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476 § 377. or bloody sacrifices.
quently to the time of Moses, especially in the days of the kings, altars were multiplied, but they fell under suspicions, although some of them were perhaps sacred to the worship of the true God.
It is, nevertheless, true, that prophets, whose characters were above all suspicion, sacrificed, in some instances, in other places, than the one designated by the Laws, 1 Sam. 13: 8–14. 16:1–5. 1 Kgs. 18:21–40.
§ 377. OF bloody SACRIFICEs.
The victims, which alone could be offered in sacrifice, were animals of the ox-kind, sheep, and goats, jRsri, -pori; also turtle doves and young pigeons, p"on, Hi" "::. Lev. 1:2. 5: 7. 12: 6–8. 15:29. Num. 6: 10. In Leviticus 14: 4–7, the young pigeons are spoken of under the word, which is usually applied to birds generally, viz. Bones. Some of these animals were sacrificed by Abraham, Gen. 15: 9; and some were worshipped, as deities, by the Egyptians, Exod. 8: 22. Lev. 17: 7. Herod. II. 41–46. Wild beasts were not to be sacrificed; a fact, which suggests an explanation of the proverbial expressions, “to eat, even as thou eatest the roebuck and hart,” Deut. 12:15, 22. The animals to be slain for the holocaust were males, with the exception of the turtle doves and pigeons, in respect to which there was no distinction made between males and females. In sacrifices for sin, bullocks, goats, sheep, and turtle doves or young pigeons were offered according to the ability of the person, who offered them, and the greater or less aggravation of the sin, he might have committed. In sacrifices for trespass, the same animals were employed, with the exception of bullocks. In the eucharistical or thank-offering sacrifice, sheep, goats, and bullocks alone were slain, turtle-doves, and young pigeons being excluded from them. All the victims, excepting the doves and pigeons, must not be less than eight days old, nor more than three years. The sheep and goats, which were immolated, were commonly a year old; the bullocks three years old. All animals, that had any defect, the blind, lame, emasculated, or sick, were judged unfit to be sacrificed, because they indicated § 378, cEREMONIES AT THE or FERING of sacrifices. 477
a mind in the person, who brought them, not sufficiently reverential to God, Lev. 22:20–24. Malachi 1:8.
§ 378. CEREMONIES AT THE OFFERING of SACRIFICEs.
The ceremonies on such occasions were, as follows; I. The person, who offered the victim, presented it before God, i.e. led it before the altar in the court, with its head turned towards the door of the Sanctuary, no oth sopr, oth son Top of N, traggornoat to 689, Lev. 1: 3–9. 3: 1. 4: 14. comp. Rom. 12:1. II. The offerer placed his hand upon the head of the victim; a ceremony, which was practised by their rulers in behalf of the people generally, when the latter had committed any sin, which required an expiation by sacrifice. This ceremony, however, it is proper to remark, was omitted in respect to the turtle doves, and the young pigeons, Num. 27: 18, 23. Lev. 4: 15. 16:21. comp. 2 Chron. 29:23. The victim, by imposition of hands in this way, was substituted in the place of the person, who brought it to the altar, and suffered, (such was the symbolick meaning of the rite.) that punishment, which said person already deserved or would deserve, in case of transgression. That such was the meaning of this rite, viz. substitution, is manifest, not only in the case of him, who placed his hand upon the victim and confessed his sin, or trespass over it; not only in respect to the high priest, who transferred the sins of the people to the scape-goat by a like imposition of hands; but the ceremony evidently possessed the same significancy, when the Israelites placed their hands upon the Levites, by way of consecrating them to their sacred office. The Apostles retained the custom of laying on hands in the consecration of ministers to the service of the Church, signifying thereby the separation of such persons from the mass of the people, and their substitution in their own place. III. The victims, which were sacrificed for the people generally, were slain by the priests and Levites; those, which were sacrificed for individuals, were slain in ancient times by the persons, who brought them, but, in more recent periods, by the Levites, Lev. 1 : 5. 2 Chron. 29: 24, 34. Ezek. 6: 24. They were slain in the same place, where they stood, when hands were laid
478 $378. CEREMONIEs AT THE offering of sacrifices.
upon them, viz. the holocaust, and the sacrifices for sin and trespass, to the North, and the others, to the South of the altar. IV. The blood of the victim was received by the priest in a vessel for that purpose, called Pro, and was scattered at the foot and on the sides of the altar. The blood of sin-offerings was likewise placed upon the horns of the altar, and if they were of. fered for the whole people or for the high priest, it was sprinkled towards the veil of the Holy of holies, and, on the day of propitiation, on the lid of the Ark, and likewise on the floor before, the Ark. The blood was also placed upon the horns of the altar of incense; a ceremony, which was termed by the more ancient Jews nez expiation, but by those of later times, Horli, a gift, Lev. 4:7. 8:15, 16. Zech. 9:15. Num. 18:17. V. Anciently, the person, who brought the victim, when he had slain it, proceeded further, to flay, and to cut it in pieces, but, in later times, this was done, as has been already intimated, by the priests and Levites. In the time of Josephus, there were tables of marble, and columns in the Temple, expressly adapted to all the purposes of slaying and sacrificing. It should be remarked here, that the sacrifices for sin, and the holocaust for the people and the high priest, with the exception of those parts destined to be burnt upon the altar, were burnt whole, (i.e. without being cut up or the skin being taken off) out of the city, in the place where it was permitted, and was the practice to heap ashes together. Some victims were offered to God, sometimes before and sometimes after being slain, with certain ceremonies of a singular nature, which ceremonies at times were observed also at the presentation of the sacred loaves and wafers, and other consecrated gifts. One of the ceremonies, to which we allude, was denominated heaving, righ-r, Donn; the other waving, righ-r Flori; [and the offerings, which were presented in this way, were, accordingly, named either heave-offerings or wave-offerings,) Exod. 29:24, 27, 28. Lev. 7:30, 32, 34. 8:27, 9:21, 10:15. 14:12. 23:20. Num. 5:25. It is difficult to say precisely, what these ceremonies were, or whether, indeed, there was any difference at all between them, since the words, which express them, are sometimes interchang
§ 378... ceremonies AT THE of FERing of sacrifices. 479
ed with each other, Exod. 29: 24. comp. Exod. 29: 27. Exod. 29: 28, comp. Lev. 9:21.
It is most probable, that no-n means elevation, and that Hor, on the contrary, means iaying down or placing on the earth. But as what was elevated must have been let down again, these words may have been reciprocally used, for that reason, in a sense so broad, as to express, each of them at times, the same ceremony. The ceremony of heaving or waving, whatever might have been its precise nature, seems to have signified, that the gift or sacrifice was thereby presented, and was expressive likewise of a desire, that it might be acceptable to God.
VII. Meanwhile the priest heaped the wood upon the altar, placed it in order, and set it on fire. Other priests presently brought, and placed upon the burning fuel, the parts of the victim, which were to be burnt, viz. the whole of the burnt offering, when it was brought by an individual, but in case it was a burnt offering for the people and the high priest, or any other sacrifice, except the one just mentioned, only the fat, which covers the intestimes, anpo-ns no hys shrin; the fat, which is above the intestines, son-by-ps oriri ; the two kidneys with the fat adhering to them, prog -ps sorro-ns, nion; the smaller lobe of the
liver, Hazri og o nonion and the fai tail of the sheep, Exod. 29 : 13, 22. Lev. 3: 4, 10, 15. 4:9. 7: 3, 4, 8:26, 9: 9, 10, 19. All these parts of the sacrifice were prepared with pure salt, Exod. 30: 25. Lev. 2: 13, comp. Mark 9: 46. VIII. The rest of the flesh, when the sacrifice was a thankoffering, was given back to the offerer, who was expected to make a feast of it. With this exception, however, that the right shoulder, which was made a heave offering, and the breast which was made a wave offering, were assigned to the priests. When the sacrifices were sin or trespass offerings, and were not made for the people, as a collective body, nor for the high priest, the flesh belonged to the priests, who ate it in the court of the Tabernacle or Temple, Num. 18: 10, 11, 18. Lev. 10: 14.
480 § 379. conceaning BURNT-offerings.
§ 379. ConcerNING Holocausts of whole BURNT-offerings.
Holocausts, now, Holy, were sacrifices, in which the victims were wholly consumed. They were expiatory, were more ancient than any others, and were, for that reason, held in special henour. It was in consideration of these circumstances, that Moses gave precepts in regard to this kind of sacrifices first, Lev. 1: 3. Philo DE victim p. 838. Holocausts might be offered by means of the Hebrew priests, when brought by the heathen or those who had originated from another nation, such persons being unable to offer sin or trespass offerings, since this sort of sacrifices had particular reference to some neglect or violation of the Mosaic Law, by whose authority they did not acknowledge themselves bound. + It was remarked at the beginning of the section, that holocausts were expiatory, and we accordingly find, that they were offered, sometimes, for the whole people, for instance, the morning and the evening sacrifices; and, sometimes, by an individual for himself alone, either from the free impulse of his feelings, or in fulfilment of a vow, Ps. 51: 19. 66 : 13, 14. They were required to be offered under certain combinations of circumstances, pointed out in the Mosaic Laws, viz. by a Nazarite, who had been unexpectedly rendered unclean, or who had completed the days of his separation, Num. 6: 11–16; by those who had been healed of leprosy; and by women after child-birth, Lev. 12: 6, 8. The victims immolated at a holocaust were bullocks of three years old, goats and lambs of a year old, turtle doves, and young pigeons. Not only the parts, which were expressly destined for the altar, but also the other parts of the victims were burnt, as was stated at $378. V. VII. A libation of wine was poured out upon the altar. It was the practice among the Gentile nations, (an allusion to which occurs in Philipp. 2: 17 and 2 Tim. 4: 6.) to pour the wine out between the horns of the victims, which they immolated to their idols. The priest partially wrung or cut off the heads of the turtle doves and young pigeons, sprinkled the blood on the side of the altar, plucked out the feathers and the crop, and cast them to the East of the altar into the place for the reception of ashes, and placed the remainder, after having cleft or broken the wings, upon the fire, Lev. 1: 3–17.