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there was more religion than in the cabin, but they were universally Calvinists, though the majority very moderate, as you will suppose from their applying to me to perform divine service to them ; which I did with much satisfaction, when the weather and other circumstances would permit, several in the cabin joining us, though some of them were unbelievers, but for want of information. This is the case with Mr. Lyon, a most excellent man, who is now reading my “Sermons on the Evidences of Revelation,” and, I hope, to good purpose. He, like thousands of others, told me that he was so much disgusted with the doctrines of the Church of England, especially the Trinity, that he considered the whole business as an imposition, without farther inquiry. The confinement in the ship would not have been disagreeable if I could have written with convenince, but I could do little more than read. I read the whole of the Greek Testament, and the Hebrew Bible as far as the first Book of Samuel; and, I think, with more satisfaction than ever. I also read through Hartley's second volume, and, for amusement, I had several books of voyages, and Ovid's Metamorphoses, which I read through. I always admired his Latin versification. If I had a Virgil, I should have read him through, too. I read a great deal of Buchanan's poems, and some of Petrarch de remediis, and Erasmus's Dialogues; also Peter Pindar's poems, which Mr. Lyon had with him, and which pleased me much more than I expected. He is Paine in verse. Though it was particularly inconvenient to write long hand, I composed about as much as will make two sermons on the causes of infidelity, which will make a proper addition to the volume of my discourses. If I do not print them here, I will send you a copy. Now that I have access to the first volume of Hartley, in the fine edition Mrs. Lindsey gave me, I think I can improve what I wrote. The second volume I had in the ship, was an odd volume of the set that was distroyed in the riot.” “I never saw any place that I liked so well as New York. It far exceeds my expectations, and my reception is too flattering, no form of respect being omitted. I have received two formal addresses, to which I have given answers. More, I hear, are coming; and almost every person of the least consequence in the place, has been, or is coming, to call upon me. This is rather troublesome, but it shows the difference of the two countries. Every thing that bore the name of king or queen is changed, as streets, &c., &c., and yet this is the most aristocratical place on the continent. I am lodged in the house which was the head-quarters of generals Howe and Clinton, in view of the bay, which is the finest prospect that I remember ever to have seen. This must be a glorious country, and I doubt not of finding a peaceable and useful establishment in it. When that is accomplished, my only wish will be to have you, and a few other Christian friends, to come and end their days with us. But we must not promise ourselves too mnch in this world. Say for me every thing that a greatful heart can dictate, both for myself, my wife, and my son, to Mrs. Rayner. Yours and Mrs. Lindsey's most affectionately.” Again he writes, June 15. “We have now been here near a fortnight, and I begin to expect to hear from you, which is the greatest satisfaction that I expect in this country; but I sometimes think that every thing here is so promising and every thing with you so threatening, that perhaps even you and Mrs. Lindsey may be induced to end your days with us. To accomplish this, I should at any time come over and fetch you. Indeed, the difference between the aspect of things here and with you is not to be expressed. I feel as if I were in another world. I never before could conceive how satisfactory it is to have the feeling that I now have, from a sense of perfect security and liberty, all men having equal rights and privileges, and speaking and acting as if they were sensible of it. Here are no beggars to be seen, and families are easily maintained by any kind of labor; and whether it be the effect of general liberty, or some other cause, I find many more clever men, men capable of conversing with propriety and fluency on all subjects relating to government, than I have met with any where in England. I have seen many members of Congress on their return from it, and without exception, they seem to be men of first rate ability, though some of them plain in their manners. With respect to myself, the difference is great indeed. In England, I was an object of the greatest aversion to every person connected with government; whereas here, they are those who show me the most respect. With you, the Episcopal church is above every thing. In this city, it makes a decent figure, but the Presbyterians are much above them, and the governor (Clinton), who is particularly attentive to me, goes to the meeting-house.” After a short visit at New York and Philadelphia, Dr. Priestley took up his permanent residence at Northumberland. His situation and mode of life there may be seen in the letters which he wrote from that place in October and December. “The greatest inconvenience attending this situation is a want of a ready communication with Philadelphia. There are no stage-wagons; and the only method of sending heavy goods is by land in the wagons that carry corn to Middletown, on the Susquehannah, and thence by water hither; and the water is so low at this time of the year, that it is not navigable. It is expected to rise a little towards the end of this month; but the best time for it is in the spring, and till midsummer; but then there are few wagons going to Middletown. Inconvenient as this circumstance and some others make a residence in this place, I prefer it on the whole. Philadelphia is unpleasant, unhealthy, and intolerably expensive; and there I should have little command of my time. Here I can command the whole; and when I get my books and instruments, I hope to do as much as ever I have done. In the mean time, I am not idle. I have some books, and every

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day do something towards the continuation of my Church History. I shall finish the next period which will carry the History to the rise of Mahometanism, in about a month, tasking myself every day. My materials will not carry me much farther. I never read so much Hebrew as I have since I left England. I have nearly finished all the Old Testament, and I never read it with so much satisfaction, especially the prophecies, which I am now attending to. I think I shall read more or less of the Hebrew Bible as long as I live; and shall, when I get my Polyglots, and other helps, take much pleasure in translating more than I undertook before. Having leisure for miscellaneous reading, I have read almost the whole of Tacitus, which I had not done before, and I admire him more than I expected. I shall read many of the best ancient writers, especially the historians, when I get my library. I have nearly printed the Continuation of my Letters to the Philosophers and Politicians of France, and to a Philosophical Unbeliever; the latter in answer to Mr. Paine's Age of Reason; which is much read, and has made great impression here; nor will you wonder at it, when you consider what kind of Christianity is preached here. I am told that the Quakers read it with great avidity, and they have no knowledge at all of the proper evidence of Christianity, or the doctrines of it. Many of them, therefore, in this country, either actually are, or are easily made unbelievers. There are great expectations, I am told, from my answer to Paine, and I hope it will do good. I told you that when I came hither I was asked to preach at the Presbyterian meeting-house ; but though I am sure I said nothing which could give any Christian just offence, they never asked me again, and I have contented myself with reading a sermon in my own house. Yesterday, however, the officer of a company of soldiers who are passing this way requested me to preach to them, and they got the use of the meeting-house, and some of the people of the place attended : but little can be done before I get a place to myself, which, if a few persons from England join us, will soon be accomplished, especially if the college be established here, and of this no doubt is now entertained ; and the person whose property the greatest part of the town is, has consented to give the ground to build it on. We therefore hope to have the buildings raised the next year, and begin some business, when I hope to be of some use. In the spring, however, I shall go to Philadelphia, and preach a sermon, which I have already composed and transcribed, from Acts xvii. 18–20; but I want your cool judgment in this and all my other compositions. I feel myself as a ship without a rudder.” Again. “Though I am far from being so happy as I was at Hackney, near you and Mr. Belsham, I have a tolerable prospect of being more comfortable when I have got my house built; but I foresee much trouble, as well as expense, attending it. My instruments must remain unpacked, at least in a great measure, till then, and my books are chiefly in a barn and a garret, so that it is not very easy to come at them all. In this respect, however, I do pretty well, and by doing my different tasks every day, have the satisfaction of thinking I do some business, without which I should have little enjoyment of life. I shall get well acquainted with the Hebrew Bible, a large portion of which I read the first thing every morning, and I give some hours every day to my Church History. The great number of unbelievers here will keep up my attention to the evidences of revelation, and I think I may perhaps add another part to my Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever, on the subject of prophecy. I like Bicheno's idea of the seven thunders meaning the seven wars which have taken place since the conquests of the Turks, but there is little else that I admire in him. I have had some of the same thoughts that Mr. Garnham has entertained; but I cannot say that they give me the same satisfaction that they do him, and I think he hazards a great deal in foretelling the duration and the issue of the pres

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