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their religion, anxiety gave way to hope, and, when at last all had returned, to joyful and wondering certainty. Not one case of sickness had occurred, and not an individual had lost his religion, or brought disgrace on his profession. So quiet, orderly, and decorous, was the conduct of the men while in Ireland, that it was remarked on in one of the Dublin journals. Their behaviour won the admiration of all classes and denominations; and our dear brethren were declared to be an honour to England and to Cornwall. They describe very graphically the calm summer evenings in Dublin-Bay, when they had shot their nets, and the voice of prayer and praise began to ascend from boat after boat, till the Bay was vocal with the sounds of devotion.
The present autuinn has been a time of severe trial. The Irish fishery was very unsuccessful, and our own coasts have produced much below an average return. The consequence is, that many of our people are suffering the most abject poverty. But we hear no murmurs. Though themselves and families, in many cases, are literally wanting bread, poverty and hunger do not rob them of their spiritual joy. Our hearts have often been lately wrung within us, when we have heard the voice of praise from lips through which nothing but cold water had passed for the day, and have seen the smile of content and gratitude on faces pinched and haggard with hunger. These excellent people believe that their sufferings are part of their Heavenly Father's discipline. They are thankful for having entirely escaped the ravages of pestilence; and, deep as is their poverty, and distressingly dreary as are their prospects for the ensuing winter, they are calmly trusting in God. May the great Being, in whose hand are the inhabitants of the deep, grant that our suffering brethren may soon “enclose a great multitude of fishes !” But what a testimony to the reality and blessedness of the revival is their present attitude in so severe a trial ! While our hearts bleed over their sufferings, we cannot but glorify the grace of God in their fortitude and resignation.
Such is some outline of our case. Who will not praise the Lord for a work like this? Who will say that the glory of Methodism has departed, or that the former days were better than the present? The review of the facts above-stated fills us with humiliation at our own unworthiness to be engaged in a work like this ; but with joy unspeakable and full of glory, at the making bare of God's HOLY ARM. In numberless instances, He has made us feel that it is His work, and His alone ; and to Him, OF WHOM, AND THROUGH WHOM, AND TO WHOM, ARE ALL THINGS, BE GLORY FOR EVER ! AMEN.
John H. JAMES. Penzance, November 13th, 1849.
LIFE IN JERUSALEM.*
We were permitted to pass two full months in Jerusalem, from the nineteenth of March to the nineteenth of May, from Wednesday in Passion week, to Trinity Sunday, the end of the festival-half of the church year, and were able to become acquainted with it under its various aspects. It exhibited in March the barrenness of winter; in April, the mountains and valleys shone with the freshest green, and the town was full of pilgrims;
* From “ SINAI AND GOLGOTHA.”
in May it was again quiet, and the summer heat began to mar the beauty of the spring.
The climate does not considerably differ from that of the south of Europe, or of Rome, excepting that the heat of summer is much more oppressive, as the rain is almost entirely confined to the winter season. These rains generally come westward from the sea : thus our Lord said, “When ye see a cloud rise out of the west, straightway ye say, There cometh a shower.” (Luke xii. 54.) It is precisely thus, and the east wind brings clear days again. The rains are most heavy in November and December, and continue to abate until the end of March ; the first are the “ former rains" of Scripture, and the others “the latter rains,” which refresh the ripening fruits of the field. The roads in the whole of the Promised Land are rendered so bad during the winter by the torrents of water, that travelling becomes extremely difficult; but these rains are the cause of the fruitfulness of the land, and furnish the adequate supply of water for the town. It is singular that there are only two fountains in Jerusalem, the fountains of Mary and of Rogel : the other supplies of water are, therefore, collected in cisterns, which receive the rain-water that streams from the flat or arched roofs of the houses. There are also large pools filled with water from the surrounding mountains, or by means of canals, or aqueducts. The largest is the aqueduct leading from Solomon's pool near Bethlehem to the temple. There is a remarkable well under the temple; and besides the Upper and Lower Gihon Pools, the Pool of Hezekiah and that of Siloam, there are others near or within the town, two by the gate of Stephen, and one by the Jaffa gate. All these contrivances rendered it possible always to provide Jerusalem with water, even when the population was densest, and the town most closely besieged; and while the besiegers famished with thirst, and famine prevailed in the town, we never hear of distress for water. Now that the water-courses and pools have fallen to decay, and the cisterns are neglected, the heat of the summer often brings with it the greatest suffering : for, from the beginning of April to the end of October, no rain falls; and, should the winter be drier than usual, great distress is experienced. While we were there, the smaller cisterns of the poor were exhausted even in May. April is, therefore, the happiest time for Jerusalem ; in May, the hot south wind generally blows, and the summer gives to everything a look of barrenness and dryness. There is more sickness in Jerusalem than in any other part of Syria : it is the most unhealthy place, and fever and plague here demand the largest number of offerings.
The population has recently been computed at seventeen thousand : five thousand Mohammedans; two thousand five hundred eastern, and a thousand western, Christians; and about eight thousand Jews. The general mode of living partakes of the poor and simple character of the East : the Europeans only, after the example of the English, preserve their home life, with all the articles of luxury it requires. They have lately established three hotels, in which good accommodation is offered at a moderate price. During the absence of Mr. Nicolayson, we spent the last week of our stay in the excellent inn of a German Jew, near the Damascus gate. The Europeans always continue to wear their former dress; but the German Jews are generally attired by their orthodox countrymen, soon after their arrival, in the Eastern robe. All kinds of commerce stand at the lowest point. The bazaars are much inferior to those of other large towns in Syria, and only furnish the few necessaries required by the inhabitants and the Bedouins; while the markets are supplied by the farmers of the neighbouring places. There are hardly any manufactories except for silk; workmanship is known only in its simplest form, and European articles de not find an easy sale among the Arabs. At the Eastern festival the market was enlivened by pilgrims; but their purchases chiefly consisted of the souvenirs prepared by the Christians from olive wood, mother of pearl, and the black stone found by the Dead Sea. All this arises from the indolence of the Arabs, who only care for the passing moment, and never think of doing anything for the future. The government exercises no salutary influence, as each Pasha only seeks his own advantage during the probably short time of his administration, and therefore is not likely to exert himself for the good of the country.
Fear and anxiety fill the inhabitants; for the power of the Turkish Pasha is very inconsiderable, of which we were convinced by a striking instance that occurred during our sojourn. The notorious Sheikh Abu Gosch, who is at the head of a large party in the country, had murdered a governor placed by the Porte ; and the Pasha of Jerusalem sent for a reinforcement from Beyrout as a protection against him. The troops reached Jaffa, but did not venture to proceed through the residence of Abu Gosch, until the Sheikh, against whom they were ordered, sent them a convoy. The Turkish military afterwards entered Jerusalem with drums and fifes. “ There is no king in Israel ; every man does that which is right in his own eyes.” (Judges xxi. 25.) There are, therefore, daily reports of insurrections among the chiefs, or inroads of the Bedouins. Nothing remains for the inhabitants, and for travellers, but to affect, or to buy, a good understanding with the Bedouins.
It is impossible to mistake the curse resting on the town. But, nevertheless, it is still "set in the midst of the nations.” (Ezek. v. 5.) Lying between Europe and Africa upon the boundaries of sia, it forms the central point of the world's history. All the great movements among the nations, from the expedition of the Egyptian Pharaohs to Napoleon, have been directed towards the Holy City. And now, the gaze of all the world is again turned towards this small and unimportant point. Pilgrims stream to it from east and west, and the number of travellers annually increases. All the principal churches of the world have their places of worship and their services here. The great powers emulously send their consuls with outward state, to a little town distant from the sea, and without trade or traffic. The mightiest rulers seek to excel each other in their presents to Jerusalem. Prussia's King has made a mighty beginning; England continues to found extensive institutions; France presents itself as the protector of the Romish Church ; Austria adorns the clergy with goldembroidered garments; and Russia's Emperor, by sending treasures of gold and silver, seeks to outdo the other powers. Half of the inhabitants of Jerusalem again consists of Jews, and an elected band of Israel's sons tarries in their midst. Should we not recognise in this sign of the times the fulfilment of the promise ?—“ The sons of strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee. Whereas thou hast been forsaken and hated, so that no man went through thee, I will make thee an eternal excellency, a joy of many generations.” (Isaiah lx. 10, 15.) Is it not a sign that “the Lord buildeth Zion, and appeareth in His glory?” (Psalm cii. 16.)
On the holy evening before Whitsuntide we ascended the hill on the north-west of the town. The host of pilgrims had vanished, and stillness reigned in Zion. The heaven was covered with clouds, and a sultry south wind blew towards us an oppressive heat. The mountains of Moab stood out gloomily, and the hills around were barren. But the summit of Mount Olivet shone verdantly. A believing son of Israel wandered alone on the declivity of Mount Zion. The prophecy will yet be fulfilled : “ Though it tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come.” (Hab. ii. 3.)
THE REV. CHARLES WESLEY.* By the valuable labours of Mr. Jackson, biographical and editorial, Charles Wesley is at length brought before the church and the world far more completely than was ever the case previously. Not only are we now enabled to see the man himself, his principles, his character, and his history ; but the true nature of the relations in which he stood to the Wesleyan societies may be distinctly ascertained. Of those societies, indeed, his brother was the chief Founder ; but in this work of spiritual edification he was his brother's confidential and most affectionate and laborious coadjutor. Their fraternal affection was remarkable, and presents a spectacle as exemplary as it is delightful. In reference to the ultimate object of their ministerial labours they were always perfectly agreed. Their life, and all the talents they possessed, were devoted to the work of promoting the eternal, by means of the present, salvation of men. Nor did they differ as to the way in which they were to seek the accomplishment of their lofty designs. Both said, -and their trumpet gave forth no uncertain sound, “ By grace are ye saved through faith.” And while they persevered in this enunciation with unswerving and unbroken consistency to the end of their lives, with equal wisdom and care did they guard against those Antinomian tendencies to which the misconceptions of some and the corruptions of others have given rise in various periods of the history of the church, giving occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, and leading some of His mistaken servants to supply an adulterated Gospel as the remedy. For a time and by some they were misrepresented and opposed because they distinctly traced the issues of living faith into practical holiness, repeating with the Apostle, “ This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, That they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works.” To the holy Scriptures as the supreme and perfect rule of both faith and practice, in comparison with which the canons and decrees of councils of fallible men were as nothing, they never failed to direct all who heard them. They always asserted that opinions, however correct, constituted by themselves no part of true religion. But by none were the great truths of catholic, evangelical orthodoxy inore strenuously maintained. In setting forth “ the doctrine which
* 1. The Life of the Rev. Charles Wesley, M.A., sometime Student of Christ Church, Oxford : comprising a Review of his Poetry ; Sketches of the Rise and Progress of Methodism; with Notices of contemporary Events and Characters. By Thomas Jackson. Two vols., 8vo., pp. xvi. 592; viii, 578. John Mason.
2. Memoirs of the Rev. Charles Wesley, M.A. ; comprising Notices of his Poetry; of the Rise and Progress of Methodism; and of contemporary Events and Characters : being an Abridgment of his Life in Two Volumes, 8vo. By Thomas Jackson. Royal 18mo., pp. xv, 500. John Maon.
3. The Journal of the Rev. Charles Wesley, M.A., sometime Student of Christ Church, Oxford. To which are appended Selections from his Correspondence and Poetry. With an Introduction and Occasional Notes. By Thomas Jackson. Two vols. Royal 18mo., pp. xlvi, 466; vi, 494. John Mason.
is according to godliness,” they not only affirmed the Trinity in unity, but magnified the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, in their respective offices in the wondrous economy of human redemption. By none was the melancholy truth of original sin, in its derived guilt and depravity, taught more clearly ; by none the universal love of God to a fallen world more impressively declared. Truly might they cry, throughout the whole of their active life, “For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe.” They who have benefited by the labours of such men, though now it be only intermediately, may well be called to “ remember" them who spake unto their fathers the word of the Lord, and to attend to the exhortation, “ Whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation ; Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever."
The completion of Mr. Jackson's design, in the publication of Mr. Charles Wesley's “ Journal,” (with which he has connected soine valuable specimens of his poetry hitherto existing only in manuscript,) affords us the opportunity of bringing before our readers the subjects to which the volumes refer. Charles Wesley deserves to be as well known to us as his brother John. Had he done nothing else for Methodism, for his hymns it will be his debtor throughout all generations. He has furnished its followers with a series of liturgical services in verse, combining orthodoxy in doctrine, with clearness, depth, and comprehensiveness of spiritual experience. In the exercises of religion while they live, public, social, or private, and in the triumphs of their final victory when they come to die, their feelings are expressed in the accurate and glowing language of Charles Wesley. Had he not been a religious poet, his lucid and energetic versifieation would have won for him a place with Dryden and Prior. He belongs, in fact, to that class of great men to whom the world will not (perhaps cannot) do justice, although of such “ the world is not worthy." It behoves the church to supply the deficiency, not indeed for the purpose of eulogizing man, but of glorifying God. In relation to Charles Wesley this is to be done by pointing out his instrumental connexion with that spiritual work by which the Redeemer's kingdom is promoted, and his fitness for such instrumentality by the peculiar gifts with which he was endowed, and the beneficial effects resulting from his exemplary fidelity. Nor is God less to be honoured in that holy and marvellous Providence which often overrules for good even the mistakes into which His servants may fall, restraining them within Jimits beyond which they might have been positively injurious, and so counteracting them when thus limited as that they shall, through Divine ordination and direction, issue in beneficial results : just as the disturbances among the planets of the solar system occasioned by the ever-changing forms of mutual attraction are so adjusted as to secure the perpetual stability of the whole.
Before we enter on the consideration of the subjects suggested by the volumes on our table, a few brief observations are due to the volumes themselves.
The Preface to the two volumes of the larger “ Life” is dated in May, 1841. In these the author has given a full-length portrait of the subject of his biography; and as there are paintings which irresistibly convey to the beholder, from that evident naturalness which all understand, but few are able to describe, that they really do give “ a good likeness," so, unless we are very much mistaken, will all who are capable of forming a judg