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and in all the eastern states, vestiges of this aristocracy exist. Virginia is notorious for old families, who are as stately and exclusive as the large family coach-horses. If the thraldom of habit is true in individuals, much more is it true in communities, which are slower in their inovements and reforms. Beside, prosperous communities are constantly tending to aristocracies. The wealthy, in the acquisition of their fortunes, have lost sight, been dazzled out of sight, of the common things of earth; they have grown proud and exclusive, by the sight of the servility and poverty which serves them; they have been pushed and flattered into self-consequence, by the designing and wary, for their own purposes. Behold an aristocracy!- men un. mindful of the public wants, their own political duty, and insensible to all impressions, but those of their own grandeur and importance.
‘But eastern people read. The literature of England has been the food for this people. The female mind, which has so much to do with the laws of society, has been crammed with the fashionable novels of England. Can these things be without their effect? Why, we ask, is Miss Sedgwick's Poor Rich Man, and Rich Poor Man' so much read and caressed ? Because it is a novelty, a curiosity. It is because it is written in a republican spirit. We are surprised to find high virtue, noble generosity, and fervent piety, in a cartman. So little do our fashionables and aristocrats know of this class of people, by any actual contact or interchange of sentiment with them, that the book is almost as popular with them as the story of the Brobdignags and Lilliputians used to be with children. Then the poor and the hard working have sentiments, and feel affection and pity, and they show principle, and manly virtue! How new and delightful! And then what a dear, delightful, nice little place they lived in; and how delightful to be poor and good; and Aunt Lottie - dear, good soul — what a pity she was sick!' ete. And this is the slang of admiration.
‘Happy would it have been for our country, if such books had formed a larger part of the reading of our children. We have many 'poor rich men,' whose infiuence is deadly to our principles; and they, for the most part, constitute the accused aristocrats. We have many ‘ich poor men,' whose influence and example saves us from the corruptions of wealth and luxury. Happy is the American author, who has so richly benefitted her country in a production which breathes the true spirit of republican freedom and manly independence.
• But farther, our writer places great reliance in his public school system, and says some very pretty things here about their levelling character, at the same time that he shows in his statistics, that 146,539 boys and girls are educated at the public schools at an expense of $439,587,40, while 28,752 boys and girls are educated at private schools, at an expense of $326,642,56. What, we ask, levels down these 28,762 boys and girls ? — or by what process are the former levelled up to these latter favored sons and daughters of wealth ? Our own impression is, (for we boast, with the rest of the world, respectable parentage, now for the sake of the argument,) that it was considered a kind of disgrace to go to the public school. Not in Boston, for the public Latin School educates many of the sons of the rich for college, and contains as many incipient aristocrats as any school in the country. From these combined causes, the example and habits of her ancestry, her literature and system of private instruction, we think we find causes for wide distinctions in society. But then we only take these as collateral evidence to our senses, which show such to be the truth. We do not say these causes do not exist in other parts of our country. There is undoubtedly the greatest inconsistency in the political views and conduct of many American citizens. We doubt not but thousands are in our midst, who, not from design, but from criminal negligence, guffer themselves to be carried along by their passions, their pride, their vanity, and love of show, in direct opposition to the good of their country. We think many such are to be found in New-England - men who are placed above all want, by the circumstances they were born to, who care nothing for the country, and know little or nothing about its interests. Many may be found in any old state. New-York, as a state, possesses comparatively few such. She is new and modern, , and purer of this vice in her population.
But perhaps the writer in the North American does not go much into society himself. Perhaps he prefers seclusion. Men who write as he does, do not have large · circles of acquaintances. They cannot stand it; it is too wearisome to their taste. Perhaps he has only mingled with the really intellectual, and refined, and is so well content with his condition, that he thinks all is right about him. He knows well enough what New England and all our country ought to be, and he hopes it is so. In order to see whether things are level or not, we must take sight, and neither look from a lower nor a higher station. He, we are convinced, has not brought himself to the proper level of observation.
“We are not concerned to wage war with the stately North American Review. We only wish to protect ourselves in our opinions. We honor and respect New-England. We are alive to all her virtues and privileges. We love to look at her monuments, and to listen to her divines, her poets, and her statesmen. But we do not love her aristocracy; we do not love her sectional feeling; and most of all do we regret to see this weakness and vice fostered and cherished by the leading periodical of our country.
"If we have been unjust to New-England, we heartily regret it. We supposed we might, though born there, point out her faults, and commend her virtues. We still suppose she is fallible. We still suppose she is lacking in attention to her political interest. We suppose, too, that the North American Review is far from being the voice of the people in New England. We suppose that many of the writers in that periodical are men who deal with the people more in theory than in practice. Its articles come oftener from the cloister than the exchange, and the opinions expressed are perhaps drawn more from books than from observation.
But to return to our subject. This local sectional feeling is the supporter of existing abuses, all the world over. It may have been necessary, as a step in civilization, as we can hardly imagine a migratory civilized nation. Strong local attachments, first induced by necessity or convenience, kept men in one spot, and urged all exertion for its improvement and adorning, until it was loved, for bearing upon its surface marks of its possessors. Each new generation was held by the old lies transmitted to them, and by new ones of their own creating. This love of place and institutions has supported despotisms, and love more than fear has borne with the oppressions of a tyrant. This feeling stands but poorly in the place of religious principle, and philosophical regard. Loyalty no longer claims our respect, when it is an argument against conscience and truth. The richest legacy the past has left us are the names of those who, for truth's sake, have perished on the scaffold, while the base politician can find patterns to rise by, in those who have been raised to a disgraceful prosperity by sins against reason, conscience, and God. J. N. B.
AN Address on TEMPERANCE. BY WILLIAM E. Channing. With a copious Ap
pendix. pp. 119. Boston: WEEKS, JORDAN AND COMPANY. New York: WILEY AND PUTNAM, and SAMUEL COLMAN.
We confess, that so much has been written upon the subject of temperance - 50 much that is itself either intemperate, or over-colored with the hues of a distorted or extravagant imagination — that we have come at last to take up a pamphlet or volume upon this theme, with a feeling of strong disrelish - expecting full surely to meet hackneyed pictures of pecuniary distress and brutal treatment, or exagerated statistics, setting forth to a gill the amount of spirituous liquors drank in the United States - to a man the sufferers from such consumption - and the exact number of miles of dollars, in a straight line, which might be laid, of the money expended in habitual and vicious indulgence in inebriating Auids. There has been no topic upon which literary or clerical mediocres have more frequently enlarged, than that of temperance exhibiting, in that capacity wherein most easily they expand and burgeon,' but one solitary merit — namely, that of not intruding upon their readers or hearers a single original idea, save, it may be, an orignal exaggeration.
But the address before us is quite a different affair, from the ordinary temperance efforts of the day. Dr. Channing has not dwelt, at tedious length, upon the secondary evils of intemperance, but has searched the depths of its causes, and set forth the remedies which it demands. In considering the voluntary extinction of reason as the great essential evil of this vice, the writer has the following passages :
“It is to be desired, when a man lifts a suicidal arm against his highest life, when he quenches reason and conscience, that he and all others should receive solemn, startling warning of the greatness of his guilt; that terrible outward calamities should bear witness to the inward ruin which he is working; that the hand writing of judgment and wo on his countenance, form, and whole condition, should declare what a fearful thing it is for a man, God's rational offspring, to renounce his reason and be. come a brute. It is common for those who argue against intemperance, to describe the bloated countenance of the drunkard, now flushed and now deadly pale. They describe his trembling, palsied limbs. They describe his waning prosperity, his poverty, bis despair. They describe his desolate, cheerless home, his cold hearth, his scanty board, bis heart-broken wife, the squalidness of his children; and we groan in spirit over the sad recital. But it is right, that all this should be. It is right, that he, who, forewarned, puts out the lights of understanding and conscience within him. who abandons his rank among God's rational creatures, and takes his place among brutes, should stand a monument of wrath among his fellows; should be a teacher wherever he is seen, a teacher, in every look and motion, of the awful gnilt of des. troying reason. Were we so constituted, that reason could be extinguished, and the countenance retain its freshness, the form its grace, the body its vigor, the outward condition its prosperity, and no striking change be seen in one's home, so far from being gainers, we should lose some testimonies of God's parental care. His care and goodness, as well as his justice, are manifested in the fearful mark he has set on the drunkard, in the blight which falls on all the drunkard's joys. These outward evils, dreadful as they seem, are but faint types of the ruin within. We should see in them God's respect to his own image in the soul, his parental warnings against the crime of quenching the intellectual and moral life.”
" Among the evils of intemperance, much importance is given to the poverty of which it is the cause. But this evil, great as it is, is yet light in comparison with the essential evil of intemperance, which I am so anxious to place distinctly before you. What matters it that a man be poor, if he carry into his poverty the spirit, energy, reason, and virtues of a Man? What matters it that a man must, for a few years live on bread and water? How many of the richest are reduced by disease to a worse condition than this ? Honest, virtuous, noble-minded poverty is a comparatirely light evil. The ancient philosopher chose it as the condition of virtue. It has been the lot of many a Christian. The poverty of the intemperate man owes its great misery to its cause. He who makes himself a beggar, by having made himself a brute, is miserable indeed. He who has no solace, who has only agonizing recollections and
harrowing remorse, as he looks on bis cold hearth, his scanty table, his ragged children, has indeed to bear a crushing weight of wo. That he suffers, is a light thing. That he has brought on himself this suffering by the voluntary extinction of his reason, this is the terrible thought, the intolerable curse."
After showing the extent of temptations to intemperance -- that the young, the idle, the over-worked laborer, the man of genius and sensibility, and even woman, with her delicate physical organization and sensitive frame, are peculiarly exposed—the writer observes :
“Do not say, that I exaggerate your exposure to intemperance. Let no man say, when he thinks of the drunkard, broken in health and spoiled of intellect, 'I can never so fall.' He thought as little of falling in his earlier years. The promise of his youth was as bright as yours; and even after he began his downward course, he was as unsuspicious as the firmest around him, and would have repelled as indignantly the admonition to beware of intemperance. The danger of this vice lies in its almost imperceptible approach. Few who perish by it know its first accesses. Youth does not see or suspect drunkenness in the sparkling beverage, which quickens all its susceptibilities of joy. The invalid does not see it in the cordial, which his physician prescribes, and which gives new tone to his debilitated organs. The man of thought and genius detects no palsying poison in the draught, which seems a spring of inspiration to intellect and imagination. The lover of social pleasure little dreams, that the glass which animates conversation will ever be drunk in solitude, and will sink him too low for the intercourse in which he now delights. Intemperance comes with noiseless step and binds its first cords with a touch too light to be felt. This truth of mournful experience should be treasured up by us all, and should influence the habits and arrangements of domestic and social life in every class of the community."
The force of pernicious example, in the undue iudulgence in sensual luxury by those who occupy the higher places of society, is well illustrated, and the want of self-respect induced among the laboring poor, by making mere wealth the object of worship, and the measure of a man's worth, happily exemplified in the succeeding paragraphs.
In discussing the measures most likely to arrest the causes of intemperance, the most important are considered to be, the putting in action among the poor the means of intellectual, moral, and religious improvement - the cultivation of a more fraternal intercourse than now exists between the more and less improved portions of the community - the spreading of a higher education among the lower classes, and a general system of ministry to the poor. The evils of too much labor, and the absence of means of innocent pleasure, are well enforced and pointed out. In relation to the latter, Dr. Channing justly remarks:
“I have said, a people should be guarded against temptation to unlawful pleasures by furnishing the means of innocent ones. By innocent pleasures I mean such as excite moderately; such as produce a cheerful frame of mind, not boisterous mirth; such as refresh, instead of exhausting the system; such as recur frequently, rather than continue long; such as send us back to our daily duties invigorated in body and in spirit; such as we can partake in the presence and society of respectable friends; such as consist with and are favorable to a grateful piety; such as are chastened by self-respect, and are accompanied with the consciousness, that life has a higher end than to be amused. In every community there must be pleasures, relaxations, and means of agreeable excitement; and if innocent ones are not furnished, resort will be had to criminal. Man was made to enjoy, as well as to labor; and the state of society should be adapted to this principle of human nature. France, especially before the revolution, has been represented as a singularly temperate country; a fact to be explained, at least in part by the constitutional cheerfulness of that people, and by the prevalence of simple and innocent gratifications, especially among the peasantry. Men drink to excess very often to shake of depression, or to satisfy the restless thirst for agreeable excitement, and these motives are excluded in a cheerful comipu
nity. A gloomy state of society, in which there are few innocent recreations, may be expected to abound in drunkenness, if opportunities are afforded. The savage drinks to excess, because his hours of sobriety are dull and unvaried, because, in losing the consciousness of his condition and his existence, he loses little which he wishes to retain. The laboring classes are most exposed to intemperance, because they have at present few other pleasurable excitements. A man, who, after toil has resources of blameless recreation, is less tempted than other men to seek self-oblivion. He has too many of the pleasures of a man, to take up with those of a brute. Thus the encouragement of simple, innocent enjoyments is an important means of temperance.'
Among these enjoyments, the writer classes the accomplishments and amusements of music, dancing, not at balls but in the private circle, recitations from works of genius and taste, etc.
We commend this Address to our readers, as every way worthy the literary and moral reputation of its accomplished author – and higher praise we could not yield it.
New-YORK REVIEW AND CHURCH QUARTERLY JOURNAL. Number One. pp. 250.
New-York: GEORGE W. HOLLEY.
New York will have good reason to be proud of this Quarterly, should the succeeding numbers fulfil the promise of the one before us. The editorial supervision of the work is confided to the Rev. C. S. HENRY, late of Bristol College, Penn.,a ripe scholar, possessing a mind of much fertility and force, and replete with various erudition. For reasons elsewhere stated, our notice of the work must be rather indical than full, or analytic.
The first article is upon Professor Tucker's Life of Jefferson. It is decidedly of the tomahawk and scalping-knife school; yet the weapons wear a beautiful polish, the hand of the operator is untremulous, and his course is 'due on. The author of the volumes under review will find the subject of his labors represented as an enemy to religion, compassing sea and land to make proselytes' to his political and religious faith ; as childishly sensitive to public opinion, however indifferently evinced; as possessed of an ardent self-love, and a vain-glorious spirit of boasting; as one insincere and unfaithful in his friendships, and actuated by sinister purposes; with a personal courage something this side of the heroic; and a mind visionary, deficient in originality, and remarkable rather for its activity than its accuracy - lacking mental discipline, logical precision, and the power of nice discrimination. His claim to the authorship of the Declaration of Independence is disputed — his labors in that worldrenowned production being alleged to have been plagiarised from the Mecklenburgh (N. C.) Declaration of Independence, and the Virginia Declaration of Rights. The end of this article is not yet. It will create a wide sensation — possibly crimination and recrimination.
Utilitarianism is the subject of the next article, in which the systems of Bentham and Paley are discussed with appropriate earnestness and force of deprecation. The review of Cox's life of Fletcher of Madeley we have not found leisure to peruse; not so, however, with that of Crabbe's Poetical Works, which is characterized by a true sense of the worth and beauty of that -- in some respects - second Goldsmith. A synopsis of the poet's early history is given, to illustrate the spirit of nature which pervades his works, the religious tendency of which is also made manifest, and the author defended from the charge sometimes brought against him of being an imitator of Pope. The