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Page -- r 104. Luke vii. 44. Thou gavest me no water. The washing the

feet before meals is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, Gen. xliii. 24. 1 Sam. xxv. 41. so 1 Tim. v. 10. It was necessary, as the ancients only wore loose sandals, and at meals laid their feet upon the couch. This practice, together with kissing the hand as a token of respect, the feet, probably to indicate greater humility, and anointing the head, are still retained amongst the Arabs, and in the East. The person who presents himself to welcome a stranger, and wash his feet, is the master of the family. Perhaps this Pharisee for fear of offending his brethren had omitted the usual tokens of respect on the reception of a guest. Harmer and Shaw. 106. Mark. iii. 21. He is beside himself. Doddridge thinks the construction of the Greek is more properly “thrown into an ecstacy,” as Mark ii. 12. vi. 51. Acts ii. 7. 12. and translates it here “is transported too far.” His friends feared that his present zeal and fervency of spirit might impair his health. The words, “is mad or beside himself or themselves,” may be equally referred, or annexed (and undoubtedly with greater propriety applied) to the term, multitude. 110. Matt. xii. 40. Three days and three nights. It is of great importance to observe, that the Easterns reckoned any part of a day of twenty-four hours for a whole day, and say, a thing was done after three or seven days, if it was done on the third or seventh day from that last mentioned. Their days began in the evening. (Compare 1 Kings xx. 29. 2 Chron. x. v. 12. and Luke ii. 21.) And as the Hebrews had no term corresponding in signification to the natural day of twenty-four hours, they use night and day, or day and night, for it ; so that to say, a thing happened after three days and three nights, was the same as to say, it happened after three days, or on the third day. Compare Est. iv. 16. with v. i. Gen. vii. 4, 12. Exod. xxii. 18. and xxx. iv. 28.-Doddridge. 115. Luke xi. 51. Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple. A space of nine feet was left between the body of the temple and the altar. This was an asylum affording protection to criminals. See 1 Kings i. 51. and ii. 28. 30.--Willan. 117. Luke xii. 22, &c. Luke has here, as in other places, recapitulated several precepts given, by our Lord to his followers, according to Matthew, at a very different period. Matt. x. 17 to 35, and vi. 24 to 34, pages 155 and 89 of this work. Some commentators have laboured much to reconcile this difference, but it was surely proper, that our Lord should repeat the doctrines, before delivered in Galilee, to his hearers in Judea, who had hitherto not been favoured with his public ministry.--Willan.

Pa #. Luke xii. 28. Grass which is to day in the field. See note on page 89. Luke xii. 31. And all these things shall be added. See 1 Kings iii. 5––13. Luke xii. 35. Let your loins be girded about. The garments among the Easterns were flowing and loose. They who travel on foot are obliged to fasten their garments at a greater height from their feet than they do at other times. This is what is understood by girding up their loins. Chardin observes that all persons that travel on foot always gather up their vest, by which they walk more commodiously, having the leg and knee unburthened and disembarrassed by the vest, which is not the case, when it hangs over them. After this manner he supposes the Israelites were prepared for their going out of Egypt, when they eat the first passover. Exod. xii. ii...—Harmer

120. Luke xii. 54. A cloud rise out of the west. Shaw says that.

the westerly winds in the Holy Lands are still generally attended with rain, but that the easterly winds are usually dry. —Harmer. See 1 Kings xviii. 43, 44. Luke xii. 55. The south wind blow. Le Brun tells us that there blew, when he was at Rama, a south-east wind, which coming from the desert beyond Jordan, caused a great heat, and that it continued some days.-Harmer. 121. § 48. The slaughter of the Galileans, and the destruction of those on whom the tower of Siloam fell, are retorted by our Saviour on the uncharitable Jews, with this prophetical addition, “Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.” This seems an evident allusion (supported by the parable that follows of the fig-tree) to the destruction of Jerusalem, which occurred not long after, in a manner totally similar. A considerable number were slain by the ruins of the walls and towers; the temple was everywhere polluted by the blood of its priests; many, who came from far to attend the passover, fell before their sacrifices; and when Titus took the city, a multitude of dead bodies lay round the altar. 131. Matt. xiii. 31. Like to a grain of mustard seed, &c. Willan thinks this plant the Sinapi Erucoides of Linnaeus. Matt. xiii. 32. Becometh a tree. In the soil and climate of Palestine, the Hebrew authors speak largely of its size. Simon had a mustard tree capable of being ascended by climbing. Another mustard tree had three branches, which furnished a shade for potters to work under. Jerusalem Talmud Pol. Syn.—Newcome. “. . 135. Matt. viii. 22. Let the dead bury their dead. The sense conveyed in the text is, Turn not aside to temporal affairs, but leave them to those solely attached to them.–Grotius.

Pa * Luke ix. 62. Put his hand to the plough and looking back, Hesiod's rule to the plougher, is that he should not look about on his companions, but make a straight furrow. Newcome. 136. Matt. viii. 26. A great calm. The wind will sometimes cease on a sudden ; but the sea will not be smooth till some time after, therefore the miracle was most evident.—jortin. 137. § 51. The reader on perusing this section must observe a considerable degree of inconsistency in relation, on comparing the three Evangelists; yet, however striking, on mere inspection, such incongruities may appear, it is presumed the following remarks will tend to remove the difficulty. Matthew says, The country of the Gergesenes, Mark and Luke, Gadarenes. Gadara, according to Josephus, was the metropolis of Peraea, or of the region beyond Jordan over against Galilee; Gergesa was an adjoining town ; hence the district named from either of these included the two cities. In Matthew mention is made of two Daemoniacs, in Mark and Luke of one only. Here the maxim of Le Clerc is true, “He who relates many things comprehends the few or minute, whilst he who relates the few only, denies not the relation of the more.” A reason for this difference is usually assigned from Augustin, that one of the Daemoniacs had been a person of greater respectability, and that the country was in greater anxiety respecting him. Farmer and Wetstein are nearly of the same opinion. And supposing this observation in general true, these Daemoniacs, from natural causes, or a divine impulse, as it is probable they were sometimes God’s instruments for the promotion of the gospel, might now unite in seeking relief from Jesus, and yet might live apart at other times. We may collect one reason from the gospels themselves, why Mark and Luke mention only one Daemoniac; because one only being grateful for this miracle, his cure was only recorded by the two Evangelists, who mention this gratitude; and who are more intent on inculcating the moral, than in magnifying our Lord's power. Mark says, the Daemoniac met him coming out of the tombs, Luke, out of the city. The proper translation is, he was a man of, or belonging to, the city, and is a passage similar in construction with John i. 45 ; and thus one is supplementary to the other to this effect, that He was a man of, or belonging to, the city, and coming out of the tombs, met him. Newcome, &c. 137. Matt. viii. 28. Out of the tombs. Shaw observes, that among the Moors, the graves of the principal citizens have cupolas or vaulted chambers, of four or more yards square, built over them; and that they are frequently open, and afford an occasional shelter from the inclemency of the weather.

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139. Matt. viii. 31, &c. A punitive miracle may be allowed in the destruction of swine, the keeping of which by Jews was a breach of the law ; and by Gentiles, within the confines of Palestine, and in the midst of the Jews, a snare to the Jewish people and a contempt of their religion.--Newcome. 143. Matt. ix. 15. Children of the bride-chamber. Great mirth and cheerfulness accompanied the celebration of nuptials among the Jews. The children of the bride chamber were the friends and acquaintances of the parties, and assisted in these rejoicings. 144. Matt. ix. 17. Put new wine into old bottles. The vessels used by the ancients for preserving wine, &c. were made of skins sewed together. Hence the putting of new wine, when approaching to fermentation, into old bottles, would burst them more readily. See Josh. ix. 4 and 13. They are now used in Spain, and called Borrachas. 145. Matt. ix. 18. , My daughter is even now dead. According to Matthew, Jairus thought his daughter to be actually dead. According to Mark and Luke, she was only at the point of death. Perhaps the father did not know certainly whether she was dead or not ; but having heard that Jesus had raised from the dead the son of the widow at Nain, he might have no doubt of his power to raise even his daughter from the dead.—Priestley. Matt. ix. 18. Come and lay thy hand upon her. This was an ancient ceremony practised by the prophets, which they joined with the prayers they made for any person. See Numb. xxvii. 18. Matt. xix. 13. Jairus desires Jesus to come and pray for his daughter, not doubting, but that, as he was a great prophet, God would hear his requests. See and compare Gen. xx. 7.—Beausobre and Lenfant. 147. Matt. ix. 23. And saw the minstrels and the people making a noise. Observed the musicians who customarily attended funerals, and the noisy lamentations of the multitude. When it was supposed Josephus was slain, great lamentations were made, and many people hired pipers, who led the way in these lamentations.—Newcome. Chardin says, that in the East the concourse of people, where persons lie dead, is incredible. Every body runs thither, the poor and the rich; and the former more especially make a strange noise.—Harmer. 151. Mark vi. 3. Is not this the carpenter? Justin Martyr, in his dialogues with Trypho, expressly says that Christ assisted his supposed father in his trade of a carpenter, and his townsmen, in this instance, address him to that purport. Amongst the Jews, all fathers were enjoined to teach their children a trade ; and their most distinguished Rabbins exercised one. - Grotius and Whitby. Page to. Mark r. 14. Shake off the dust of your feet. This action

155.

expressed the greatest abhorrence and final renunciation of
all intercourse. It originated primarily from the Jewish
idea, that the dust of Gentiles polluted them, even if brought
into Judea. See Acts xiii 51. xviii. 6.-Willan
Matt. x. 27. What ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon
the house tops. In addition to note on page 63, on the con-
struction of houses in Judea, to clearly comprehend the
above passage, the following remarks are added. The ter-

race on the top is as much frequented as any part of the house.

On this, as the season favours, they walk, they eat, they sleep, they transact business (1 Sam. ix. 25) and they perform their devotions, Acts x. 9. The house is built with a court within, into which chiefly the windows open; those that open to the street are so obstructed with lattice work, that no one either without or within can be seen through them. Whenever therefore any thing is to be seen or to be heard in the streets, any public spectacle, or any alarm of a public nature, every one immediately goes to the house top to satisfy his curiosity. In the same manner, when any one had occasion to make anything public, the readiest and most effectual way of doing it was to proclaim it from the house tops to the people in the streets.-Note from Lowth's Isaiah.

168. Matt. xiv. 26. Walking on the sea. A power ascribed to

God only. See Job ix. 8. The Egyptian hieroglyphic, to denote an impossibility, was two feet walking on water. Doddridge.

176. Mark vii. 2. Eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with un

washen hands. The Pharisees and Scribes did not eat their
food with unclean or unwashen hands, because they consi-
dered it as sanctified by prayer and thanksgiving before they
partook of it. As an instance of this Pharisaical strictness,
we are told, upon the authority of the Jewish Talmuds,
that Rab. Akiba, being confined in prison with only a small
allowance of water, when a part of it was casually spilt, chose
rather to die of thirst than omit the ceremony of washing his
hands.-Pearce and Lightfoot.
Mark vii. 3. Holding the tradition of the elders. Besides
the written law or pentateuch, the Jews had what they term-
ed the oral law. This was said to have been communicated
to Moses on Mount Sinai, at the same time with the other,
but not put in writing. It consisted of various ordinances
respecting their religious rites, &c. and formed, according to
the Rabbins, a sequel or supplement to the written law.
They taught farther, that it was delivered by Moses to Jo-
shua, and by him to the elders of the people, from whom the
prophets derived it. After Malachi it was preserved by the
members of the Sanhedrim, or the council of seventy. Some

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