.





B.C. 180

Antiochus Epiphanes 162610 Desecration of

hes} 175-160. Death of Hannibal, 183. The Maccabees !

the Temple, 168.

Battle of Pydna, 168.

Istrian war, 178-177.
Romans at war in

Greece, 170–146.
Third Punic war,

Numantine war,


Judas Macc. recovers Restoration of Temple-

worship, 165.
Judas Macc. alliance with Rome, 160 c.

Sack of Corinth, 146.
Achaia, Rom. prov.
Letters from Rome to

East in favour of Jews,

Jewish overtures to Rome.

Judaea independent, 143. The Asmoneans, 135-63.

John Hyrcanus, 135–105.

The Gracchi, 164-121. Servile War in Sicily,

134-132. Sempronian laws, 133-123. Death of Scipio, 129.

Transalpine wars.


League with Rome, 128. Subjugation of Idumaea

and Samaria.

120 | Marius, 155-86. Gallia Narbonensis, Growth of Nabatean

Rom. prov.

Sulla, 138-78.

Sumptuary laws, 115.

Revival of Hellenism.
Jugurthan war, 111-106.
Numidia, Rom. prov.

Aristobulus I., 105-104.
Marius defeats Teutons 106.

Alex. Jannaeus, 104-79.
and Cimbri, 102–101. Cilicia, Rom. prov. 102. | Egyptian invasion Tyranny and defeat of
Schools of oratory in Sec. Servile war, 103 of Palestine.

Rome, 98.

Social war, 90-88.

0-88. Exile of Marius, 88-86. Triumph of Jannaeus Athens captured by Sulla, 86.

at Jerusalem, 82.
Sertorius in Spain, 83- Sulla in Rome, 82-79.

Salome, 79-69.
Cicero in East, 79-78.

Pharisaic reaction, 78 f.
Spartacus and Mithridates conquered, 73-71.

Strife of parties.
Pompey, 106-49. Lucullus in East.

Birth of Hillel, 75. Birth of Herod the
Cicero, 106-43.

National education Great, 72.
Pompey in the East. Syria, Rom. prov. 65. established, 70.
Catiline's conspiracy,

Aristobulus II., 69-63.

Nabatean invasion. Clodius, 62-61.

Pompey in Jerusalem ; siege and capture, 63. Oriental religions

and Jews in Rome.

Hyrcanus II., 63-40.

Insurrection. 60 Caesar, 100-44. First triumvirate, 60.

Revolts of Aristobulus, c. 56.
in Gaul, 58-51. Cyprus, Rom. prov. 57. Crassus plunders the Temple, 51.
in Britain, 55-54. Gaul, Rom. prov. 50.

Antipater, procurator of Judaea, 47.

Caesar in Syria, 47.
Civil war.

M. Antonius in Syria, 42.
Reform of Calendar, Suicide of Cato at

Antigonus, 40-37; with aid of

Cleopatra, 69-30.

The Idumeans.
Parthian wars.
Second triumvirate, 43.

Herod the Great, King of Judaea,
Agrippa crosses Rhine, Battle of Philippi, 42.

37-4; with aid of Romans. 37.

Battle of Actium, 31. Hillel in Jerusalem, 36.
Death of Cleopatra, 30. Egypt, Rom. prov. 30.

Attack on Sanhedrin.
Octavian supreme.

Rise of Herodians, 28.
Augustus, 30 B.C.-(19 Pantheon built in Rome, Samaria rebuilt, 27 (?). Hellenizing of Judaea.
August) 14 A.D.

Theatre built in Jerusalem.
Gates of Janus closed,

Famine and plague, 29, 25. Galatia, Rom. prov. 25.

25-23. Augustus in Gaul and Campaign against Ethi- Caesarea built, 22-10 B.C. Enlargement of Herod's Syria, 27-24. opians, 24-22.

territory. Social reforms, c. 21.

Visit of Augustus to Syria, 20. Augustus in East, 21-19. Conquest of Spain.

Temple rebuilt, 20 f. Secular games, 17. German wars.

Intrigues in Herodian family, 14 f. Tiberius exiled in Birth of Seneca, 7. Birth of Jesus, 6 B.C. +. Popular revolt under Rhodes, 6 B.C.-2 A.D.

Rabbis Judas and A.D Campaigns in Pannonia

Matthias, 4 B.C. and Dalmatia, 6-9. Herod Antipas, tetrarch, 4-39 A.D. Anarchy.

Quirinius governor of Syria : the census, 6-7. Judas the Galilean. Tiberius, 14-(16 Ma h) Rebellion of Arminius, Annas, h-priest, 6-15.

Revolt of Zealots.

Revolt) ne

Musulamian war, Germanicus, 14-19. Caiaphas, h-priest, 18-36.

Jews banished from Rome, 19.
Sejanus, (fl. 23-31).

Mission of John the Baptizer, 25–26.
Drusus poisoned, 23.
Pontius Pilate, procurator, 26-36.


Tiberias built. Tiberius at Capreae,

Baptism of Jesus, 27 c. Death of John, 28. 26-37.

Crucifixion of Jesus, 29.

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t'r-Ecclus. (Heb.), 180. Maccab. psalms. Enoch (pp. 1-36), before

170. Prayer of Manasseh. Eupolemus (hist.) Aristobulus (phil.), 170- Book of Daniel, 165. 150.

Greek transl. Daniel, by Jason of Cyrene.

Sibyllines, bk. iii. (97- “Esther,” 150–130.
$17), 140 c.

Psalter complete, 141.
Book of Judith, 130–105.
Enoch (cpp. 83–90).
Wisd. Seirach (Greek), Philo (epic poet)?

130 c.
Cleodemus (Malchus).
Greek additions to Theodotus (poet)?

Daniel, before 90.

Diogenes, c. 200.
Apollonius of Rhodes,

Carneades (phil.), 213-

Polybius, 204–122.
Nicander, c, 160.
Aristarchus, fi. 156

Moschus, 154 c.
Hipparchus (astron.),

160-145 fi.
Panaetius (phil.), 150-

120 A.
Apollodorus of Athens :

Ptolem. Euergetes.

Porcius Cato, 234-149.
Plautus, - 184.
Q. Ennius, 169.
Caecil. Statius (comed.),

d. 168.
Terence, 184-159. “Phor-

mio," "Eunuchus,"162.
L. Titinnius (com.).
M. Brutus, “De jure

Sempronius Asellio (hist.).
M. Pacuvius, - 129.
C. Lucilius, - 102.
Hostius, "De bello Istri-

co," 125.
L. Caelius Antipater (hist).

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