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against a department of the administra- leave England isolated to carry out her tion, on the ground of an alleged insuffi- policy at her own risk, and in the other ciency in some of the supplies of ammu- case he may have thought that the policy nition for military service. Many a Gov- bequeathed by Mr. Gladstone was tending ernment would have professed to think to weaken the supremacy of England in little of such a defeat, would have treated South Africa. it only as a mere question of departmental Lord Rosebery then ceased to lead a detail, and would have gone on as if noth- government or a party, and becaine for ing had happened. But Lord Rosebery the time merely a member of the House refused to take things so coolly and so of Lords. I do not suppose his leisure carelessly. Probably he was growing tired hung very heavy on his hands. I cannot of his position under the peculiar circum- imagine Lord Rosebery finding any diffistances. Perhaps he thought the most culty in passing his day. The only diffimanly course he could take was to give cuity I should think such a man must the constituencies the opportunity of say have is how to find time to give a fair ing whether they were satisfied with his chance to all the pursuits that are dear to administration or were not. The Govern- him. Lord Rosebery spent some part of ment appealed to the country. Parlia- his leisure in yachting, and gave his usual ment was dissolved, and a general election attention to the turf, and was to be seen followed. Then was seen the full force at picture galleries, and occasionally adof the reaction which had begun to set dressed great public meetings on imporin against the Gladstone policy of peace, tant questions, and was a frequent visitor moderation, and justice. The Conserva- to the House of Commons during each tives came into power by a large majority session of Parliament. The peers have a Lord Rosebery was now merely the leader space in the galleries of the House of of the Liberal party in opposition. Even Commons set apart for their own conventhis position he did not long retain. Some ience, and, although that space can hold of the most brilliant speeches he ever but a small number of the peers, yet on made in the House of Lords were made ordinary nights its benches are seldom during this time, but somehow people fully occupied. But when some great began to think that his heart was not in debate is coming on, then the peers make the leadership, and before long it was a rush for the gallery space in the House made known to the public that he had of Commons, and those who do not arrive ceased to be the Liberal commander-in- in time to get a seat have to wait and chief.
take their chance, each in his turn, of any Everybody, of course, was ready with vacancy which may possibly occur. I am an explanation as to this sudden act, and not a great admirer of the House of Lords perhaps, as sometimes happens in such as a legislative institution, and I must say cases, the less a man really knew about that it has sometimes soothed the rancor the matter the more prompt he was with of my jealous feelings as a humbler Comhis explanation. Two reasons, however, moner to see a string of peers extending were given by observers who appeared across the lobby of the House of Comlikely to know something of the real facts. mons, each waiting for his chance of filling One was that Lord Rosebery did not see some sudden vacancy in the peers' gallery. his way to go as far as some of his col- Lord Rosebery continued to attend the leagues would have gone in arousing the debates when he had ceased to be Prime country to decided action against the Minister and leader of the Liberal party Ottoman Government because of the man- just as he had done before. His fine, ner in which it was allowing its Christian clearly cut, closely shaven face, with subjects to be treated. The other was that features that a lady novelist of a past age Lord Rosebery was too Imperialistic in would have called chiseled, and the eyes spirit for such men as Sir William Har- lighted with an animation that seemed to court and Mr. John llorley. No one could have perpetual youth in it, were often impugn Lord Rosebery's motives in either objects of deep interest to the members of case. He might well have thought that too the House, and to the visitors in the forward a movement against Turkey might stranger galleries, and no doubt in the only bring on a great European war or ladies' gallery as well. The appearance of Lord Rosebery in the peers' gallery enter into any argument as to the relative was sure to excite some talk among the claims of the two political schools. It has members of the House of Commons on been said that a man is born either of the the green benches below. We were always school of Aristotle or of the school of ready to indulge in expectation and con. Plato. Perhaps an Englishman of modern jecture as to what Lord Rosebery was times is born a Jingo or a Little Englikely to do next, for there seemed to be lander. I am not an Englishman, and a general consent of opinion that he was therefore am not called upon to rank my. the last man in the world who could sit self on either side of the controversy, but down and do nothing. But what was I know full well which way my instincts there left for him to do? He had held and sympathies would lead me if I were various administrative offices; he had called upon to choose. I could not, theretwice been Foreign Secretary; he had fore, account myself a political follower of twice been Chairman of the London Lord Rosebery; and, indeed, on the one County Council; he had been Prime great question which concerns me most as Minister; he had been leader of the a member of the House of Commons, that Liberal party; he had been president of of Irish Home Rule, Lord Rosebery is not all manner of great institutions; he had quite so emphatic as I should wish him to been President of the Social Science Con- be. I am therefore writing the eulogy, not gress; he had been Lord Rector of two of Lord Rosebery the politician, but of great Universities; he had twice won the Lord Rosebery the orator, the scholar, the Derby. What was there left for him to man of letters and arts and varied culdo which human ambition in our times ture, the man who has done so much for and in the dominions of Queen Victoria public life in so many ways, the helpful, could care to accomplish? Yet the gen- kindly, generous friend. eral impression seemed to be that Lord The common impression everywhere is Rosebery had not yet accomplished his that the Government of Lord Salisbury, appointed work, and that impression has as it is now constituted, cannot last very grown deeper and stronger with recent long. The sands of the present Parliaevents.
ment are running out; the next general Since the day when Lord Rosebery election may be postponed for some time withdrew from the leadership of the yet, but it cannot be very far off. Are Liberal party the division in that party the Liberals to come back to power with has been growing wider and deeper. Lord Rosebery at their head? Can the The war in South Africa has done Liberal party become so thoroughly re much to broaden the gulf of separation. united again, Jingoes and Little EnglandLord Rosebery is an Imperialist, Sir ers, as to make the formation of a Liberal William Harcourt and Mr. John Morley Government a possible event so soon? Or are not Imperialists. The opponents of is it possible, as many observers believe, Sir William Harcourt and Mr. Morley that Lord Rosebery may find himself at call them Little Englanders. The oppo the head of an administration composed nents of Lord Rosebery and those who of Imperialist Liberals and the more enthink with him would no doubt call them lightened and generally respected members Jingoes. The Imperialist, or, as his oppo of the present Government? I shall not nents prefer to call him, the Jingo, accepts venture upon any prediction, having seen as the ruling principle of his faith the right the unexpected too often happen in poliand the duty of England to spread her tics to have much faith in political proph. civilization and her supremacy as far as she ecy. I note it an evidence of the can over all those parts of the world which position Lord Rosebery has won for himare still lying in disorganization and in self that, although he became Prime Mindarkness. The Little Englander, as his ister only to be defeated, and leader of opponents delight to describe him, believes the Liberal party only to resign, he is that England's noblest work for a long at this moment the one public man in time to come will be found in the endeavor England about whom people are asking to spread peace, education, and happiness one another whether the time for him to among the peoples who already acknowl. take his real position has not come at edge her supremacy. I am not going to
dint of hard, strenuous labor, the winning of gold at the cost of gold, and the pursuit of the precious metal at the price of human lives, are common tales; but to make fortunes simply by washing the sands of the seashore is a new and unheard of thing, yet that is being done to-day along the beach near Cape Nome, Alaska.
The gold there is not secured by quartz mining nor by hydraulic piping, but simply through the aid of the primitive pan and rockers so familiar to those who have read of 'Frisco and the “ Forty-niners.” Think of going down to a beach reaching for hun
dreds of miles, and there panning out gold worth "THE NEW CRADLE"
from fifty cents to a dollar a pan with as little labor as shaking common sand through a hand sieve!
The testimony of experts sent to the Cape by the United States Government affords ample proof of the existence of gold in considerable quantities. There are certain factors in the case, however, certain drawbacks, which must be taken into account.
A glance at the map will show that Cape Nome is a point on the eastern shore of Behring Sea, or the western coast of Alaska, about 2,680 miles in a direct line northwest of San Francisco. The particular part of Alaska on which the new gold fields are situated is the southern promontory of a large peninsula separating Behring Sea from the Arctic Ocean. The Cape is forty miles north of the 64th parallel of latitude, and within 150 miles of the Arctic Circle. By steamer route it is nearly 2,700 miles from Seattle, which is the starting point of the majority of gold-seekers.
The geographical position of the new region makes it sterile and barren in the extreme. The promontory is drear and treeless; cold, biting winds sweep its sandy stretches, and during many months of the year it is locked in ice and exposed to the rigors of an Arctic winter. The summer is short, chill, and wet, and in this period myriads of mosquitoes render life almost intolerable. There is no vegetation except a green and gray colored moss, peculiar to the Arctic, which grows everywhere almost from the of the inadequately prepared party back water's edge back through the hills and to their former town. Each promised to ravines. It is called tundra, and is three keep the secret of their wonderful find, feet thick in some places and exceedingly but the tidings leaked out, and several tough.
men, headed by a missionary named AnThe gold-washing district extends along derson, fought their way over the snow the base and sides of a range of hills or and ice to Nome. promontories that skirts the southern side Despite the severity of the climate, the of Cape Nome, and also for miles up and new party went energetically to work, and down the sandy beach. It is this latter staked out a number of paying claims. that has made Nome famous throughout After panning out $1,600 in gold, Anderthe world. In the experience of all the son and his friends returned to Council old-time gold-miners nothing like it has City to wait for spring. The news of ever before been discovered.
their success spread like wild-fire, and in Before entering into a detailed descrip a few weeks the word Nome was in the tion, it may be of interest to learn how the mouths of miners and speculators throughpresence of the precious metal at Cape out the country. Nome became known. Many different Attracted by the wonderful stories told stories have been told, but that generally of the place, hundreds of prospectors set accepted is as follows:
out for the Cape without loss of time. It In the early part of 1898 certain rumors was a stampede through blinding blizbegan to circulate around Council City zards, across miles of ice, and in the face and other mining camps. These rumors, of a temperature reaching fifty degrees principally from Indians, were vague, but they began to take shape in time, and finally a Swedish-American missionary named Hultberg learned from a native convert that gold in plenty could be found in the Cape Nome region.
Hultberg immediately organized a party and started on a prospecting tour up the Chinook River. This was in January, but, notwithstanding the rigorous season, a stay sufficiently long to discover promising indications of gold was made. In September of the same year an old prospector, H. L. Blake, heard of the new diggings, and decided to make a secret investigation. He communicated with several friends and organized another party. Snake River, a stream entering the ocean near the present site of Nome City, was ascended, and the bordering gravel was panned at hundreds of places. On Anvil Creek, a small tributary of Snake River, gold running almost five dollars to the pan was found.
By this time fall had given place to winter, and the growing cold weather sent the members
BUYING SUPPLIES AT THE STORE-HOUSE
The Outlook below zeró. During January, 1899, fully point, and it was nécessary to remove the five hundred men reached Cape Nome. tundra to the depth of several feet before They carried tents and other equipage, and the ruby gold-bearing sand could be built the nucleus of the present prosper- reached. ous mining camp.
With the coming of spring and the The
hardships they endured for the opening of navigation miners began to purpose of being first on the ground are flock into the district. Almost in a day beyond description. With insufficient food, the scene changed from one of desolate, thin canvas shelters, and an enforced idle dreary monotony to the utmost bustle ness, they spent a miserable four months and activity. From inland along the before spring brought relief. Some of the Yukon, and from Saint Michael's and the experiences related by these early pioneers south, parties bearing tents and supplies to the Cape Nome fields read like romance. gathered in the growing settlement. By
One party of three, old fellows at that, June the village of tents had assumed had tramped to the new diggings from a some proportions, and when the chill camp two hundred miles distant. It was October winds of last year began to sweep in the dead of the Arctic winter, and each down from the north, Nome City boasted man carried packs of blankets and camp of several busy streets. utensils in addition to his share of the To-day the town extends a mile or so food supply. They slept in snow with along the beach. There are no piers, and the therinometer at fifty-eight below, and everything and everybody arriving by ship at times were compelled to travel the live- must be landed in lighters. In appearlong day without a bite of food. There ance the place is like the average mining were no means of conveyance, no houses, camp. The winding, lane-like thoroughno roads, nothing save a dreary, blizzard- fares are flanked by rude and hastily conswept stretch of ice and snow and an in- structed buildings of rough pine boards, terminable tramp, tramp, with death for canvas houses, dirty weather-beaten tents, those who faltered, and little prospect of and cabins built in the most primitive relief at the journey's end.
way, with rusty, battered stove-pipes During the long wait very little gold sticking at all angles through side walls was panned—just enough to keep hope and roof. A score of cheap saloons, half burning in the breasts of those who were as many gambling-hells, five or six dancebraving the cruel winter. The frozen places, and a very crude apology for a ground repelled even the pick's sharp hotel, constitute the principal buildings.
A STREET IN NOME CITY