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money has been paid to members of the worth in the market about $150,000,000. Police Department in return for immunity In a similar way, the Consolidated Gas from prosecution, the Grand Jury declare Company, whose assessment has been that they found themselves constantly raised from $5,000,000 to $15,000,000, obstructed by the District Attorney. The has outstanding over $40,000,000 of secupresentment recites a series of facts which rities, all of which are above par. Most seem to show the grossest maladminis- of these corporations are assessed at a tration of the Police Department, and lower rate than are the great body of real charges police officials either with criminal estate owners, whose property gets no value ignorance or criminal negligence. These from any special privilege received from charges are so definite in their character the city. The new law is moderate as as to make it impossible for the District well as just in its provisions, and will Attorney to rest under them. Either he doubtless serve as a precedent for similar must meet them or he must be removed. statutes in other States. The whole counThere could hardly be a greater scandal try is to be congratulated that the law in city government than such a state of is being administered in the spirit of its things as the presentment of the Grand framers. Jury charges against the prosecuting officer of the county and the responsible officers of the police force.

We have received, apparThe Filipino Friars'

ently from a Roman CathMemorial

olic subscriber, a copy of When the New York the “Rosary Magazine," published by The New York Franchise Assessments

statute passed a year the Dominican Fathers in Somerset, Ohio,

ago permitting local which contains a copy of a memorial of boards to assess municipal franchises at the Philippine friars addressed to the their market value was modified so as to Spanish Government, apparently just pretransfer this power to a State board, there ceding the American war with Spain. This was general fear among anti-monopolists memorial contains the friars' statement of that the cities would not secure the revenue their case, and it is the only statement to which they are entitled. Last week, emanating from them which we remember however, the State Board appointed by to have seen. It frankly recognizes the Governor Roosevelt reported its assess- hostility, not only of the Filipinos, but of ments, and these show that the spirit of Spanish residents in the Philippines, to the law has been followed with rare fidelity: the religious orders in the archipelago. As was expected, nearly all of the valuable It attributes this hostility to the influence franchises are in the great cities, and the

of the Freemasons, to whom it charges great bulk of them in the metropolis. the organization of the Katipunan revoThe assessinents given out by the Board

lutionary society. It affirms that “ if we for this city indicate how large a mass of had given the faintest mark, not of sym"intangible" property belonging to corpo pathy, but even of toleration, to the men rations

has hitherto escaped taxation. The who were scattering broadcast false notions list is as follows:

of liberty condemned by the Church, the Last Franchise

Assessment. Valuations. religious congregations would never have Brooklyn Heights system.. $7,660,000 $30,766,770 been disturbed.” It attributes the hosManhattan Elevated..

27,945,000 35,499,300 Metropolitan system...

5,030,000 62,068,930

tility to the orders to the fact that “our Third Avenue system..

2,174,750 19,728.100 Harlem steam..

4,175,000

standard is no other than the syllabus of

12,192,000 Brooklyn Union Gas....... 2,865,000 9,515,170 the great Pontiff, Pius IX., so frequently Consolidated Gas...........

5,635.000 15,828,600 Standard Gas...

1,419,000 3,439,790

confirmed by Leo XIII., wherein all rebelNew York Mutual Gas... 735.000 2,703,110 New Amsterdam Gas....

lion against the legitimate powers is so

1.775.000 5,561,750 Edison Electric of New York 2,404,000 9,111,2% energetically condemned." It demands Miscellaneous corporations..... 9,100,275 34,157,188

the support of the religious orders as "the Total..........

$70,918,025 $260,573,006 sole Spanish institution, pre-eminent and These later assessments are not exorbitant. deeply rooted, which exists in the islands, The Metropolitan system, which last year a vigorous oganization well adapted to was assessed at but $5,000,000 and this those regions." It implies that the hosyear at more than $60,000,000, is to-day tility of the Filipinos to the orders is due to their passionate desire for the princi- ing from the Freemasons. Such agitation ples represented by the watchwords “Free would be powerless if the friars had not Thought, Liberty of the Press, Seculariza- by their conduct given some reason, or at tion of Education, Ecclesiastical Liquida- least some excuse, for the popular feeling tion, Suppression of the Privileges of the against them. Most Americans also will Clergy.” It indignantly denies the charges agree that the Filipinos are quite right in of impurity and immorality which have having a passion for “ Free Thought, Libbeen brought against the orders, and “as erty of the Press, Secularization of Edunot worthy of a reply the impudent asser- cation, Ecclesiastical Liquidation, Sup tion that in the country parts we are pression of the Privileges of the Clergy." despots.” At the same time it does more These watchwords of the Filipinos are than acknowledge, it emphasizes, the hos- watchwords of all true Americans, whether tility of the people to the orders, and Protestant or Roman Catholic. If the demands, at least by implication, that friars remain, they must remain subject opposition to the orders and their teach- to civil law; if they continue to teach, ing shall be prevented and punished: "Of they must meet as best they can the oppo what use is it for us to teach the people to sition of others who tell the people to make be docile and submissive, when their worst nothing of such teaching and to despise passions are excited by others who tell the lessons taught. In short, the friars them to make nothing of our teaching? must take their chances in the Philippines What professor could teach efficiently if as they have to take their chances in his pupils were met outside the class-room America, depending, not upon sacerdotal by respectable persons who told them to power, not upon the suppression of free despise his lessons ? The civil authority, speech, not upon any bulwark erected by according to the teaching of the Church, the Government, not upon any political ought, as far as possible, to be a bulwark protection from an avalanche of insults, to religion and morality. If the Govern- not upon any authority rooting out secret ment, therefore, does not protect us from the societies, but wholly upon governmental avalanche of insult hurled against us, if it protection of the liberty of all men to teach, does not root out the secret societies, if it and upon such influence as they can exert allows our sacerdotal character to be trod- through their personal character and their den under foot, while our enemies destroy beneficent ministrations. We wish that the fruit of our labors, we regret to say some organization would print this memothat we cannot continue our ministry in rial of the Philippine friars and circulate the islands." And again: "We prefer to widely through the country. It would abandon our ministry and see ourselves help to make clear to the people the issue expelled rather than continue our mission which America must meet in the Philip in the islands if the situation does not pine Archipelago, an issue which can be better itself before long."

solved only by the fearless and consistent application of American principles in

the American spirit—a free field for all An Estimate of Its Value

This memorial of religious orders and organizations, and

the Philippine friars special favor to none. confirms all that has been said by American correspondents respecting their unpopularity in the archipelago; it confirms

Massachusetts has so

Railroad Discriminations the impression which those correspondents

long held a front rank

in Massachusetts have given to the country, that one main

in the matter of regureason for the revolt is a determination to lating railways as well as factories that be rid of the religious orders; it adds to the Commonwealth has suffered a severe the conviction that there can be no peace shock from the revelations made before in the islands if the religious orders are the Legislative Committee on the Boston left with the politico-ecclesiastical powers and Albany lease. It will be recalled which they have possessed under Spain. that the ratification of this lease-giving Most Americans will not believe that this over the Boston and Albany to the New hostility is causeless, or that it is due York Central for ninety-nine years—re simply to revolutionary agitation emanat- quired the consent of the Legislature, and a majority of that body adopted a public the Massachusetts Railroad Commission spirited resolution calling upon the State that the Committee invited the Chairman Railroad Commission for certain informa- of the Commission to state how he tion about the conditions of the road to secured the data upon which that body be leased. The Commission, among other based its conclusion that all shippers things, was asked to explain why the under similar conditions were treated receipts per ton

mile on all classes of alike, and ti.at there were no discriminafreight were not one-half the average of tions beyond the car-load. To this questhe published rates to the various stations tion the Chairman made the astonishing on the road for the cheapest class of reply that the Board has not directly infreight, namely, coal. In reply, the Com- vestigated the matter at all, and that the mission surprised almost every one except answers submitted to the Legislature as a few favored shippers by declaring that coming from the Commission were really the freight carried on February 28, taken the answers of the traffic manager of the as a typical date, was charged on an aver- Boston and Albany Railroad. In other age forty per cent. less than the published words, this Commission, which was famous rates. The Commission reported that for its leadership in railroad questions these discounts were open to all shippers in the days of Charles Francis Adams, Jr., sending freight “under similar circum- has now no information about railroad stances and conditions,” but the testimony discriminations save what the railroads gathered by Professor Bemis and Pro- are pleased to give it. The Springfield fessor Commons, of the Bureau of Eco- “Reput lican” declared this to be a "travnomic Research, seems to show that no esty on public regulation," and the proshipper knew what rate his rival was tests throughout the State were so general getting Some shippers of even large that doubt was expressed whether a referamounts, Professor Bemis testified, de endum vote would not show a popular clared that they obtained no discounts majority in favor of the purchase of the whatever from published rates. When Boston and Albany by the State. Meanthis testimony was submitted, Mr. Samuel time, through the hearings, which have Hoar, attorney and director of the Boston been widely printed in the State, the people and Albany, replied, with no apparent have learned that such investigators as sense of the startling character of his Professors E R. A. Seligman, of Columbia, statement, “I suppose it is true that no F. W. Taussig, of Harvard, and R. T. shipper knows what his rival is getting. Ely, of Wisconsin, are a unit in saying I suppose it is true. But what of it ? that in no one of the thirty or more counWhat has that to do with the lease ?" tries in the world where public ownership

and operation of railroads prevails is there

any considerable or powerful element of In one sense it had The Rights of the State

the population desirous of returning to nothing to do with private ownership. It is also being recogthe lease, but it had a great deal to do nized that Massachusetts has one of the with the underlying question whether the most favorable opportunities ever preState would be amply protected by its sented in this country for undertaking the Railroad Commission if it ratified a contract public ownership of railroads, and greatly giving over the Boston and Albany road reducing and simplifying freight and pasto the control of a foreign corporation for senger rates, and that even if the State is three generations. Other testimony sub-- not ready to accept this policy at once, it mitted bore directly upon the same ques. should keep the question open rather than tion. Among other things, a letter was virtually to close it for a long time by read from Inter-State Commerce Commis- putting the stamp of legislative approval sioner Prouty showing that the tank cars upon the pending lease. It looks more of the Standard Oil Company were being and more as if the Legislature might be billed within the State of Massachusetts at forced to subpæna shippers, investigate twenty-four thousand pounds, though their secret discriminations, and submit to the actual weight was nearly twice as great people the opportunity to vote either upon The evidence was so conclusive as to the State purchase of the railroad, or at least unsatisfactory character of the report of upon the propriety of the proposed ninety

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nine-year lease. It is clear to The Outlook render war unnecessary, while at the that the question of State ownership ought same time he strained every nerve to to be submitted to a popuiar vote; it is prepare the Transvaal for the war which certain that the result of a legislative act he believed, despite his own wishes, was ordering such a vote would be a campaign close upon her. If Mr. Chamberlain and of education such as the State has rarely President Kruger had been actuated by known, and that it would be an education the motives which governed General Joufor other States as well as Massachusetts. bert, there cannot be a reasonable doubt

that war could have been averted without

the slightest difficulty. Unfortunately, By far the most se- both were bent upon war. To General Death of General Joubert rious loss the Boer Joubert is due in great measure, if not cause has sustained in the war is the death altogether, the purchase by the Transvaal of General Petrus Jacobus Joubert. Even of the splendid new artillery which has the defeat and captivity of General Cronje made the campaigns waged by the Boers become of insignificance as compared possible. To him also in person is due with the loss of this single truly great man. the greater part of the military credit for In every way Joubert was the most striking the extraordinary defensive campaign figure in the present war; even Kruger, carried on against the British in Natal. powerful as has been his influence, is Personally, General Joubert was a man recognized as Joubert's inferior in mental of remarkable appearance, of unusual power and in soundness of judgment. strength, and of marvelous endurance and General Joubert will be succeeded as activity. His death, it is stated, was due commander-in-chief of the Boer forces by to peritonitis, how incurred is not known General Botha. Joubert was of FrenchHuguenot origin, was born in Cape Colony about 1831, and, like most of the Boer

There are indica

The South African War leaders, was for the greater part of his life

tions that a move a farmer. His educational advantages were ment forward by Lord Roberts is imminent. small, but were utilized with great eager- Whether this forward movement is to be ness. He was first brought into promi- in the direction of the slight advances nence by his skill and success in the fre already made (namely, northward from quent fights between the Boers and the Bloemfontein) is open to question. It is natives. Later on, he accompanied Pres- not impossible that the immediate advance ident Kruger to London, and traveled ex- masks a turning movement to the northtensively in England and on the Continent. west. On Friday of last week fighting His military fame leaped into existence took place six miles beyond the Modder when, with wonderful force and brilliant River, on the road from Bloemfontein to military tactics, he planned and carried Kroonstad. The result was the retreat out the defeat of the British forces under of the Boers to Brantford, after some lively Sir George Colley at Majuba Hill in skirmishing which entailed the loss to 1881. It should be noted that through the British of eight officers and one hunthe difficulties between Great Britain and dred men in killed and wounded. The the Transvaal General Joubert has been next day British forces under Colonel conservative. He was decidedly and Broadwood were ambushed by the Boers positively opposed to President Kruger some miles east of Bloemfontein, and seven in many of the latter's acts; for instance, guns were captured by the enemy, who in 1884, it is related that Joubert refused also took many British prisoners; the to lead Boer armies against Bechuanaland total British loss (killed, wounded, and because he considered that the Boers were captured) was about 350. This is the first violating their treaties with Great Britain. repulse suffered by the British for some "I positively refuse," he said, “ to hold time; it appears to have been due to lack office under a government that deliber- of careful scouting; its significance is in ately breaks its covenants—and we have the indication that a large Boer army is still made covenants with England.” With within a few miles of Bloemfontein. The regard to the outbreak of the present war, latest estimates indicate that the effective General Joubert did all that he could to British forces now in South Africa are

Archibald Forbes

about 135,000 men and 336 guns. An recover, and as much as Portuga
interview with President Kruger has ap- manage to raise without assistance.
peared in the New York “World;" in are sorry to see that

some of the EOS answer to the question when the war would papers regard what they consider the end, President Kruger said: “Never, if I sufficiency of the award as an argul

against international arbitration; it would It may be six months; it may be ten years. hardly be possible to please beyond caw God only knows how long it will take every one concerned in an arbitration, the English people to see that they are and the avoidance of international difficul. engaged in an unholy struggle.” He ties by this arbitration has been, in point declared his hope that “the Transvaal of fact, a decided triumph of principle. would soon be able to take its place beside the United States as a free and independent nation," and added : “My burghers

The veteran war corare fighting for their wives, their children,

respondent, Archibald and their country. Those who are fight- Forbes, who died in London last week Friing against them are looking for medals, day, may almost be said to have founded Victoria crosses, and a shilling a day. the modern school of descriptive war correMy burghers are the best soldiers in the spondence. He will be remembered, not world, because they do not receive a merely because of his personal courage, penny for their services. They fight with his enterprise in seeing all that there was their hearts, and an army of hearts is to see and in getting his copy into his ediinvincible." There are, however, many tor's hands with almost miraculous preindications that many Orange Free Staters cision and rapidity, but also because he are ready to welcome peace under the wrote notably strong and good English. British flag; semi-official declarations are He was one of the few newspaper correreported from Europe that no intervention spondents who have made a mark because can be expected from any European State; of their ability to write tersely, pictorially, and few even of the most enthusiastic and even brilliantly at times, without friends of the Transvaal outside its terri- giving way to the temptation to write in tory will share in the sanguine expecta- heroics and to overemphasize with adjections of independence so confidently ex- tives and epithets. Mr. Forbes was the pressed by its President.

son of a Scottish clergyman; he enlisted
as a private soldier through a spirit of

adventure, and served ten years in the
We noted lately British army as private and corporal.
The Delagoa Bay Award

that the Delagoa This personal experience gave him the Bay Arbitration Tribunal, after ten years' intimate professional knowledge which leisurely consideration of the matter afterwards stood him in such good stead. intrusted to it, was about to issue an His most noted correspondence was sent award in favor of the American and Eng- to the London “ Daily News” during the lish contractors and stockholders of the latter part of the Franco-Prussian war, railway between Delagoa Bay and the and during the Russo-Turkish campaign of Transvaal, unjustly seized by the Portu- 1877. Hardly any living soldier has seen guese Government, on the ground that the as much service and taken as many battle construction contract had not been ful- risks as had Archibald Forbes. He saw filled to the letter. The award has now as much of the Franco-Prussian war as been made. It gives (in addition to $140, was possible for one man to see; he was 000 already paid by Portugal) the sum of at Sedan, at the surrender of Napoleon, $3,062,800 to the claimants, with interest at his funeral, and finally with Prince at five per cent. from 1889. This is gen- Napoleon in Zululand. The Servian insurerally considered a decidedly small award, rection against Turkey, the fighting in although the London “ Times”

says: Spain after the abdication of King Ama"The company and its creditors will deus, the battles of Shipka Pass and doubtless consider the sum awarded far Plevna, the Afghan campaign of 1878, the from adequate, but it is probably as much war in Zululand, and the battle of Ulundi as they can reasonably have expected to (after which Forbes took his famous

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