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The Preacher declares that All Things are Vanity 1 :

the son of David, king in Jeru- travail that God hath given to the salem.

sons of men to be exercised there2 Vanity of vanities, saith the with. 14 I have seen all the works Preacher; vanity of vanities, all is that are done under the sun; and, vanity. 3 What profit hath man of behold, all is vanity and 4 a striving all his labor wherein he laboreth after wind. 15 That which is crooked under the sun? 4 One generation cannot be made straight; and 5 that goeth, and another generation com- which is wanting cannot be numeth; but the earth abideth for ever. bered. 16 I communed with mine 5 The sun also ariseth, and the sun own heart, saying, Lo, I have gotgoeth down, and hasteth to its place ten me great wisdom above all that where it ariseth. 6 The wind goeth were before me 7 in Jerusalem ; yea, toward the south, and turneth about my heart 8 hath had great experiunto the north; it turneth about con ence of wisdom and knowledge. 17 tinually in its course, and the wind And I applied my heart to know returneth again to its circuits. 7 All wisdom, and to know madness and the rivers run into the sea, yet the folly: I perceived that this also sea is not full; unto the place whither was a striving after wind. 18 For the rivers go, thither they go again. in much wisdom is much grief; and 8 3 All things are full of weariness; he that increaseth knowledge inman cannot utter it: the eye is not creaseth sorrow. filled with hearing. S. "Thathenien 2 I said in my heart, Come now,

I will prove thee with mirth; hath been is that which shall be ; therefore enjoy 10 pleasure: and, and that which hath been done is behold, this also was vanity. 2 1 that which shall be done: and there said of laughter, It is mad; and of is no new thing under the sun. 10 Is mirth, What doeth it? 3 I searched there a thing whereof it may be said, in my heart how to cheer my flesh See, this is new? it hath been long with wine, my heart yet 11 guiding ago, in the ages which were before me with wisdom, and how to lay us. 11 There is no remembrance of hold on folly, till I might see what the former generations ; neither

shall it was good for the sons of men that there be any remembrance of the they should do under heaven 12 all latter generations that are to come, the days of their life. 4 I made me among those that shall come after. great works; I builded me houses; I

12 I the Preacher was king over Israel in Jerusalem. 13 And I ap- veration of spirit (and so elsewhere)

4 Or, a feeding on wind (see Hos. 12. 1) Or, plied my heart to seek and to search 5 Heb. defect. 0 Or, yea, more than all out by wisdom concerning all that

8 Heb. hath seen abundantly. 9 Or, and thou shalt enjoy

10 Or, good 1 Heb. Koheleth.

11 Or, holding its course 3 Or, All words are feeble

12 Heb. the number of days of their life.

7 Heb.over.

2 Or, torrents

The Vanity of Possessions, of Wisdom, and of Labor planted me vineyards; 5 I made me gotten. And how doth the wise gardens and parks, and I planted man die even as the fool ! 17 So I trees in them of all kinds of fruit; hated life, because the work that is 6 I made me pools of water, to wrought under the sun was grievous water therefrom the forest where unto me; for all is vanity and a trees were reared ; 7 I bought men- striving after wind. servants and maid-servants, and had 18 And I hated all my labor servants born in my house ; also I wherein I labored under the sun, had great possessions of herds and seeing that I must leave it unto the flocks, above all that were before me man that shall be after me. 19 And in Jerusalem; 8 I gathered me also who knoweth whether he will be a silver and gold, and the treasure of wise man or a fool? yet will he have kings and of the provinces; I gat rule over all my labor wherein I have me men-singers and women-singers, labored, and wherein I have showed and the delights of the sons of men, myself wise under the sun. This I musical instruments, and that of also is vanity. 20 Therefore I turned all sorts. 9 So I was great, and in about to cause my heart to despair creased more than all that were concerning all the labor wherein I before me in Jerusalem : also my had labored under the sun. 21 For wisdom 2 remained with me. 10 And there is a man whose labor is with whatsoever mine eyes desired I kept wisdom, and with knowledge, and not from them; I withheld not my with + skilfulness; yet to a man that heart from any joy; for my heart hath not labored therein shall he rejoiced because of all my labor; and 5 leave it for his portion. This also this was my portion from all my is vanity and a great evil. 22 For labor. 11 Then I looked on all the what hath a man of all his labor, and works that my hands had wrought, of the striving of his heart, wherein and on the labor that I had labored he laboreth under the sun? 23 For to do; and, behold, all was vanity all his days are but sorrows, and his and a striving after wind, and there travail is grief, yea, even in the was no profit under the sun.

night his heart taketh no rest. This 12 And I turned myself to behold also is vanity. wisdom, and madness, and folly : for 24 There is nothing better for what can the man do that cometh man than that he should eat and 3 after the king? even that which drink, and make his soul enjoy good hath been done long ago. 13 Then in his labor. This also I saw, that I saw that wisdom excelleth fofly, it is from the hand of God. 25 For as far as light excelleth darkness, who can eat, or who can have en14 The wise man's eyes are in his joyment, 8 more than I? 26 For to head, and the fool walketh in dark- | the man that pleaseth him God give ness: and yet I perceive that one eth wisdom, and knowledge, and joy event happeneth to them all. 15 but to the sinner he giveth travail, Then said I in my heart, As it hap- to gather and to heap up, that he peneth to the fool, so will it happen may give to him that pleaseth God. even to me; and why, was I then This also is vanity and a striving more wise?' Then said I in my after wind. hearts that tiuis also isevanity the 3 For everything there is a serfool, there is no remembrance for pose under heaven: 2 a time to be ever; seeing that in the days to bom, and a time to die; a time to come all will have been long for- plant, and a time to pluck up that 1 Or, concubines very many The meaning of

which is planted ; 3 a time to kill, the Hebrew is very uncertain.

4 Or, success

5 Heb. give. 3 Or, after the king, even him whom they made 6 Or, veration

7 Or, hasten thereto Or, after the king, in those 8 Acc. to Sept. and Syr., apart from him. rhich have been already done?

9 Or, matter

2 Or, stood by me

y long ago?

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Man's Wickedness, and Likeness to the Beast and a time to heal; a time to break | but as beasts. 19 For that which down, and a time to build up; 4 a befalleth the sons of men befalleth time to weep, and a time to laugh; beasts; even one thing befalleth a time to mourn, and a time to them: as the one dieth, so dieth dance; 5 a time to cast away stones, the other; yea, they have all one and a time to gather stones together; ( 7 breath; and man hath no preëmia time to embrace, and a time to re nence above the beasts: for all is frain from embracing; 6 a time to vanity. 20 All go' unto one place; seek, and a time to lose ; a time to all are of the dust, and all turn to keep, and a time to cast away; 7 a dust again. 21 Who knoweth the time to rend, and a time to sew; a spirit of man, whether it goeth time to keep silence, and a time to npward, and the spirit of the beast, speak; 8 a time to love, and a time whether it goeth downward to the to hate; a time for war, and a time earth? 22 Wherefore I saw that for peace. 9 What profit hath he there is nothing better, than that a that wołketh in that wherein he man should rejoice in his works; for laboreth? 10 I have seen the tra- that is his portion: for who shall vail which God hath given to the bring him buck to see what shall be sons of men to be exercised there after him? beautiful in a latimea de leche thanh 4 the oppressions that area come set leternity in their heart, yet so under the sun: and, behold, the that man cannot find out the work tears of such as were oppressed, and that God hath done from the begin- they had no comforter; and on the ning even to the end. 12 I know that side of their oppressors there was there is nothing better for them, power; but they had no comforter. than to rejoice, and a to do good so 2 Wherefore I praised the dead that long as they live. 13 And also that have been long dead more than the every man should eat and drink, and living that are yet alive; 3 yea, enjoy good in all his labor, is the 10 better than them both did I esteem gift of God. 14 I know that, what- | him that hath not yet been, who soever God doeth, it shall be for hath not seen the evil work that is ever: nothing can be put to it, nor done under the sun. anything taken from it; and God 4 Then I saw all labor and every hath done it, that men should fear 11 skilful work, that 12 for this a man before him. '15 3 That which is hath is envied of his neighbor. This also been long ago; and that which is to is vanity and a striving after wind. be hath long ago been: and God 5 The fool foldeth his hands to seeketh again that which is passed gether, and eateth his own flesh.

6 Better is a handful, 13 with quiet. 16 And moreover I saw' under ness, than two handfuls 13 with labor the sun, in the place of justice, that and striving after wind. wickedness was there; and in the 7 Then I returned and saw vanity place of righteousness, that wicked under the sun. 8 There is one that ness was there. 17 I said in my is alone, and he hath not a second ; heart, God will judge the righteous yea, he hath neither son nor brother; and the wicked; for there is a time yet is there no end of all his labor, there for every 5 purpose and for neither are his eyes satisfied with every work. 18 6 I said in my heart, riches. For whom then, saith he, It is because of the sons of men, that do I labor, and deprive my soul of God may prove them, and that they good? This

also is vanity, yea, it is may see that they themselves are

7 Or, spirit 8 Heb. of the sons of men. 1 Or, the world

2. Or, to get good 9 Or, that goeth

10 Or, better than they both is he that &.c. 5 Or, matter

11 Or, successful 6 Or, I said in my heart concerning the sons of

12 Or, it cometh of a man's rivalry with his men, It is that God &c.


18 Or, of

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3 Or, That which hath been is now
4 Heb. driven awal.

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Piety enjoined. False and True Use of Riches a sore travail. 9 Two are better | angry at thy voice, and destroy the than one, because they have a good work of thy hands? 7 For in the reward for their labor. 10 For if multitude of dreams there are vanithey fall, the one will lift up his fel- ties, and in many words: but fear low ; but woe to him that is alone thou God. when he falleth, and hath not an. 8 'If thou seest the oppression of other to lift him up. 11 Again, if the poor, and the violent taking two lie together, then they have a way of justice and righteousness warmth; but how can one be warm in 5a province, marvel not ‘at the alone? 12 And if a man prevail matter: for one higher than the against him that is alone, two shall high regardeth; and there are withstand him; an a threefold cord higher tha they. 9 6 Moreover is not quickly broken.

the profit of the earth is for all: the 13 Better is a poor and wise youth king himself is served by the field. than an old and foolish king, who 10 He that loveth silver shall not knoweth not how to receive admoni- be satisfied with silver; nor he that tion any more. 14 For out of prison loveth abundance, with increase : he came forth to be king; yea, even this also is vanity. 11 When goods in his kingdom he was born poor. increase, they are increased that eat 15 I saw all the living that walk them; and what advantage is there under the sun, that they were with to the owner thereof, save the bethe youth, the second, that stood up holding of them with his eyes? in his stead. 16 1 There was no end 12 The sleep of a laboring man is of all the people, even of all them sweet, whether he eat little or over whom he was: yet they that much'; but the fulness of the rich come after shall not rejoice in him. will not suffer him to sleep. Surely this also is vanity and a striv There is a grievous evil which ing after wind.

I have seen under the sun, namely, * 5 by

goest to the house of God; for to his hurt: 14 and those riches to draw nigh to hear is better than perish by evil 3 adventure; and if to give the sacrifice of fools: for he hath begotten a son, there is they know not that they do evil. nothing in his hand. 15 As he † 2 Be not rash with thy mouth, and came forth from his mother's womb, let not thy heart be hasty to utter naked shall he go again as he came, 2 anything before God; for God is and shall take nothing for his labor, in heaven, and thou upon earth: which he may carry away in his therefore 'let thy words be few. hand. 16 And this also is a griev3 For a dream cometh with a mul- ous evil, that in all points as he titude of 3 business, and a fool's voice came, so shall he go: and what with a multitude of words. 4 When profit hath he that he laboreth for thou vowest a vow into God, defer the wind ? 17 All his days also he not to pay it; for he hath no pleas- eateth in darkness, and he is sore ure in fools: pay that which thou vexed, and hath sickness and wrath. yowest. 5 Better is it that thou 18 Behold, 7that which I have shouldest not

vow, than

that seen to be good and to be comely thou shouldest vow and not pay. is for one to eat and to drink, and 6 Suffer not thy mouth to cause to enjoy, good in all his labor, thy flesh to sin; neither say thou wherein he laboreth under the sun, before the 4 angel, that it was an 8 all the days of his life which God error: wherefore should God be

5 Or, the state * Ch. 4. 17 in Heb. + Ch. 5.1 in Heb. 6 Or, But the profit of a land every way is a

1 0r, There is no end, in the mind of all the king that maketh himself servant to the fielă (or, people, to all that hath been before them; they is a king over the cultivated field) also se.

7 Or, that which I have seen :'it is good and 2 Or, a word

3 Or, travail + Or, messenger of God See Mal. 2. 7.

8 Heb, the number of the days.

comely for one &c.

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Vanity of Good Things which cannot be enjoyed hath given him: for this is his por- | increase vanity, what is man the tión. 19 Every man also to whom better? 12 For who knoweth what God hath given riches and wealth, is good for man in his life, all the and hath given him power to eat days of his vain life which he spend thereof, and to take his portion, and eth as a shadow? for who can tell a to rejoice in his labor - this is the man what shall be after him under gift of God. 20 For he shall not the sun? beugh remember the days of his life: 7 Achood namenia better than joy of his heart.

death, than the day of one's birth. 6 There is an evil which I have 2. It is better to go to the house of heavy upon men: 2 a man to whom of feasting: for that is the end of God giveth riches, wealth, and all men; and the living will lay it honor, so that he lacketh nothing to his heart. 3 Sorrow is better for his soul of all that he desireth, than laughter; for by the sadness yet God giveth him not power to of the countenance the heart is eat thereof, but an alien eateth it; made 8 glad. 4 The heart of the this is vanity, and it is an evil dis- wise is in the house of mourning; ease. 3 If a man beget a hundred | but the heart of fools is in the house children, and live many years, so of mirth. that the days of his years are many,

5 It is better to hear the rebuke but his soul be not filled with good of the wise,

than for a man to hear and moreover he have no burial; I the song of fools. 6 For as the say, that an untimely birth is better crackling of thorns under a pot, so than he: 4 for it cometh in vanity, is the laughter of the fool: this and departeth in darkness, and the also is vanity: 7 9 Surely extortion name thereof is covered with dark- maketh the wise man foolish; and a ness; 5 moreover it hath not seen bribe destroyeth the understanding. the sun 'nor known it; 2 this hath 8 Better is the end of a thing rest rather than the other: 6 yea, than the beginning thereof; and though he live a thousand years the patient in spirit is better than twice told, and yet enjoy no good, the proud in spirit. 9 Be not hasty do not all go to one place?

in thy spirit to be 10

angry; for 7 All the labor of man is for his 11 anger resteth, in the bosom of mouth, and yet the appetite is not fools. 10 Say not thou, What is filled. 8 For what advantage hath the cause that the former days the wise more than the fool? 3 were better than these? for thou what hath the poor man, that know- dost not inquire 12 wisely concerneth how to walk before the living? | ing this, 9 Better is the sight of the eyes

11 Wisdom 13 is as good as an inthan the wandering of the desire: heritance ; yea, more excellent is it this also is vanity and a striving for them that see the sun. 12 For after wind.

wisdom is a defence, even as money 10 4Whatsoever hath been, the is a defence; but the excellency of name thereof was given long ago; knowledge is, that wisdom preservand it is known what 5 man is; eth the life of him that hath it. neither can he contend with him 13 Consider the work of God: for that is mightier than he. 11 See- who can make that straight, which ing there are many 6 things that he hath made crooked? °14' In the

day of prosperity be joyful, and in 10r, neither had any knowledge

the day of adversity consider; yea, 2 Or, it is better with this than with the other 3. Or, or the poor man that hath understand

7 Heb. the number of the days. ing, in walking before the living

8 Or, better

9 Ör, For 10 Or, vexed 4 Or, Whatsoever he be, his name was given 11 Or, vexation 12 Heb. out of wisdom. him long ago, and it is known that he is man

13 Or, is good together with an inheritance, 5 Heb. Adam. See Gen. 2. 7. 6 Or, words I and profitable unto them 8c.

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