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TABLE IIIa.—Outline of the Asmonean and Herodian

Dynasties.

The external splendour was much greater than the actual and true prosperity of Herod's era. . . The nation felt itself offended in its inmost sanctity by the reckless Hellenism which resulted in open breach of the law. Their mistrust and aversion to Herod were as tenacious and unyielding as their national faith, and the religious instinct of the nation broke through and severed all the delusive glitter which disguised the revolt from religion behind the profession of honour toward the national God which were made by the King, and even by the Emperor, his court and his statesmen. ... The day of his death was, as he had foreseen, a Jewish festival : the kingdom came to an end, it was divided and shattered : his sons finally ate the bread of exile, his numerous family was extinct within a hundred years, and a curse lay upon the house of Herod.—Keim.

The guides of the people sought above all to inculcate the idea, that virtue consists in a fanatical attachment to fixed religious institutions. The persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes made this idea a passion, almost a frenzy. . . The reigns of the last Asmoneans, and that of Herod, saw the excitement grow still stronger. They were filled by an uninterrupted series of religious movements. Just as power became secularised, and passed into the hands of unbelievers, the Jewish people lived less and less for the earth, and became more and more absorbed by the strange fermentation which was working in their midst. The world, distracted by other spectacles, had little knowledge of what passed in this forgotten corner of the East.-Renan.

Während in der ganzen früheren Geschichte Israels der Grundsatz festge. halten wurde, dass die rechte Religiosität auch die äusseren, staatlichen Verhältnisse des Volkes am besten ordne, dringt jetzt das Bewusstsein davon durch, dass Beschäftigung mit dem Staatswesen der Frömmigkeit hinderlich sei. Diese Erkenntniss war die Frucht der Geschichte der hasmonäischen Fürsten. . . . Der Erfolg dieser ganzen Entwicklung ist nun für die Religionsgeschichte von hervorragender Bedeutung. Zunächst steigerte sich das religiöse Leben des Judentums unter dem Einflusse des Pharisaismus ganz gewaltig. Nicht nur das Rabbinentum der späteren Zeiten, auch Christentum und Essenismus haben ihre Pflanzstätte in diesem Boden. Weiterhin erkannte man die Unverträglichkeit des mosaischen Gesetzes mit den Anforderungen an einen lebenskräftigen Staat. Das müsste entweder zur religiösen Uberwindung des Gesetzes oder zum Verzicht auf ein eigenes Staatleben führen. Der Gedanke einer Trennung von Religion und Staat wird hier also angebahnt. — 0. Holtzmann.

TABLE IIIa.–Outline of the Asmonean and Herodian Dynasties.

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murdered by Herod, 35.

Mattathias.

Judas.

* John Hyrcanus I., † 105;
High-priest and prince; Samaria

captured; break with Pharisees ;
alliance with Sadducees.

* Aristobulus I.

| 104.

* Aristobulus III.;

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* Marks the high-priests.

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