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at San Diego, where, on July 16, 1769, straining, by his indomitable faith and by the erection of a rude booth of branches courage, Galvez, the Spanish commander, and the singing of the Veni Creator from returning to Mexico. The arrival of Spiritus, the corner-stone of the civiliza- the ship San Antonio provided food, and tion of California was laid. Even before expeditions by sea and land speedily disthis Crespi had set out on his venturous covered the point of pines of the beautiful but unsuccessful quest for the Bay of harbor of Monterey. Monterey. Guided only by the old charts Founding the mission of San Carlos of Viscayno, the party passed its goal, and (now known as El Carmelo), Junipero wandered forty leagues to the north, where Serra made it his headquarters, leaving it they claimed San Francisco Bay for their only when the founding of a new mission founder and patron saint. If, according or his duties as general superintendent to the latest contention, this beautiful required. The rest of his time was spent sheet of water had been piously pre- on the shores of the beautiful Carmelo empted by Sir Francis Drake, who gave Bay working with his Indians in their its shores their first religious service in a labors in field or in shop. form of sound words taken from the Eng- Crespi's memoirs give a vivid picture of lish Prayer-Book, St. Francis has no prior the zeal and enjoyment of Serra in his claim on the beauties of the Golden Gate. work, the abandonment of his self-sacriYet his followers believed that he had fice, the vigor of his preaching, when, with pointed out San Francisco as the site of the cross in one hand and a sharp stone a future mission to his glory by miracu- in the other, he would beat and tear his lous interposition, leading them past Mon- breast to indicate to the Indians his horror terey, which they were seeking, into the of sin and his desire to tear it from him. northern port, of whose existence they did Nothing could exceed his delight at the not know. Crespi's party returned ex- founding of a new mission save his joy in hausted to San Diego after a terrible six baptizing converts, of whom he was privimonths' wandering, and found Serra re- leged to receive more than a thousand.

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Seeking ground for a new mission, that present at the foundation of a mission. of San Antonio, Serra wandered into the San Antonio became very rich; there were unexplored wilderness south of Monterey, several large farms, with a chapel on each, and, after sixty miles of travel, came upon and a wonderful mill run by water brought an oak-shaded plain, with a river full and for many miles through a stone-walled ditch swift running through it. Hanging the and driven by a Aume and a large waterbells which he carried upon a tree, he wheel, all built and placed by an Indian rang and rang them, joyously shouting, named Nolbesto, who did the work with " Hear, hearl Oye Gentiles, come, his own hands, taking his idea from the come to the faith of Jesus Christ I" To balance-wheel of a watch. But it was the small band accompanying him, who long before the mission attained its perremonstrated that there were none to hear, fection of stone-arched church, surrounded he replied: "Let me unburden my heart, by its Indian homes, its trade shops, its Which could wish that this bell should be waving fields of grain, its houses and heard by all the world, or at least by all its schools. Not until after the death of the Gentiles in these mountains." And he Serra did the missions grow rich. Then rang on until an Indian appeared—the the severe toil of the padres was mitigated. first instance in which a native had been On his outline map of California stretches the long line of seacoast, with the nine Point Leobos, pushing down into the missions founded during his lifetime indi- Pacific. cated and connected by roads leading Here, too, the great functions of the from one to the other. All the rest of the Spanish Court at Monterey were held at great fertile country from San Diego to a later day. New governors were received Monterey was a blank, save for teeming here, and horsemen came across the hills Indian villages, which he constantly vis- from the presidio, with pomp and circumited, preaching to the people and weeping stance and fair Spanish dames, to receive in grief that he could do them no more the blessing of the Church, while priests good. Twenty-one of these villages existed with troops of acolytes and singing Indian on the Santa Barbara coast alone.

boys went forth from the mission robed Serra traveled much on foot, passing in splendor scarcely less than theirs to over the five hundred miles of country meet them. For in Monterey, the capifrom San Diego to San Francisco, and even tal of Alta California, all that was rich, walking, although he was afflicted with beautiful, and splendid in the life of the a great lameness, from Guadalajara to country centered, and all did homage to the City of Mexico, where he pleaded the mission fathers three miles across the the cause of his Indians so well that, hills. Once a year a service is held at returning from his memorable journey, El Carmelo Church ; it is at night, and the he founded San Francisco, Santa Clara, people come from all the country about, San Buena Ventura, and San Juan Capis- and from the Church of San Carlos at trano, whose superb ruins are the delight Monterey. One cannot easily forget the of the traveler of to-day. At El Carmelo scene, with its priests and its piety, its he died in 1784, strong in courage and people joined in one common purpose; firm of will to the last; and soldiers who but when all are gone, climb to the gallery watched about his coffin could not hold under the beautiful star-faced window of back the throngs of Indians who pressed the façade, and, looking down, let imagito touch the garments of him whom they nation fill the church with mission Inhad loved so much on earth. He is dians kneeling on the bare earth floor buried beneath the chancel of the great as they listen to Serra's last sermon, when stone church which was later built over the friar beat his heart with the great him, and which is now restored and kept stone in the fervor with which he pleaded

with them ; the heart which strained to breaking in his zeal for their salvation, and gave at the last its final tribute of sacrifice in death. And here at the altar he knelt for the last time a few hours before his release, while Father Palou, his life. long friend. administered the Holy Viaticum, the Indians singing the “Tantum Ergo Sacramentum,” the death-song of the Church.

in which Father Junipero's in good repair. It is certainly, for situa- voice joined high and strong as ever." tion, the most beautiful of all the mission As the walker nears Monterey he will not churches, and its associations, as the center pass without awe the Cabin Adobe where of the work for the Christianization of one of the old mission Indians lived and thousands of California Indians, are sacred. lived and lived until his years, far beyond The stone is tinted a fine yellow, and a the hundred mark, so accumulated that Moorish tower and dome rise symmetri- the oldest inhabitant of the whites dared cally. From the belfry, with its worn steps, hardly to name them or to credit the story may be seen the blue waves of Carmel of his baptism by the old Mission fathers. Bay, and, beyond, the vast rocky cliffs of And as one, after long lingering, passes



THE CAPISTRAXO BELLS AND CROSS out of the town of Old Monterey, he will whales enter the bay, and may be seen surely pause at the last by the simple playing in the bluest of blue waters, while cross, bare in the moonlight, which marks the surf beats over the rocky points, and the spot where Junipero Serra claimed for away in the distance, beyond the shore of his Master in baptism his first Indian Santa Cruz, the mountains Gabilan and convert of the mission.

Coma Prieta and Hamilton rise, with their To pass the night in an old adobe, still serried ridges softened in winter by the presided over by a Spanish lady of Cas- snow against the brilliant sky. tilian blood, who was young in the days It was the scenery of the coast about of Colonel Fremont, and who joined the Monterey that Robert Louis Stevenson Pathfinder in planting the historic rose- so loved; and the delicious combination bush which, the wonder of travelers, now of ocean and of shore now known as the grows a giant across her dooryard, is an Seventeen-Mile Drive was set apart at experience which is not granted to all his instance. Here one passes from visitors. The lady of the Bonifacios amidst deep pine forests to a shore girt speaks no word of English, and her high- with rocks and snowy with surf, where bred Spanish enhanced the charm of her great sea-lions ride on the waves along beauty as we favored travelers sat at a shell beaches habited by sea-birds of breakfast under the trees of the adobe varied size, across long stretches of level walled garden, while the strawberries, shingle, where the rollers strike surely with their accompaniments of fresh bread and evenly, to rocky points beyond, where and butter, prepared the way for a return the sea is torn to shreds on jagged boulto modern life.

ders, or sucked deep in emerald falls into The whalers which at one time made tooming caves beneath the rocks. There good trade for Monterey have scattered the Monterey cypress receives the traveler to more favored ports, but sometimes in its weird and dim groves, on the very they revisit the old wharfs, or anchor pic edges of the rocky points reaching down turesquely in the harbor. Often, too, the into the ocean.

The main central valley of California, impressive as the giants of the mountains, the San Joaquin, is protected from the are easily accessible on the coast, and sea by the coast range, and by the high may be found within a few feet of a railSierras from the desert. The Sierras, road. On a day in midwinter when a which contain the most beautiful moun- mighty blizzard buried the cities of the tain scenery in the discovered world, are East as far south as Washington under passed by in winter by the traveler, al- hopeless drifts, the writer visited the redthough to the hardy mountaineer their wood groves of Santa Cruz. Here the beauties are accessible in any month. towering Sequoia Sempivirens, the twin As they rise from the valley into the of the Sequoia Gigantea of the Sierras, clouds, their snowy, pearl-gray tops shine grows in immense groves rising in great in the sun from seven to fifteen thousand Auted columns over two hundred feet feet in height. So infatuated have such toward the sky. Under the green summen as Muir and Douglas become with mits tossing high in air, well sheltered the winter aspects of the Sierras that they from the sun-for the January thermomehave spent weeks amid the snows watch- ter stood at 80°—0

-one could lie on the dry ing for a sight of the marvelous snow brown carpet in the soft, odorous air, and, banners' which, under certain conditions, looking up along the line of the great tree unfurl their gleaming white folds from the forms, realize a little of the grandeur and highest peaks, or waiting for the break-up magnificence of their bulk and height. of the waters which reveal the where. In such great forest aisles the soul is abouts of the live glaciers which even now lifted in a moment toward heights which the decorate the clefts of the higher peaks. aspiring trunks spend centuries in seeking, From the long, level plain there is little to while the mind travels fast along the past suggest the depth and richness of the fur- ages seeking points of contact. To the rowed cañons through which the glaciers mind attuned, these close-set trunks, rising once flowed, nor the sculptured rocks which here in majesty, open vistas of parallel they left behind them. Throughout this and of contrast, one moment suggesting range, five hundred miles long and seventy the Middle Ages struggling toward relig. wide, the glaciers have chiseled the mount- ious development in the worshipful cathe. ains into forms of beauty, while appearing dral, the next the wild Indian seeking to degrade them nearly a mile in height. here the divine revealed alonc by these

The winter traveler clings to the coast, mighty shafts aspiring toward the gracious leaving the ascent of Mount Shasta, that heavens. To pass from such communion great isolated volcanic peak fifteen thou- with nature to hear that this giant has a sand feet high, the northernmost spur of girth of seventy-five feet, or another a the Sierras, the Yosemites, the lakes, and diameter of twenty, that this sapling is the geysers, for the native Californian. five hundred years old, or this broken The latter appreciates to the full the won- shaft several thousand, is anticlimax. ders of his land, and visits them, and Yet one seeks at the last the modern camps among them, and luxuriates in the city b, the Golden Gate, full of its schools full, free life which they allow.

and its churches, its pulsing human life of Great trees, nearly as large and quite as enterprise and endeavor.

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