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[The circumstances connected with the composition and publication of this most elaborate of Pope's satires have already been related in the sketch of the poet's life. In the edition of 1735 (Poet. Works, vol. ii.), Pope transferred the whole of the notes to the end of the volume. If this was deemed necessary, though but in one impression, to free the ample quarto pages, it is certainly more requisite in editions of lesser size, in which the notes overflow from one page to another, and perplex instead of illustrating the text. Indeed, in most of the popular editions, by much the larger proportion of the notes are altogether omitted. We have to some extent adopted the plan sanctioned in one instance by the poet himself. We have detached the more , general and lengthy annotations-such as could best bear transplanting (a few are better rooted out), and have printed them at the end of the poem, with the verses to which they refer, and with a title prefixed to each. In a letter to Swift, Pope has described the nature and object of the “ Notes Vari

with which the first complete edition of the Dunciad was accompanied “I desire you," he says,

to read over the text and make a few (notes) in any way you like best, whether dry raillery upon the style and way of commenting of trivial critics; or humorous, upon the authors of the poem; or historical, of persons, places, times; or explanatory; or collecting the parallel passages of the ancients.” Warburton states that Swift complied with his friend's request, but a comparison of editions subsequent to that of 1729 shows that he did little. The other associates of the Scriblerus Club-Arbuthnot and Gay, with the occasional help of Cleland—were contributors. The various learning and antiquarian lore of Arbuthnot must have been invaluable, but the assistance of all these friendly commentators was of very small amount, we suspect, compared with the



labours of the poet himself. He it was, who had wrongs, real or fanciful, to avenge, enemies to attack, and triumphs to gain. "He delighted to vex the dunces," as Johnson said ; but he had more delight in seeing how well he could vex them. He put forth all his strength in the effort, and his success was commensurate with the labour. None of his works seem to have gone so rapidly through numerous editions; and in Dublin, according to Swift, it was read as eagerly as in London. Additions and alterations were made from time to time both in the text and notes. To the fourth book, and to the poem in its completed state, Warburton gave zealous assistance, overloading the text with his curious and often far-fetched comments, and adding some of his own critical feuds and enmities to the ample store accumulated by the poet. The edition of 1743, as the last seen by the author, must always be held to be the standard.

The conclusion of the Dunciad is one of the noblest passages in the whole of Pope's poetry-grand in conception, and rapid and brilliant in execution ; and it may be interesting to show the various stages of progress through which this burst of lofty declamation passed, even after it had gone into the hands of the printer, before it arrived at its final perfection :


Thus when these signs declare the mighty year,
When the dull stars roll round and re-appear,
“Let there be darkness !" the dread power shall say;
All shall be darkness as it ne'er were day.
To their first chaos Wit's vain works shall fall,
And universal Dulness cover all!
No more the monarch could such raptures bear,
He wak'd and all the vision mix'd with air.


Signs following signs lead on the mighty year;
See the dull stars roll round and re-appear.
She comes! the cloud compelling power behold !
With Night primeval and with Chaos old.
Lo! the great Anarch's ancient reign restor’d,
Light dies before her uncreating word:
As one by one, at dread Medea's strain,
The sick’ning stars fade off th' ethereal plain;
As Argus' eyes, by Hermes' wand oppress'd,
Clos'd one by one to everlasting rest;
Thus at her felt approach and secret might
Art after art goes out and all is night.
See skulking Truth in her old cavern lie,
Secur'd by mountains of heap'd casuistry:

Philosophy, that touch'd the heavens before,
Shrinks to her hidden cause and is no more:
See Physic beg the Stagirite's defence!
See Metaphysic call for aid on Sense !
See Mystery to Mathematics fly!
In vain they gaze, turn giddy, rave, and die.
Thy hand, great Dulness ! lets the curtain fall,
And universal Darkness buries all.

"Enough! enough !" the raptured monarch cries
And through the ivory gate the vision flies.

In vain,

vain-the all-composing hour
Resistless falls: the Muse obeys the power.
She comes ! she comes! the sable throne behold
Of Night primeval, and of Chaos old!
Before her Fancy's gilded clouds decay,
And all its varying rainbows die away.
Wit shoots in vain its momentary fires,
The meteor drops, and in a flash expires.
As one by one at dread Medea's strain,
The sick’ning stars fade off th' ethereal plain ;
As Argus' eyes, by Hermes' wand oppress'd,
Clos'd one by one to everlasting rest;
Thus at her felt approach, and secret might,
Art after art goes out and all is night.
See skulking Truth to her old cavern fled,
Mountains of casuistry heap'd o'er her head,
Philosophy that lean'd on heaven before,
Shrinks to her second cause and is no more,
Physic of Metaphysic begs defence,
And Metaphysie calls for aid on Sense!
See Mystery to Mathematics fly!
In vain! they gaze, turn giddy, rave, and die.
Religion blushing veils her sacred fires,
And unawares Morality expires.
Nor public flame, nor private, dares to shine,
Nor human spark is left, nor glimpse divine.
Lo! thy dread empire, Chaos! is restor'd;
Light dies before thy uncreating word :
Thy hand, great Anarch ! lets the curtain fall,
And universal Darkness buries all.

We subjoin the Prefaces and Advertisements prefixed to the different editions. It will be recollected that all the notes not included within brackets were published by Pope and written by him or his friends.]

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