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526 § 411. Moloc, Molec, MALcom, Mil.com.

in a box by Typhon and thrown into the Nile, was found by Isis at Byblos in Syria, was finally slain by Typhon, his body cut to pieces and his limbs scattered in every direction. Isis, however, collected his limbs together and buried them. These stories, respecting Osiris and Adonis, although quite dissimilar, were at last connected together. For in Syria the women spent the anniversery of Adonis’ death in much grief, while the Egyptian women spent that of Osiris in the same manner, and in both cases, the period of mourning was followed by a festival of joy; in Syria for Adonis returned to life, and in Egypt for the limbs of the dismembered Osiris collected. and buried. The Egyptians were in the habit on this occasion of writing an epistle, enclosing it in a box of the Papyrus, and throwing it into the sea. The account, enclosed therein, which was said to be wafted by water to Byblos, concerned the discovery and burial of the limbs of Osiris, but the inhabitants of Byblos interpreted it of the restoration of Adonis to life. • * In Syria this festival was held in the month TAMMUz or July, at which time the torrent of Adonis, having contracted a red colour from the earth, was thought to be tinged with the blood of Adonis, and at that time the grief of the women began. When this colour in the water was no longer perceivable, the return of Adonis to life was announced, and sorrow was converted into joy. The women when they mourned for Adonis were expected to shave their heads; in failure of which, they were bound to prostitute themselves to some stranger, and pay the price to the temple of Venus. This is the festival, which is spoken of in Ezekiel 8: 14, for Adonis in Syriack is called Tammuz.

§ 411. MoLoc, Molec, Malcom, Milcox.

Planets were worshipped under the name no so; for we find them in 2 Kings 23: 5, spoken of in connection with the sun and moon, and the horses and chariots, which were assigned to the Sun by the Mehestani. So that there is no doubt, that the seven. planets are meant; which, in the Zend-Avesta P. III. Dun-Dehesh & 5. p. 66, are represented, as being stationed for guards or

watches. Of these planets, Saturn, more than any others, was made an

§ 411. , MoLoc, Molec, MALcom, Milcom. 527

object of worship; in regard to whom a mythological story was prevalent, that he devoured his own offspring; a circumstance, of which indeed we have an intimation in the custom of offering to him children in sacrifice, which existed among the Canaanites, Phenicians, and Carthaginians, among which nations he was known under the various names of Moloc, Molec, Malcom, and Milcom, Eusebius, PRAEP. Evang. IV. c. 16. This monster of a deity was represented by a statue of brass, with arms extended, but declining towards the earth. The children to be offered to the god were placed upon his arms, and as their declination was considerable, the victims readily rolled off from them into a furnace placed below, and glowing with fire, Diodorus Sic. XX. 14. The offering up of children in this manner was very early forbidden by Moses, but they were sacrificed after his time, notwithstanding his injunctions on the subject, by Ahaz and by Manasseh. • , The word on to cause to pass through, and the phrase us; or, to cause to pass through the fire, are used in respect to human sacrifices in Deut. 12; 31. 18; 10. 2 Kgs. 16: 3. 21: 6. 2 Chron. 23: 3. 33: 6. These words are not to be considered, as meaning in these instances literally to pass through, and that alone. They are rather synonymous with anip to burn and rat to immolate, with which they are interchanged, as may be seen by an examination of Jer. 7: 31. 19: 5. Ezek. 16:20, 21. Ps. 106: 38. In the later periods of the Jewish kingdom, this idol was erected in the valley south of Jerusalem, viz. Ejiri "a or =in so "a, in the valley of Hinnom, and in the part'of said valley called Tophet, non, so named from the drums on, D"En which were beaten to prevent the groans and cries of children sacrificed, from being -heard, Jer. 7: 31, 32. 19: 6–14. Isa. 30: 33. 2 Kgs. 23: 10. The place was so abhorrent to the minds of the more recent Jews, that they applied the name Ge Hinnom or Gehenna to the place of torments in a future life. The word GEHENNA is used in this way, (viz. for the place of punishment beyond the grave,) very frequently in oriental writers, as far as India. Compare Wetsteins’ New Testament at Matthew 5: 5,

528 $ 413. OF TERA Phim.

§ 412. ConceñNING CHIUN AND REMPHAN.

The god Chius, joz, whose small Tabernacles, (resembling perhaps the small shrines of Diana mentioned Acts 19: 24.) were secretly carried about with them by the Hebrews in their journey through the Arabian wilderness, (Amos 5:26.) was no other than Saturn. As a confirmation of this, we observe, that the Ara

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jose; the Chaldaick is 73°2, which means just ; for the reign of
Saturn was celebrated for the exercise of justice.
The Alexandrine interpreter has rendered the Hebrew word
Chiun by the word Psugav, Psqov, Pauqav, which in the Coptick
dialect, is the name for Saturn, Della Valle's Travels P. I. p. 125.
The prophet Amos calls this god both a star and a king ; as in
fact Saturn was both a planet, and the king or idol-deity, who was
otherwise called Molec, Moloc, Milcom, and MAlcom. This double
character of Saturn, as a star in heaven and a monarch on earth,
may perhaps be recognized in the Hebrew words #422 and
#onos Annamelech and Adrammelech, (2 Kgs. 17:31) since it ap-
pears, that both of the deities thus named were worshipped by the
offering up to them of human sacrifices.
The Egyptians consecrated to Saturn the seventh day of the
week; hence Saturn is denominated by the Jews "rog, "No.
A CAABA is said to have been formerly consecrated to him at Mec-
ca, Pocoke, SPECIMEN HIST. ARAB. p. 140.

§ 413. OF TERaphim, Evelyn.

That Teraphim were images, sculptured in imitation of the human form, is evident from 1 Sam. 19: 13; and that they were household gods is clear also from Genesis 31: 19, 34, 35. 1 Sam. 19:13--17. 2 Kgs. 23:24. It appears from Ezekiel (ch. 21:21,) that responses were sought from them, the same as from Oracles. Compare Zech. 10: 2. Jud. 17: 5. 18: 5, 6, 14–20. Hosea 3:4. This is confirmed by 1 Sam. 15:23, where Teraphim are spoken of in connection with the arts of divination.

The etymology of the word coincides with this statement, for nonh according to Bar Bahlul means an inquirer, one, who asks. The name of this idol, when we consider, that it was first brought from Mesopotamia, Gen. 31: 19, is derived more naturally from

§ 414. or DAGoN. - 529

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Flyn, a Syriack word, than from the Arabicke 3 S Greek tgvgoro,

which is the derivation, proposed by Michaelis, who would make
the Teraphim the same as the Sileni.
He rests his hypothesis chiefly on Lev. 17: 7. The word
toxip hairy, which is there used, he supposes, is not to be ren-
dered goats, which in other places are denominated E°tz "ovip,
but SILENI i.e., apes or Satyrs, and for this reason more especially,
that the Hebrews, as is evident from other sources, would not of
course have sacrificed he-goats to she-goats. But granting that
the word in question should be rendered in the way he proposes,
still its identity with Teraphim is something, which is by no means
evident. On the contrary, it is evident,
I. That in the district of Mendesium in Egypt, both she-goats
and he-goats were considered sacred, and that a certain species of
the he-goat was worshipped with divine honours, Herodot. II.
46. Strabo p. 802. comp. Jablonsky PANTHEoN EGYPTI p. 279.
II. In Leviticus 17:3, it is not said, that the Hebrews sacrificed
she-goats to the Enoxip, as Michaelis seems to imagine; nor is
this passage to be compared necessarily with 17:7, where there
is nothing said about she-goats, as sacrifices.
III. Goats do not only appear under the unqualified Hebrew
word En-yip, in Lev. 16:9, 18, 20, as Michaelis himself has admit-
ted, but also in Lev. 4:24, 9:15, 2 Chron. 11:15. Dan. 8:21.
IV. That Teraphim were found only among barren women,
which is maintained by Michaelis, and brought in favour of his
argument, is refuted by many passages, which have been already
adduced. Further, the Teraphim mentioned Gen. 31: 19, 34, did
not belong to the unfruitful Rachel, but to Laban. Michal is the on-
ly barren woman mentioned, as possessing Teraphim, 1 Sam. 19:13.

§ 414. OF DAGon.

The sculptured image or representation of Dagon jiào (from 23 a fish) exhibited, as may still be seen on ancient coins, the appearance of a woman above, but of a fish below. (Compare the original German edition of this Work P. III. tab. XII. No. III.) This figure of the idol agrees quite well with what is said of it in 1 Sam. 5:4, 5, comp. Zeph. 1:9; since it lost in its fall upon the ground the head and hands; and only the stump, jiào or fish, was remaining.

530 - § 414. of DAgoN.

Dagon was the god of the Philistines, Jud. 16:23–26. 1 Sam. 5: 1–5. 1 Macc. 10: 83. Temples were erected in honour of this deity at Gaza, at Azotus, at Ascalon, as is Tclear both from Diodor. Sic. II.4. Herodotus I. 105. and from ancient coins; (see Michaelis alte Or. Bibl. VI. Th. S. 86–99.) and perhaps in some other cities of the Philistines, who formerly emigrated from Egypt, where certain fishes were worshipped with divine honours. This deity is not to be confounded with the Ashtaroth, in whose temple the Philistines (1 Sam. 31: 10) deposited the armour of Saul. It is true, that in the parallel passage in 1 Chron. 10:10, the Hebrew is Eriorios no, the temple of their god, but though the noun be masculine it may be applied to Ashtaroth, i.e. Ashtaroth may be considered as being meant here, since the Hebrew has no separate termination in this instance for the feminine. Dagon also was of the feminine gender, and Herodotus, who says, she was worshipped at Ascalon, compares her to Venus, I. 105. This idol is likewise called Derketo, Athara, and Atargatis, Strabo p, 748, 785. Lucian DE DEA SYRA. That the name Derketo is Syriack, the termination to is itself an indication. Indeed Diodorus Siculus (I. 4.) expressly says, that the goddess worshipped at Ascalon was called by the Syrians, Derketo, The origin of the name was this. A very large temple was erected to her at Mabug or Hierapolis in Syria, where she was worshipped, and where her statue was a female form throughout. Within this Temple was a chasm or fissure in the earth, (zagua,) into which the worshippers on certain days poured water. Hence the goddess was denominated by the Syrians N'nyon, i.e. a fissure, which at length appeared under the altered form of Derketo, Jacob Surug IN AssemANI Biblioth. ORIENT. T. I. p. 327–328, and T. II. IN INDICE GEOGRAPH. - The mythological story in respect to Derketo, is, that she fell in love with a youth through the arts of Venus, and that the fruit of their embraces was Semiramis, who being exposed, but found and educated by shepherds afterwards became queen of Assyria, while Derketo herself was transformed into a fish. It is stated, however, in the work already alluded to, (Lucian DE DEA SYRA,) that many supposed the Temple, erected at Hierapolis, belonged to Juno, and that it was built by Deucalion after his escape from the waters of the flood, in memory of the fact,

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