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vends* or pardoned rebels,) by ne. The consequences of this impruglecting to advance to their support; dent act of severity remain inscribed but he exerted himself to the utmost on the broad page of Ottoman history. to rally his flying troops, and narrow- The two brothers of the slaughtered ly escaped being taken prisoner in at- chief, who succeeded to his authority tempting to cover the retreat with a over their native tribe, instantly quitsmall corps which remained firm, is- ted the army, and returning to Syria suing his orders from a camel-litter, at the head of 30,000 men, openly as he was too weak to sit on horse. threw off their allegiance to the Porte, back. When all was irretrievably and commenced the geat revolt of lost, he mounted the foot soldiers who Syria, of which Cicala was singularly were still with him on the baggage- unfortunate in being thus the author, dromedaries, and thus succeeded, with as his punishment of the firaris at two thousand men, in reaching Wan, the battle of Keresztes had previously whither the wrecks of the routed army led to the rebellion of Anatolia. The had preceded him. Among the other latter insurrection, indeed, had never leaders here assembled, he found Jan. been completely suppressed: though poulad-Hassan, a powerful Koordish the removal of the two original leaders chief whom he had a short time before had for a time stifled its progress, nominated to the pashalikt of Aleppo, it speedily revived under Kalenderand who, having heard of the defeat of Oghlu and his lieutenants, who were the grand army when on his march at even at this time devastating the prothe head of the Syrian contingent to vinces along the shores of the Ægean; join it, had retrograded to Wan, and and the communication into which there waited the arrival of the com- they speedily entered with the insurmander-in-chief. Though warned of gents of Syria, kindled throughout the his danger from the wrath of the se- Asiatic dominions of the Porte the raskier, exasperated by his recent flames of a civil war which, after suboverthrow-Jan-poulad replied, with sisting through nearly the whole reign the characteristic pride of a Koord, of Ahmed, was at last only quenched that so far from his having any punish- by the extermination of the vanquishment to apprehend, Cicala would not ed party. But the history of this even dare to have him awakened if struggle does not belong to the life of he heard that he was asleep! and in Cicala, whose eventful career was now his first interview, he boldly claimed drawing to a close. The defeats which credit for having saved so large a he had sustained, and the apprehenforce from sharing the fate of the sion of the consequent downfal of his rest of the army. But the fierce tem- interest at the Porte, weighed heavily per of Cicala, inflamed to fury by his on his proud spirit, and aggravated misfortunes, could little endure to be the malady under which he had been further chafed by the haughty bearing previously suffering ; and on the reof the Koord, who fearlessly retorted treat from Wan to Diarbekir, which the vehement reproaches with which the proximity of the Persians and he was assailed for his delay in re- the insubordination of his remaining pairing to headquarters, till the seras- troops had rendered necessary, “he kier, yielding to the impulse of his died," says Naima, “ of a fever, which anger, ordered the head of Jan-poulad the thoughts of his misfortunes had to be struck off in front of his tent; occasioned.” The Portuguese De -a sentence which was immediately Govvea, who was then present as an executed.

envoy in the Persian camp, states, less

* " It is remarkable that those who fell in these actions were, for the most part, those who had been very lately engaged in rebellion against the Porte, but who were now, by the retributive justice of Providence, made to wash off their guilt in fountains of blood !”

+ The power of appointing and changing the governors exceeded the ordinary powers of a Seraskier, but it appears to have been specially conferred on Cicala. The nomination of Jan-poulad, the chief of a native tribe, to a government, was a direct violation of established usages, and is commented upon as such by Turkish writers.

# Von Hammer places his death Dec. 5, A. D. 1605, corresponding to the 21st of Hajeb, Anno Hegiræ, 1014. Naima says that he died on the 21st of Dhul-Hajja in the same year, which would be in April, 1606; but this is probably an oversight, as he certainly died in the winter after his defeat.

probably, that having information of life, in fact, is an epitome of the pethe disgrace which was about to over- riod of transition between the palmy take him from Constantinople, he an- state in which his first entrance on ticipated the arrival of the Sultan's the page of history finds the Ottoman mandate by poisoning himself with the power, and the scene of division and powder of diamonds ; but suicide was gradual decay which was commencing neither in accordance with the cha. at his death ; and in the events which racter of Cicala, nor with the practice introduced this change, the actions of of the Moslems in any age; and there no individual fill a more prominent can be little doubt that the story ori- part than his. In military capacity ginated in the reluctance of the monk and undaunted personal courage he to describe this dreaded enemy of both was surpassed by no Turkish general the Persians and the Christians as of his time; but the bad fortune which dying by a natural death.

marked the close of his career, has The character of this famous rene- drawn upou him the severe animadgade is sufficiently pourtrayed in his versions of the Ottoman historians ; actions. On the fiery temperament and Naima, whose work has been so and enterprising genius of an Italian, often quoted, sums up his character by he had engrafted the obstinacy of declaring, “ that his avarice knew no purpose and disregard of bloodshed in bounds, and that his continually chanthe execution of his designs which dis.. ging governors from one place to antinguish his adopted country ; but the other, as in the case of Jan-poulad, excess to which he carried this inflex- whom he made governor of Aleppo ibility was better adapted to the pre- contrary to the usages of the empire, ceding age than to that in which he was productive of more evils than he lived, and occasioned many misfor. can mention." De Govvea, on the tunes both to himself and the empire. contrary, declares that the death of Accustomed in his early youth to see this great general, who was dreaded military subordination enforced upon alike for his prowess and for his inveboth soldiers and officers by the com- terate hostility to those of a different manding genius of the great Soliman, faith, was hailed as a joyful event both he refused to adapt himself to the re- by the Christians in Turkey, and by fractory and tumultuous spirit which the foreign enemies of the Porte ;crept in among the spahis and jani. " but," adds the monk, “ God is like zaries during the succeeding reigns, a merciful father to his children, and and which required rather to be guid- is ever wont to break and destroy the ed by tact and soothed by concession, instruments of punishment which he than curbed by rigid severity. His has used to correct them !"





Thou Standard of Kings !-in the blue evening light
The wave of thy folds never flash'd on my sight
With a pomp more majestic—thy Lion his brow
Never lifted in thunder more fulgent than now ;-

Than now, when, beneath the sweet June-scented wind
That flings thy wide purple abroad unconfined,
I can shout to the skies, while up-gazing at thee,

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Wave on, then, in triumph !_Red Murder display'd
His hand bared for slaughter in vain in thy shade;
The God in whose cause through the battle thou'st been
A war-star for ages, protected thy Queen.

In vain to the vultures of treason she wore
Her empire's pure ermine all guiltless of gore;
In vain, 'neath the sway of their cloudless-eyed child,
In peace the blue seas of the universe smiled.

Nor to her did the rose and the bridal avail,
Nor that cheek with Love's coming solicitude pale,
Nor the watch kept by freemen, wherever she moved,
Round the Hope of the Islands—the Crown's and the Loved !

By that porch rear'd by Triumph to Peace, 'twas decreed
That the Dove of the crime-deluged nations should bleed ;
And once more, in its terrible shadow, Whitehall,
Where the tyrant once fell, see the Merciful fall.

Sharp and clear the bolt flashes ! -Ha! well may the blood
To thy brow, young Saxe-Coburg, flush out in a flood
Up!-another Fieschi sheds life like a river-
Thy Bride's with Navarre and De Berri for ever.*

Go, Freedom, bereaved, o'er the West's mighty water;
Shriek out to the winds for thy sceptreless daughter ;
Back the wheels of decrepit Oppression are whirl'd,
To rivet his shackles again on the world !


-false as the heart was the hand,--and if on
In safety the righteous, though regal, has gone,
To thee be the praise and the gratitude solely,
Lord God of Sabaoth, the Holy, the Holyl-

Let not Councils confine to one day our emotion :-
Oh, long as her kingdoms are bulwark'd by ocean,
Her people shall hymn the puissance divine
That spared their land's Lily, the last of her line !

Proud Banner-ay, well may thy blazonry shake!
That shout would the marble magnificence break
Of yon sleepers whose lances were lightning of old
When thy blaze over Cressy and Agincourt rollid !

And now with that shout while the green earth is ringing,
And unharmed the knightly and noble are bringing
The Sea-Kings' descendant exultingly back,
With no trumpets but those of the heart in her track,-

The Minstrel, retouching the harp left unstrung
Since its chords with her bridal's high brilliancy rung, t
Joins the peans to thee raised by lofty and lowly,
Lord God of Sabaoth-the Holy, the Holy !

* Henry the Great (of Navarre), like his unfortunate descendant, fell by the stroke of the assassin,

| Vide Blackwood's Magazine for March 1840.



Having, in a former article, attempt- and those of the Indian and Teutonic ed to explain, and illustrate by familiar nations give it also a place, though a or forcible examples, the feelings by place, perhaps, of less prominence and which personification is prompted, we importance. proceed to consider some of the prin- It is worth while to notice some of cipal objects on which it may be most the more curious fables, by which the successfully employed.

natural phenomena of these heavenly It was impossible that the eye either bodies have been arrayed in a pal. of poetry or of superstition could be pable and living shape. turned to the heavens, and could behold That Osiris, though also, perhaps, the brightest corporeal reflections of the. embodying other and profounder imaDivine effulgence, without conveying ginations, was, partially at least, a to the heart those feelings of awe, ad- personification of the sun, as Isis promiration, and love, which so strongly bably was of the moon, seems to adtend to invest their objects with per- mit of little doubt; and the Egyptian sonality. Accordingly, in most sys. festival which celebrated the supposed tems of mythological religion, the sun loss and recovery of their god, reand moon appear to have held an emi. ferred, as it is thought, to the retreat nent place under various and manifold and return of the sun before and after forms of deification. In the Greek the winter solstice. The same reli. and Roman pantheons we meet not gious rite, with the same meaning, exonly with Helios and Selené, Sol and tended into Phænicia, and ultimately Luna, as the avowed impersonations into Greece. Thammuz, or Adonis, of the great lights of heaven, but with was the altered name under which the many other divinities who are types of great source of light and joy was the same luminaries, or of the prin- lamented by the Phænician maidens, ciples involved in their essence. Apollo as annually suffering an apparent deand Artemis, Janus and Diana, Bacchus cline of his power that seemed to and Ceres, have been respectively threaten dissolution, though soon sucunited together, as representing those ceeded by a glad revival and restorglorious powers which are set on high ation. We all remember Milton's al. to rule over the day, the night, and lusion to that ceremony, of which the the year, and to diffuse life, and plenty, licentious and idolatrous perversions and gladness through the habitations had infected even the house of Ju. of men. A tendency of a similar kind dah :seems, at least latterly, to have con. verted the heroic Hercules, with his

“ Thammuz came next behind, twelve labours, into a shadow of the

Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured god of day in bis progress through the

The Syrian damsels to lament his fate, twelve divisions of the zodiac. The

In amorous ditties all a summer's day:

While smooth Adonis from his native rock ancient Persians paid homage to the Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood sun under the name of Mithras, inter- of Thammuz yearly wounded : the love preted we believe to mean, the Great

tale One-as appearing to the vulgar to be

Infected Sion's daughters with like heat ; the manifested form, and to the intel.

Whose wanton passions in the sacred ligent to be the most impressive image, porch of the true Godhead. The Egyptian Ezekiel saw,* when, by the vision led, and Syrian systems, were in a great His eye survey'd the dark idolatries degree founded upon the same basis ; Of alienated Judah."

Vos, Oʻclarissima mundi
Lumina, labentem cælo quæ ducitis annum,
Liber et alma Ceres."- Virgil, Georgic. i. 5.
" Ye glorious lights of life! that guide on high
The gliding year's glad progress through the sky,

Bacchus and bounteous Ceres!".
† Ezek, viii. 14, et seq.

bat ;

The moral of this tale seems to have of polish'd ivory was the covering found a fainter echo on the shores of wrought; Greece, where the voice of fancy The matter vied not with the sculptor's added its own inventions, or its appli- thought; (!) cations of historical tradition to the Por in the portal was display'd on high, original metaphor. Venus, a type of (The work of Vulcan) a fictitious sky; nature, or of the fertile earth, still la. À waving sea the inferior earth embraced, mented annually the death of Adonis ;

And gods and goddesses the water but his revival seems generally to bave

graced." been lost sight of, and, according to The day-god himself is well reprethe story adopted by Ovid, he was sented, and encircled with an approconverted into a flower. But traces of priate train of attendants. the original import of the fiction are to

Purpureâ velatus veste sedebat be found in other versions of it, which

In solio Phæbus, claris lucente smadivided the possession of Adonis be

ragdis.* tween Venus and Proserpine, giving

A dextrâ lævâque Dies, et Mensis, et hiin to each of them for six months in

Annus, the year; a distribution which can

Seculaque, et positæ spatiis æqualibus scarcely be considered as unconnected

Hora : with the annual variations of the sun's

Verque novum stabat, cinctum florente apparent orbit.

coronâ ; The manner in which the classical Stabat nuda Æstas, et spicea serta gerefabulists adapted the sun's diurnal journey to human conceptions, is familiar Stabat et Autumnus, calcatis sordidus uvis, to all in the Ovidian story of Phaeton; Et glacialis Hiems, canos hirsuta capillos." where the whole costume and demoan.

“ The God sits high exalted on a throne our of the solar god are depicted in Of blazing gems, with purple garments on; the most brilliant colours, and with the The Hours in order ranged on either hand, most plausible consistency of contriv. And Days and Months and Years and

We may be allowed to extract Ages stand. some passages from it, which aro most Here Spring appears with flowery chaplets pertinent to our prosent discussio.2,

bound; though we wish we could subjoin a Here Summer in her wheaten garland translation less pointless and prosaic

crown'd; than that oi Addison. The descrip

Here Autumn the rich trodden grapes bea tion of the sun's palace is like a vision smear; from the Arabian nights :

And hoary Winter shivers in the rear." “ Regia solis erat sublimibus alta co- Thereception of Phaeton by bis ce. lumnis

lestial father contains a trait which Clara micante auro flammasque imitante has often been admired as natural and pyropo :

pleasing, if it do not rather belong to Cujus ebur nitidum fastigia summa tenebat; the category of “pretty." Argenti bifores radiabant lumine valvæ. Materiam superabat opus; nam Mulciber

“ Dixerat. At genitor circum caput illic

omne mi tes Æquora celârat, medias cingentia terras,

Deposuit radios, propiusque accedere Terrarumque orbem, cælumque quod im

jussit.” minet orbi,

The tender sire was touch'd with what he Cæruleos habet unda Deos."


And flung the blaze of glories from his “ The sun's bright palace on high columns

head; raised,

And bid the youth advance.-With burnish'd gold, and flaming jewels blazed;

The description given by Sol of his The folding gates diffused a silver light, daily progress through the heavens, And with a milder gleam refresh'd the can scarcely be called sublime, besight;

cause it is framed on a principle the


Compare this with Milton's still more glowing description, and remember that Ovid was a favourite with him :

“ High on a throne of royal state, which far

Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind,
Or where the gorgeous East, with richest hand,
Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold,
Satao exalted sate,"

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